BMD test: One of the most important tests in radiology department which is helpful to measure the bone density in the body is BMD test. It is very helpful method to reduce the risks of fracture and help the radiologist to make a diagnosis for many diseases such as osteoporosis. Who should get tested for BMD:
BMD test use little amount of radiation, so the doses are small and the risks of BMD test that related to radiation exposure will be low.
It is very important to try changing your lifestyle which can help to improve your bone health by many ways. For example: Eating healthy and balanced diet which include high amount of calcium. Increase the levels of vitamins such as vitamin D.
Doing exercises such as walking. Stop cigarette smoking and reduce alcohol intake.
Radiologist must measure the level of osteoporosis.Both osteoporosis and osteopenia are diseases that have a decrease in bone mineral density. – Osteoporosis: Is a condition that makes bones fragile and increase the likelihood of them to break. Also, Osteoporosis can be diagnosed if the person has a previous history of broken bone in the spine or hip without major trauma. – Osteopenia: BMD test shows that the bone density level is decrease, but not enough to called as osteoporosis and the bone density is lower than normal peak density.
BMD test is can be used to:
Indications and Contraindications: Many factors can increase the risks for bone loss (osteoporosis).
Principle of operation of BMD test: (How does a DXA scan work?) DXA is a scan that used to identify the density of bone. DXA works by sends low-dose x-rays which then will be absorbed by soft tissues and bones. It used a low amount of radiation. The denser bone, the less x-rays get through to the detector. Then, the information is sent to a computer which measure and calculate a score of average density of the bone,
Different kinds of machines can do BMD exam. The most common one is the (DEXA) scan that uses low dose x-rays. Two types of BMD tests are:
Many kinds of Peripheral tests are:
When a central DXA is not available, we can use this test. Peripheral test cannot diagnose osteoporosis accurately and should not be used to see osteoporosis in working condition.
T-score shows how much bone mass differs from the bone mass of an average healthy 30-year-old adult. It means that we can Compare bone density with a healthy young person).
Z-score Compare bone density to the average bone density of people in the patient age and gender. WHO classified T-score as: In normal range if it is -1 or above. Between -1 and -2 SD (osteopenia).At or below -2.5 SD (Osteoporosis).