Bisexually and homosexuality Essay
Bisexually and homosexuality
There has been a controversy in the few areas of psychology as the study of sexual orientation. By sexual orientation we mean the cumulative experience and interaction of erotic fantasy, romantic-emotional feelings and sexual behavior directed toward one or both genders. People who have sexual feelings or engage in stigmatized behaviors may proclaim or may be assigned a social identity. In oppressive cultures, public sexual behavior may be inconsistent with personal attraction or identity and socially unacceptable feelings may be suppressed or recognized for years. The most basic questions one can ask about sexual behavior are of nature attraction and arousal.
Why is someone attracted to another? Why are some attracted to males, other’s females and yet other’s to children? Why is obesity a turn on for Mary but not for Betty and why are large breast a “turn off” for Bill and not for Bob? These questions might be carefully asked. Pointless of the answers is brief Sexual orientation refers to sex, male or female of the erotic love affectional partners a person prefers. The terms heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual should best be applied to behaviors and not to people. A description might be “Engage in homosexual activities”.
The term homosexual is best for those whose sexual activities are exclusively with members of the same sex, the term heterosexual for those erotic companions are always members of the opposite sex and the term bisexual or ambisexual for those with sexual activities with members of either sex.. Sexual orientation could be an unstable approach with respect to the program for equal rights for gays and lesbians. .It has reached a linguistic place where it connoted heterosexually, bisexually and homosexuality. But he main issue for political reasons was homosexuality. The sexual orientation is one factor of a person’s character.
There are many components made up, such as culture, ethnicity, gender and individual personality traits. It is a lasting emotional, romantic, sexual, affectional magnetism that a person can feel toward another person. Sexual orientation falls along a continuum. In other words, someone does not have to be absolutely homosexual or heterosexual. Someone who can feel unreliable degrees of magnetism for both genders are heterosexual, gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Sexual orientation develops from corner to corner to a person’s lifetime with different people appreciated at different points in their lives. Sexual behavior does not
essentially associate to sexual orientation. Sexual behavior does not essentially associate to sexual orientation. Modern attitudes toward homosexuality have religious and fatal underpinnings. Beforehand, homosexual acts appear to have been tolerated or overlooked by the Christian churches throughout Europe. In the later 12th century, however, enmity toward homosexuality began to take root and ultimately spread throughout European religious and secular institutions. Critism of homosexual acts as “unnatural”, which has received an official term in writings of Thomas Aquinas and others, became widespread and has
continued to the present day. Religious teachings were included into legal sanctions. Early American colonies, enacted stiff criminal penalties for sodomy,including sexual behavior that occurred outside marriage or violated traditions. In someplace, male and female homosexual acts were punishable by death. At the end of the 19th century, medicine and psychiatry were efficiently competing with religion and the law over sexuality. As an end result, homosexuality extended from the realms of sin and crime to include that of pathology. It was generally considered as progressive because a sick person was less reproachful than
a sinner or criminal. It has been argued that homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral, that it was not a disease and that many homosexuals made an outstanding contributions in the society. Other researchers, argued that against the current view of homosexuality. They found out that homosexual behavior was widespread among various nonhuman species and in a large number of human societies. Their behavior of some sort was considered normal and socially acceptable for at least some individuals. Sigmund Freud’s basic theory of human sexuality was different from that of Ellis.
He believed all human beings were innately bisexual, and that they become heterosexual or homosexual as a result of their experiences with parents and others . Nevertheless, Freud agreed with Ellis that a homosexual orientation should not be viewed as a form of pathology. In a now-famous letter to an American mother in 1935, Freud wrote: “Homosexuality is assuredly no advantage, but it is nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no degradation, it cannot be classified as an illness; we consider it to be a variation of the sexual function produced by a certain arrest of sexual development. Many highly
respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest men among them (Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc. ). It is a great injustice to persecute homosexuality as a crime, and cruelty too…. “If [your son] is unhappy, neurotic, torn by conflicts, inhibited in his social life, analysis may bring him harmony, peace of mind, full efficiency whether he remains a homosexual or gets changed…. ” Lots of youngsters as well as many adults may recognize themselves as homosexual or bisexual without having any sexual knowledge. In addition to this there
are young people containing sexual experiences with a person of the same gender, but they do not judge themselves to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual. This is chiefly pertinent during teenage years because it is a time for trialing an experiences during this development. The knowledge of gay, lesbian and bisexual young people is often one of seclusion of fear of stigmatization and lack of gaze or domestic support. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youngsters follow a developmental trail that is both alike and fairly dissimilar from heterosexual adolescents. All adolescents face certain developmental
challenges, such as developing their social skills, thoughts about their career, and fitting into a peer group. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescence must also manage with prejudiced, discriminatory, and fierce behavior and messages in their families, schools, and communities. Behavior and messages of such manners negatively affect the health, mental health and education of lesbian, gay, and bisexual of the young adults. These students are more likely than heterosexual students to report missing school due to fear, being threatened by other students, and having their property damaged at school. The
promotion of reparative therapy and transformational office is likely to make worse the risk of pestering, damage, and fear. Therefore, the knowledge of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youngsters is frequently one of seclusion, fear of stigmatization, and lack of peer or domestic support. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescence have less opportunity for observing optimistic modeling by adults due to the general cultural bias that makes gay, lesbian, and bisexual people largely imperceptible. It is this isolation and lack of sexual orientation In a current survey, on the frequency of same-sex sexual behavior in the
United States, most of the adult men and adult women report at least one of the following: (a) currently attracted “mostly” or “only” to same-sex persons; (b) same-sex sex “somewhat” or “very” appealing; or (c) had engaged in sexual behavior with same- sex person since age 18. A percentage of men and women are self-identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. This level of occurrence is similar to those who are Jewish in the United States. Occurrence of homosexuality when it is defined as an almost exclusive preference for members of the same sex. Same-sex behaviors can be witnessed among most species of animals.
There are several species whose rates of homosexuality exceed that of humans. Scientists initially anticipated theories of sexual orientation in the late 1800’s. Explanations before this time were mostly religious in nature. There are currently two broad categories of scientific theories of sexual orientation: environmental and biological. There are no important differences in parent behavior or tendencies to identify with the opposite sex that have been proven related with sexual orientation. Most gay men and lesbians report having felt attracted to members of their own sex long before
they acted on those feelings or had sexual experiences with either same-sex or opposite- sex partners. Obviously, it was not the experience of satisfying, unsatisfying, or traumatic early sexual experiences that dictated the later sexual orientations of these individuals. A research involves the association between adult homosexuality and reports of gender non-conformity in childhood. As children gay men and lesbians were less likely than heterosexuals to have enjoyed sex-typical activities. It is important to know that even among identical twins, whose genetic make up is presumably identical, more or less, fifty
percent of the time the identical twin of a gay man or lesbian is heterosexual. Studies have shown that people who believe homosexuals are “born that way” tended to be more tolerant and accepting of gays and lesbians, while those who believe homosexuality is due to learning or “free will” tended to be more intimidating toward homosexuals. But the causal effect is likely to be the reverse – those attitudes toward homosexuality often influence beliefs about causality, in that individuals are likely to find most credible with those beliefs that best rationalize their attitudes.
Homosexuality was removed from category as a mental disorder in America in 1973. However, the categories of gender identity disorder and transvestic fetishism remain in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV. In a survey with over 300 lesbian, bisexual and gay adolescents, it has been reported that the more one was open about their sexual orientation, the better their self- esteem was. But is it a causal relationship? And if so, which is the chicken and which is the egg? A common belief is that by coming out, gays and lesbians develop a better sense
of self, whereas psychosomatic research shows that people with better self-esteem and support systems are more likely to come out. Moreover, lesbians, gays, and bisexuals from urban areas tend to be out much more frequently than those in rural areas. The idea of flexibility actually reflects more the ideal of social equality, promoted in an attempt of making homosexuality more acceptable by degendering it’s public image, than actual practices. This was supported by studies such as one done, who is based on interviews with 30 homosexual men. No correlation between sexual preferences and personality orientation.
Homosexuality and heterosexuality are variants of human sexuality. Across cultures, bisexual behavior may be more common than either exclusive heterosexuality or homosexuality. Human bisexuality may serve to facilitate and maintain a variety of social relationships with men and women, which may be advantageous to the individual and the species. Like language, sexual orientation may be a characteristic with a wide biological variety of potentiality. Individuals with narrow range of potentiality may be able to take action only to men and women as objects to emotional, romantic or sexual interest.
A monosexual orientation includes exclusive heterosexuality and homosexuality. At the same time, as someone with monosexual orientation may be able to perform sexually with a gender outside their range. People are likely to underestimate the actual prevalence of homosexuality because of discrimination and stigma, many respondents are reluctant to tell a stranger that they are homosexual. Conclusion People with a wide range of sexual attraction may be interested in both men and women. A bisexual potentiality may shift or set over time, depending on social pressure, personal strengthening history and motivation.
Presumably an individual with flexibility in sexual responsiveness could adapt easily to a society that prefers one form of gender attraction over another. However, a bisexual who is more attracted to one gender may find it difficult to fit into a society that disapproves of attraction to the nonpreferred gender. While suppleness in gender attraction may be withdrawn, diminished, or even extinguished over time through degree of difference, it seems likely that except in extreme cases, the ability to respond erotically to both genders would not be completely lost their potentiality.
Garofalo, R, Wolf, R. C., Kessel, S. , Palfrey, J. , & Du Rant, R. H. (1998). Ben Martin, Psy. D. Psyc Central April 4, 2006 By John M. Grohol, Psy. D. April 4,2006, Book Title: The Psychology of Sexual Orientation, Behavior, and Identity: A Handbook. Contributors: Louis Diamant – editor, Richard D. McAnulty – editor. Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of Publication: Westport, CT. Publication Year: 1995. Page Number: 82. Questia Media America, Inc. www. questia. co >Boswell, J. (1980). Christianity, social tolerance and homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Katz, J. N. (1976). Gay American history: Lesbians and gay men in the USA.
New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company. D’Emilio, J. , & Freedman, E. B. (1988). Intimate matters: A history of sexuality in America. New York: Harper & Row. Duberman, M. B. , Vicinus, M. , & Chauncey, G. , Jr. (1989). Hidden from history: Reclaiming the gay and lesbian past. New York: New American Library. Robinson, P. (1976). The modernization of sex. New York: Harper & Row. Williams, W. L. (1986). The spirit and the flesh: Sexual diversity in American Indian culture.
Boston: Beacon. Herdt, G. H. (Ed. ) (1984). Ritualized homosexuality in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press. Reprinted in Jones, 1957, pp. 208-209, from the American Journal of Psychiatry, 1951, 107, 786). Villarroel, M. A. , Turner, C. F. , Eggleston, E. , Al-Tayyib, A. , Rogers, S. M. , Roman, A. M. , Cooley, P. C. , & Gordek, H. (2006). Same-gender sex in the United States: Impact of T-ACASI on prevalence estimates. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70, 166-196. Freud, S. (1905). Three essays on the theory of sexuality. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans. ), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. (Vol. 7, pp. 123-245). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1905) Sohn, A. (2003). Who’s on top?
New York, 2, 121. Retrieved on April 24, 2005, from http://newyorkmetro. com/nymetro/nightlife/sex/columns/nakedcity/n_8728 Hart, T. A. , Wolitski, R. J. , Purcell, D. W. , Gomez, C. , & Halkitis, P. (2003). Sexual behavior among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: What’s in a label? Journal of Sex Research, 40, 179-188 Hooker, E. (1965). An empirical study of some relations between sexual patterns and gender identity in male homosexuals. In J. Money (Ed. ), Sex research: New developments (pp. 24-52). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Louis Diamant, Richard D. McAnulty; Greenwood Press, 1995. 526 pgs.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 14 November 2016
Let us write you a custom essay sample on Bisexually and homosexuality
for only $16.38 $13.9/page