HIS-101 WESTERN CIVILIZATION I Briefly explain what is meant by the “scientific revolution” that took place in seventeenth century Europe, and how it marked a departure from ancient and medieval philosophy. The term Scientific Revolution refers to a period in the 17th century when the intellects of Europe had a revolution. This was an illustrious time for science and the initiation of modern science. During that period famous people such as Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Isaac Newton all lived and contributed greatly to many areas of science.
Just about that time period these people changed the viewpoint of our universe from geocentric (the earth at the center) to heliocentric (the sun at the center). Kepler came up with the laws, which explains the orbits, and Newton was able to come up with an understanding of gravity. He developed laws and new ideas, which could describe every facet of gravity in the universe. This was completely new and very revolutionary. It is considered the start of the modern science age.
A great many other men lived and contributed in that time period as well, but those were some of the biggest and most well known.
The reason it is believed to mark a departure from ancient and medieval philosophy because people felt confident that they could determine natural laws that govern human behavior. New medicines were invented at this time. The scientific was also invented, and people looked at problems with logic instead of blindly following the church. Briefly explain the effect that European expansion into other parts of the world combined with new ways of thinking brought about by the “scientific revolution” had on the way Europeans viewed mankind, society, and traditional beliefs?
The discoveries and exploration of the world overseas became key new influence on the European views of human cultures and nature of the human beings.
Although Europe was a prominent figure during that time, Europe began rooting its territories overseas to analyze its comparison. The influence of European expansion can easily be seen: the Indian societies of America were modified or overshadowed; the indigenous societies of Africa were dislocated and many of their members were enslaved and transported; in the long run even the ancient societies of Asia were disrupted or destabilized.
From the beginning the counterinfluence of the rest of the world upon Europe was equally great. The expansions were mostly in favor of Europe; it came in form of new medicine, new diseases, new foods, new and exotic manufactures and tremendous growth in wealth. Along with these goodies came new questions and ideas. People questioned about the diversity of the religious traditions, the history of language, and the origins of human civilizations.
Rapid growth and collaboration with other cultures a changed the perception of the old Europe, just the same it was doing overseas undermining. With the new discoveries comes the new thinking, during this era Europeans were the first civilization to discover the globe as a whole, to establish colonial outpost around the world, and to realize the variety of human race and its manners and custom. However these realizations were unsettling, thus gave birth to new breed of thinkers called skeptics.
Define the concept of “enlightened despotism”, listing the attributes of “enlightened despots. ” Enlightened despotism, also known as enlightened absolutism, is a form of absolute monarchy where the monarchs strove to improve the lives of their subjects in an effort to reinforce their own authority. The emphasis was on rationality, and religious tolerance, freedom of speech, and the right to hold private property were usually allowed. the most extensive influence of the enlightenment was in Prussia, Russia, and Austria. Essay Questions (choose any two (2) to answer)
Discuss why the seventeenth century in Europe is called the “age of genius”, and explain the major developments in science and philosophy that took place together with the most influential contributors and their works. The seventeenth century in Europe is called the “age of genius” because during the 17th century major changes in philosophy and science took place. One reason is that it was age when science became “modern”. The other reason to why it’s called the age of genius or century of genius because with Galileo dying and Newton being born in the same year, whose combined lifetime spanned the century.
Prior to the 17th century, science and scientists were not truly recognized. Moreover, at first people like the 17th century genius Isaac Newton were called natural philosophers, since there was no concept of the word scientist for most of the 17th century. The invention of new science and machines were becoming part of the daily and economic lives of 17th century civilization. During the 17th century, the chemistry developed from medieval alchemy, and the 17th century science of astronomy evolved from astrology.
Since the beginning of science it has only benefitted the civilization more towards good. One of the most famous scientists of all time was Galileo throughout his life, invented many wonderful things. One of Galileo’s most famous “inventions” was his confirmation that the sun is the center of our solar system, a theory first put forward by Nicolaus Copernicus. Galileo confirmed the theory partly through his observation of the phases of the planet Venus as it reflected light from the sun while orbiting the star.
This was revolutionary at the time because most of the world still believed Earth was the center of the universe. Although Dutchman Hans Lippershey invented the telescope in 1608, Galileo built his own in 1609. In 1597, Galileo invented a geometric compass, a scientific instrument with two arms that can be used for making calculations and geometric measurements. Isaac Newton was one of the world’s great scientists because he took his ideas, and the ideas of earlier scientists, and combined them into a unified picture of how the universe works.
Isaac Newton explained the workings of the universe through mathematics. He formulated laws of motion and gravitation. By the end of the 17th century, a scientific revolution had occurred and science had become an established mathematical, mechanical, and empirical body of knowledge. Galileo Galilei, Rene Descartes, Blaise Pascal, Isaac Newton, and others had become noted scientists. Compare and contrast the positions expressed by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke regarding natural law and government, and discuss the influences that their orks had on the development of political thought both during their own time and later? The two main political philosophers during the seventeenth century were Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Hobbes is the well-known author of “Leviathan,” and Locke is the author of “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. ” Both men address the characteristics of man, natural law, and the purpose and structure of government. The two men have very different opinions of the characteristics of man. Hobbes sees man as being evil, whereas Locke views man in a much more optimistic light.
They both agree that all men are equal according to natural law. However, their ideas of natural law differ greatly. Hobbes sees natural law as a state of war in which “every man is a enemy to every man. ” Locke on the other hand, sees natural law as a state of equality and freedom. Locke for that reason believes that government is necessary in order to preserve natural law, and on the contrary, Hobbes sees government as necessary in order to control natural law. The bases of their arguments were similar. They used reason to justify their ideas, rather than divine right.
Both of the two men’s philosophies included religion—Hobbes and Locke both acknowledged the existence of God. Each of these men had an impact on the world around them. Hobbes influenced the people of his own time by refuting England’s parliament and France’s papal system. In the same way, Locke affected the revolutionists of the United States. Locke’s idea of a people-run government held a great influence over the United States Declaration of Independence, Federalist Papers, and Constitution. Both philosophers impacted others.
Even though these two philosophers disagreed upon certain subjects, they did occasionally agree with one another. Locke believed that government should base itself on the people, while Hobbes said that only a king should be in power; yet they agreed that someone should rule over a country. Hobbes influenced the people in and around his time period, while Locke influenced people a few decades later—but both men did influence the political and philosophical notions of their time. Citations: – “Lecture 10: The Scientific Revolution, 1543-1600. ” The History Guide — Main.
Ed. Steven Kreis. Web. 26 Dec. 2010. . Kent, Jo. “Scientific Revolution: A Brief History. ” Connexions – Sharing Knowledge and Building Communities. Web. 26 Dec. 2010. . “Copernican Revolution and Scientific World View. ” Royby. com | Main Page. Ed. Roy Hornsby. Web. 26 Dec. 2010. . “Galilei Galileo Inventions. ” Information About Cool Inventions, Their Creators, and Time Line. Ed. Invention Pop. Web. 26 Dec. 2010. . “New Knowledge of Human Beings and Society”. Kramer, Palmer, Colton. 10th ed. Mcgraw Hill. Web. 26 Dec. 2010. “APEH, Enlightened Despotism. Scribd. Ed. Scribd. Web. 26 Dec. 2010. . Bellis, By Mary. “17th Century – Timeline and Inventions of the 17th Century. ” Inventors. Web. 26 Dec. 2010. . “The Philosophies of Hobbes and Locke. ” Essortment Articles. Ed. Essortment A. Web. 26 Dec. 2010. . “Locke versus Hobbes. ” James’s Liberty File Collection Index. Ed. James Sd. Web. 26 Dec. 2010. Beck, Michi. “The Differences Between Hobbes and Locke: John Locke and Thomas Hobbes Had A Conflict of Political Opinion. ” Suite101. com: Online Magazine and Writers’ Network. Web. 26 Dec. 2010. .
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