Biological Views of Man
Biological Views of Man
1. Humans, or human beings, are bipedalprimates belonging to the mammalian speciesHomo sapiens (Latin: “wise man” or “knowing man”). Humans have a highly developed brain capable of abstract reasoning, language, and introspection.
2. The cerebral cortex is nearly symmetrical, with left and right hemispheres that are approximate mirror images of each other. Anatomists conventionally divide each hemisphere into four “lobes”, the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe.
3. Frontal lobe: It is associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movements, emotions and problem solving. Parietal Lobe: Associated with movement orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli. Occipital Lobe: Associated with visual processing. Temporal Lobe: Associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory and speech.
4. The human brain perceives the external world through the senses, and each individual human is influenced greatly by his or her experiences, leading to subjective views of existence and the passage of time. Humans are variously said to possess consciousness, self-awareness, and a mind, which correspond roughly to the mental processes of thought.
5. These are said to possess qualities such as self- awareness, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. The extent to which the mind constructs or experiences the outer world is a matter of debate, as are the definitions and validity of many of the terms used above.
6. The philosopher of cognitive science Daniel Dennett, for example, argues that there is no such thing as a narrative center called the “mind”, but that instead there is simply a collection of sensory inputs and outputs: different kinds of “software” running in parallel.
7. Psychologist B.F. Skinner argued that the mind is an explanatory fiction that diverts attention from environmental causes of behavior, and that what are commonly seen as mental processes may be better conceived of as forms of covert verbal behavior.
8. Like most primates, humans are social by nature; however, humans are particularly adept at utilizing systems of communication for self-expression, the exchange of ideas, and organization. Humans create complex social structures composed of cooperating and competing groups, ranging in scale from small families and partnerships to species-wide political, scientific and economic unions.
9. Social interactions between humans have also established an extremely wide variety of traditions, rituals, ethics, values, social norms, and laws which form the basis of human society. Humans also have a marked appreciation for beauty and aesthetics which, combined with the human desire for self-expression, has led to cultural innovations such as art, literature and music.
10. Mans needs, feelings and desires cause him to act for his own benefit and without regard for the needs and wishes of others. Man uses every means to fulfill his own needs: he uses every kind of transport to reach his destination; he uses the leaves, stems and fruit of plants and trees; he lives upon the meat of animals and their products, and takes advantage of a multitude of other things to complement his own deficiencies in certain respects.
11. Man co-operates with the social nexus and gives a certain measure of his own efforts to fulfill the needs of others; in return he benefits from the efforts of others in order to full fill his own needs. Thus mans first nature incites him to pursue the fulfillment of his own needs using others in the process and taking advantage of their work for his own ends. It is only in cases of necessity and helplessness that he lends a hand to co- operate with society.
12. In the development of human beings, all three factors are very important… like in the topic “man as psychological, biological and social unit”, these three factors go parallel to each other. Man is incomplete even if one of the above mentioned factor is missing. Biological factors include the inherited characters, that helps in the development of human beings.
13. Some characters are inherited in humans like aggression, feelings, attitudes, behavior, emotions, height, color and so on. Brain is the central part of human body. Hypothalamus controls different mechanisms like secretions of hormones, (endocrine and exocrine secretions), motivation and moods and other activities within the body. Due to biological presence of brain, the psychology of human develops that further leads towards the development of man as a psychological unit.
14. Social factors are also important with biological and psychological factors. It includes the systems of communication and exchange of ideas. Social interactions between humans have also established an extremely wide variety of traditions, rituals, ethics, values, social norms, and laws which form the basis of human society.
15. Conclusion: Human’s personality is basically the combination of all three factors, all go parallel to each other, any phenomena cannot occurs separately..
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 17 November 2016
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