Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms and Treatment

Bipolar Disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorder that an individual can be diagnosed with. Bipolar disorder is a consider as a mental illness (2013). Bipolar disorder is a disorder where you can have repeated of low depression to high manic episodes. They are many symptoms that you can experience if you are diagnosed with bipolar disorder. There are many medications, you can take to help control your episodes such as Anticonvulsant (2005). However, when you are taking any kind of Bipolar medication you must make sure you are taking the right doses of medication, so it can help you control your symptoms of manic episodes.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a disorder with recurrent episodes of mood swings that can range from low depression to high manic episodes. Many people know that Bipolar disorder is one of the most challenging psychiatric disorder to be diagnosed with. Bipolar disorder is widely known as manic depression. The global lifetime occurrence rate of bipolar disorder is roughly 1% (Harrison & Keating, 2005).

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I know that Bipolar disorder can have a negative impact on your life. In many cases, Bipolar disorder can lead to suicide attempts and actual suicide. Anderson et all (2013) stated that deliberate self-harm-particularly associated with depressive and mixed episodes, psychosis and substance misuse occurs in 30-40% of patients. The completed suicide rates large 7.8% of men and 4.8% in women. There are two types of Bipolar disorder. Bipolar I and Bipolar II. Bipolar I is referred to elevated mood swings that are severe and sustained this called Mania episode.

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Bipolar II is associated with less severe depressive and hypomanic episodes. (Anderson et all 2013). I know men are more likely to be diagnosed with Bipolar disorder I then women and Bipolar II are more common in women than men. The most common age that someone can be diagnosed with bipolar disorder is roughly around the ages of 24. However, there are many cases with children have been diagnosed with Bipolar disorders. I know that children and adult are diagnosed with bipolar disorder, it is a consider as a mental illness. It will become a lifetime illness, but with the help of medications an individual who is suffering from bipolar disorder can live happy and normal life.

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar symptoms can range from mild to severe. Starting with adults who has symptoms of Bipolar disorder. Their symptoms of bipolar disorder can include unexpected mood swings such as feeling tired, hopeless, problems with sleeping, not interested in daily activities, not interact with family members, increased speech, distractibility, and racing thoughts. Anderson et all (2013). Symptoms in children are a little harder to detect than adults because in children you are expecting children to act out and have different mood swings for their age. Children who are experiencing bipolar symptoms can become angry easily. Many children will start to act silly or become extremely happy is also a symptom of bipolar disorder. Another symptom to look for is to see is the child is staying focusing in school or even during daily activities.

Diagnosed of Bipolar Disorder

According to (Anderson et al,. 2013), there is a key to diagnosis of patients who are suffering from Bipolar disorder. One of the main factors to look into is to see if the patients have a presence or history of hypomania or mania. Hypomania can last for a short period of time such as having episodes that last for a few days. However, mania episodes are slightly different than hypomania. Mania episodes are blown out mania episodes which last for several days or even months. I know it some cases, individuals who have manic episodes sometimes must be hospitalized. I know that the sooner you diagnosed a person the better outcome you will have. When it comes to diagnosis, patient with bipolar disorder, it sometime can get confused with other mental illness such as Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients can have the same symptoms as a patient who experiencing bipolar disorder. They are many diagnosed cases where someone can be overdiagnosis. Anderson stated that to avoid overdiagnosis of bipolar disorder requires the presence of mania with euphoria and not just irritability and an episodic course. This statement was in place to avoid any possible overdiagnosis for any patient. I know it is very important to document everything you do with patients who has bipolar disorder. (Pfennig et al,.2013) stated that individual course of bipolar disorder should be documented, with reference to the attainment of defined treatment goals. This can be achieved with the assistance of established external evaluation instruments or by the patient keeping an ideal daily record of his/her moods. There is a couple professional who can treat, and diagnosis bipolar disorder and they are Psychiatrist, a Primary care provider and a Clinical psychologist.

Treatments for Bipolar Disorder

According to Pfennig (2013), the goal of treatment for bipolar disorder is to achieve as high possible level of psychosocial function and health related quality of life. Treatments for bipolar disorder can range from a therapy session to medications to supportive care. Personally, I know there are many therapy sessions to help deal with bipolar disorder. The first therapy session that I know is a support group. A support group is a group of people who shared the same condition as you this type of therapy is more like a counseling setting where you talk about your problem and feelings. The second type of therapy session that I know that can help for bipolar patients is psychoeducation. Psychoeducation is a type of session where you can get educated about your mental illness or your conditions. The third therapy session that I know is Cognitive behavioral therapy. Cognitive behavior therapy is when you are in a talkative therapy that you focused on negative behaviors and feeling you having. The fourth therapy session that I know that is good for bipolar patients and their family is Family therapy. Family Therapy is in place for the family of the patients to come together and talk about their problems. The last therapy session that I know for bipolar patients is Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is a form of therapy where you can talk through your mental illness. Another Bipolar disorder treatment that can benefit bipolar disorder patients are supportive care. I know that in supportive care patients must stay in a hospital setting. In most cases, patients who stay in a supportive care setting can take medication that is not offered outside of the hospital. Therefore, they need to be closely monitored to watch for different side effect that might occur. They are many medications, you can take to help control bipolar disorder individuals. Some different medication can include Antipsychotic, Anticonvulsant and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor also known as SSRI. I know one of the most effective medication or drugs to treat Bipolar disorder is Carbamazepine. According to the (Harrison & Keating., 2005) they conduct a study of extended-release formation of carbamazepine. This study includes a 3-week trials and a 6 month long extended study. They find out that the most treatment-emergent events were observed in the study of extended-release of carbamazepine were from mild to moderate severity. During the 3-week trails of extended-release of carbamazepine they find out that there was a greater reduction in the white blood cell count. During this stage they only find one confirmed case of leukopenia and it was considered to be serious.

Carbamazepine

According to Harrison & Keating, (2005) Carbamazepine was the first preparation to be approved in the United States for the treatment of Bipolar disorder. However, before carbamazepine was first preparation for a treatment of bipolar disorder it was used to treat patients who suffered from epilepsy, trigeminal neuralgia. Trigeminal neuralgia is a continuous pain that affects the trigeminal nerve in the face. Harrison & Keating, (2005) stated that carbamazepine was recommended as a second-line agent that was a treatment for acute manic or mixed episodes that was linked with bipolar I disorder it shown the effectiveness in Bipolar mania episodes. The pharmacodynamic of Carbamazepine develop at the cellular receptors which can affect benzodiazepine receptors and adenosine and GABAb receptors. This means that the drug carbamazepine will binds the calcium channels and inhibits the sodium channels at the receptor site. Harrison & Keating (2005). Personally, I know that Carbamazepine also has many trade drugs names such as Tegretol and Carbatrol. During my research, I find out that carbamazepine can have an impact on your liver and Carbamazepine can cause liver damage.

Doses of Carbamazepine

(Harrison & Keating, 2005) stated that the extended-release of carbamazepine were created into a capsule formulation and the drug was admitted through two-doses. The two doses were 800-1600 mg per day. However, the single doses of carbamazepine were a little over 200 to 800 mg dose range. The absorption of the extended-release of carbamazepine reported to be a slow absorption. Absorption of carbamazepine will last only about 6 hours, and this will be followed into multiples of doses. Extended-release carbamazepine is suited to because 40% of a dose is contained in extended release beads that dissolve over 8–12 hours this form of absorption is taking place along the gastrointestinal tract, and 35% of a dose is contained in the enteric released beads that will dissolve in the intestines. Harrison & Keating (2005) stated that carbamazepine is a variable because of the autoinduction from it owns metabolism by the CYP3A4 enzyme. So, this means it can interact with additional drugs that are inhibitors Harrison & Keating (2005). I know that a lot medication that we are prescribe that we do not have to take anything with such as food however, in this case you must take food with carbamazepine.

Conclusion

Many people know that Bipolar disorder is one of the most challenging psychiatric disorder to be diagnosed in adults and children. Bipolar disorder is most known as manic depression. However, bipolar disorder is a disorder where recurrent episodes of mood swings can take place and the mood swing range from low depression to high main episodes. There are roughly 1 % of people will be diagnosed with Bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder symptoms can include unexpected mood swings such as feeling tired, hopeless, problems with sleeping, not interested in daily activities, not interact with family members, increased speech, distractibility, and racing thoughts. (Anderson, Haddad, & Scott, 2013). When it comes to diagnosis patients with bipolar disorder the first thing you should look at is to see if the patients had any prior history of hypomania or mania episodes. Their many effective treatments for patients who suffering from bipolar disorder. Many treatments can range from medication to therapy session. There are many effective bipolar disorder medications and one those medications are called Carbamazepine. Carbamazepine is a drug that belongs in the benzodiazepine classification and this drug is used as an anticonvulsant drug to help treat bipolar disorder. Carbamazepine doses range from 200 to 800 milligram to 800 milligrams to 1200 per day. Bipolar disorder is one of the most psychiatric disorder in our society today, but if you take your medication daily and in the right way you can live a happy and stable life.

References

  1. Pfennig, A., Bschor, T., Falkai, P., & Bauer, M. (2013). The diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder. . Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, http://huie.hsu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2013-06217-001&site=ehost-live.
  2. Anderson, I. M., Haddad, P. M., & Scott, J. (2013). Bipolar disorder. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 27-32. Retrieved from Retrieved from http://huie.hsu.edu:2080/stable/23493486
  3. Harrison, T. S., & Keating, M. G. (2005). Extended-release carbamazepine capsules: In bipolar I disorder. CNS Drugs, 709–716. Retrieved from https://doi-org.ezproxy.hsu.edu/10.2165/00023210-200519080-00006

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Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms and Treatment. (2021, Mar 09). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/bipolar-disorder-symptoms-and-treatment-essay

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