Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

There are many psychological discomforts in the world that people usually meet. Bipolar disorder is one of these disorders. In this review we will answer what id bipolar, what are the symptoms, what is the causes, and what is the treatment for bipolar disorder questions.

Psychological discomforts have some type like mood disorders, mental disorders, and personality disorders. Mood disorder has had topics too. They are major disorder, manic episode, and bipolar disorder. So bipolar disorder is a type of mood disorder.

Bipolar disorder is an unusual sift which happens in our mood. Approximately we can say it is emotional inconsistency. Most people say that they have bipolar disorder because they are changing their thinks, opinion, or choices but it is not true. Bipolar disorder is not something like that. We are not the machine we are human so all of us can sometimes change something without normal speed. But it is not mean we have bipolar disorder. Because bipolar is a serious disorder if we look deeply.

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So for say bipolar disorder symptoms have to continuously. And what is Bipolar disorder in literature?

As we said bipolar disorder is an unusual sift that happens in our mood. Bipolar disorder has 2 opposite episode. They are manic and depressive episodes. And one mixed period that cyclothymic (in other say cyclothymia).

Symptoms that people have in manic episode:

  • Extreme joy
  • Sense of being at the center of events
  • Hyperactivity
  • Inability to focus
  • Talking too fast
  • Increased sexual intercourse
  • Extreme self-confidence
  • Less sleep or do not want to sleep
  • Have an appetite
  • Spending more money

We can say manic period is a full energetic episode.

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They have abnormal energy and self-confidence while living this period. But there is an exception we can say. Some people who have a manic period feel or live this period more moderate. They are not extremely got these symptoms. This is also called hypomania. In this type of disorder and symptoms are going easier for people.

Symptoms that people have in depressive episode:

  • Ussuallu sad
  • Feels hopeless
  • Forgetting a lot
  • Feel sleepy, sleep too much or wake up early
  • Increased appetite
  • Talking too slowly
  • Suicidal thoughts
  • Weight gain
  • Decreased sexual intercourse
  • Feeling of a guilt
  • Arguing with who is around you

This period is exactly opposite to the manic period. Because people who have a depressive period even they have no energy to live. They are usually sad, hopeless, and full of pessimistic thinks. On the other hand the depressive period is the hardest and dangerous episode because of suicidal thoughts. As a result of these pessimistic, hopeless, and sadly thinks people have suicidal thoughts. Studies and statistics say that people who have bipolar disorder include 3.4%-14% of suicide in society. And research says nearly 1 out of 3 patients admitted to at least one suicide attempt. That why bipolar disorder is an important and dangerous disorder for themselves.

If you see these two type symptoms together it is a mixed period also called a cyclothymic period. In this period people contain manic and depressive together. People while happy or energetic in a few minutes it may change if they have this type. If someone has more than 4 symptoms they should see a psychologist.

Studies say Bipolar disorder happens according to season. Spring and summer season manic, and winter and autumn season depressive episode. The transition period goes a bit hard for them. They might be aggressive and upset while in the transition period. Also according to studies and statistics, there are about 60 million people have bipolar disorder.

Causes of Bipolar Disorder

According to studies many things can be caused by bipolar disorder but they cannot because alone. Many factors together lead to bipolar disorder. Some of these factors are: chemical imbalance which is in our brain can lead to bipolar disorder, trigger elements like tram via, stressful life, parents, society, physical abuse, genetic factors, and also sexual abuse can lead to bipolar disorder. It usually seen in 20-25 ages.

Treatments For Bipolar Disorder

According to experts they are not any definitive treatment for bipolar disorder. But they can reduce the symptoms. So your doctor needs to observe, and review your disease, your symptoms, and how you living periods. According to this observe your doctor describes the best method of treatments for your bipolar disorder. So that they need to examine and make a plan to manage your bipolar disorder.

One of the most common treatments for bipolar disorder is lithium. Since the 1950s it is used. It is reducing mood effects. Also lithium is used in many depression disorders. But unfortunately it has a side effect on the digestive system too. So lithium should be used under doctor lets and their control also.

Treatments are really important because of suicidal effects. Statistics about suicide in bipolar high. To reduce it ıt should take under control.

Some of the medicine that used for Bipolar disorder:

  • Mood Stabilizer
  • Antipsychotics
  • Antidepressants
  • Antianxiety medications

In general doctors uses mood stabilizers to manage and take under control manic and hypomanic periods.

Another medicine that is used for bipolar disorder:

  • Depokote
  • Lamictal
  • Lithobid
  • Tegretol

Also some medicines are used to manage and control depressive periods. But these meds are not all of the time for long-term treatments. Benzodiazepines are used for short treatment but mood stabilization can be used for long-term treatment.

Mixed mania, broadly denoting mania accompanied by prominent depressive symptoms, is also called dysphoric or depressive mania and has been defined in various ways. (Akiskal & Pinto, 1999)


  1. Schaffer A, Isometsa ET, Tondo L, et al. International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide: meta-analyses and meta-regression of correlates of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2015;17:1-16.
  2. Schaffer A, Isometsa ET, Azorin JM, et al. A review of factors associated with a greater likelihood of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in bipolar disorder: part II of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide in Bipolar Disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2015;49:1006-1020.
  3. Gazelle, F. K., Hallal, P. C., Andreazza, A.C., Frey, B. N., Kauer-Sant’Anna, M., Weyne, F., Correa da Costa, S., Santin, A. & Kapczinski, F. (2007). Manic symptoms and quality of life in bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Research, 153(1), 33-38
  4. Akiskal, H. S. & Pinto, O. (1999). The evolving bipolar spectrum: prototype I, II, III, and IV. Psychiatric Clinics Of North America, 22(3),517-534.

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Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment. (2021, Mar 09). Retrieved from

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