Biography of Indian Scientist Abdul Kalam


Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, (15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was an Indian scientist who served in as the eleventh President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was brought up in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and examined physical science and aerospace engineering. He spent the following four decades as a scientist and science head, predominantly at the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and was personally associated with India’s regular citizen space program and military rocket improvement endeavors.

He along these lines came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the advancement of ballistic rocket and dispatch vehicle innovation. He likewise played an urgent authoritative, specialized, and political job in India’s Pokhran-II atomic tests in 1998, the first since the first atomic test by India in 1974. Kalam was chosen as the eleventh President of India in 2002 with the help of both the decision Bharatiya Janata Party and the then-resistance Indian National Congress.

Generally refer to as the ‘People President’, he came back to his civilian personnel life of education, writing and public service after single term. He was a beneficiary of a few lofty honors, including the Bharat Ratna, India’s most highest civilian honour. While delivering an address at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, Kalam fallen and died from a clear heart failure on 27 July 2015, aged 83. Thousands including national-level dignitaries went to the memorial service function held in the place where he grew up of Rameshwaram, where he was buried with full state respects.

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Kalam believe that nation development is possible through scientific discoveries for which first and foremost quality education need to be imparted and youth of India do make sure about there contribution to the overall national development. When he became the President he set an example that anyone can be President or whatever one individual desire to be. It could be said only because of background of Kalam from where he rise and led to acquire the highest office of the country i.e. President of India.

Critical Assessment

A.P.J Abdul Kalam was born in lower middle class family who could not even afford his school fees. But, he worked hard sold newspaper in early morning from which he was able to pay his fees. He then completed his higher education from Madras Institute of Technology in aerospace. The hardship under which Kalam gone is an great motivational for the people especially for the youth because, now a days the youth get easily distracted and gets demotivated with poky problem. Thus Kalam life gives them strength, power and energy to push them up and deal with their problem with full force and come up against them. Not only Kalam helps in fighting with problem but encourages to-do hard work in the life to achieve, fulfill and conquer success. Kalam was a self-motivated man from him many people around him or who admire him gets motivated in their life to-do hard work and achieve their goals in their life. Also, it was his passion towards taking the knowledge which empowers his mind, basically it was his passion which helped him to commit to do hard work; he was a firm believer that education is a weapon, a weapon which no one can take from you. After leaving office, Kalam turned into a professor at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, and the Indian Institute of Management Indore; an honorary individual of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore; chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram; professor of Aerospace Engineering at Anna University; and an aide at numerous other prestigious and research institutions cross over India. He taught ITx at the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, and technology at Banaras Hindu University and Anna University. In May 2012, Kalam started a program for the youth of India called the What Can I Give Movement, with a focal topic of crushing corruption. In 2011, Kalam was criticised by common gatherings over his stand on the Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant; he favour the foundation of the atomic power plant and was blamed for not talking with the nearby individuals. The protesters were threatening to his visit as they considered him to be a learned atomic scientist and were unmoved by the confirmations he gave with respect to the security highlights of the plant. He imagine a prosperous India a long time before the year 2020. We expect the general population beneath the poverty line to come to close to zero and our literacy must be about 100%. The Human Development Index of India will be under 50 against the present 127. Each Indian will have either have a decent college degree or quality preparing with internationally focused employable professional expertise. E-administration would be in position for all Government to Government (G2G) and Government to Citizens (G2C) exchanges making the administration framework straightforward with a National ID card in position. Tele-density will reach more than 75%. Every one of our towns will have dependable, continuous quality electric power supply. 600,000 villages will have every one of the three connectivity, for example, physical availability, electronic availability, knowledge availability prompting economic network through the program of PURA. The interlinking of waterways and water bodies and utilization of innovation for water accumulation, water reusing and water administration will result in equal distribution of water for drinking, water system, industry, navigation and as characteristic excellence. There will be no lack of water in any piece of the nation nor will there be calamities because of floods, water logging and so forth. India would have acknowledged energy security and would progress in the direction of energy independence. Great sanitation offices will be accessible in homes in all aspects of India and for all Indians and tourists. We will utilize a greater amount of sustainable power source, for example, solar energy, wind power, biomass, Minix and micro X Hydel and thorium-based atomic reactors which are condition friendly energy sources. Through responsive and innovative investment systems and entrepreneurial preparing both in schools and universities, we will have more undertakings prompting more number of enterpenuer as opposed to job seekers. Prior to 2020, a professional dynamic health care system can through innovative plans will give quality human services access at a reasonable expense to every one of the general population incorporating those living in rural areas. Everybody will have a chance to take up and finish courses of decision in higher education. With which we all observe prosperity in the nation, which will reduce shortage and controls.

In addition to the above economic, social and human advancement, India will likewise have an unmistakable global recognition and will also add to world peace. All our innovative and economic advances while enhances our success would implant our esteem framework got from our civilizational heritage. This novel blend will make our development strong and practical and will prompt a sustainable, secure, glad and prosperous society. For accomplishing Vision 2020 from the present feeling, we require an estimation tool which can direct us in our development way. Since we are searching for comprehensive development for our one billion individuals, we require a far reaching measure of our development as far as the National Prosperity Index. If all this is done than the profile of India could be in 2020 like:

  1. A Nation where the country and urban partition has diminished to a thin line.
  2. A Nation where there are an equal distribution and access to all types of energy and quality water.
  3. A Nation where agriculture, industry and administration sectors cooperate with each other.
  4. A Nation where education with value system isn’t denied to any worthy hopefuls in view of societal or economic discrimination
  5. A Nation which is the best place for the most talented scholars, scientists, and investors.
  6. A Nation where the best of medical services is accessible to all.
  7. A Nation where the government is responsive, transparent and corruption free.
  8. A Nation where poverty has been completely destroyed, illiteracy vanished and violations against ladies and kids are absent and none in the general public feels distanced.
  9. A Nation that is prosperous, solid, secure, without fear based oppression, peaceful and happy and continued with a sustainable development way.
  10. A Nation that is outstanding amongst other places to live in and is glad for its initiative through innovative and powerful authority in Parliament, State Assemblies and different foundations of the State.

Kalam was very much passionate about his work that’s why he was able to show high level commitment to his work and is able to do hard work. In his careers there was a minor tussle between the ISRO where he was working and between DRDO which wanted to take him. There was exchange of several letters between ISRO and DRDO regarding his appointment. But Defense Minister of that time R. Venkataraman believe that his appoint at DRDO would bring justice to his talent which could utilized at DRDO for making the arms for the defense of the country, Kalam also understand his reasoning behind making of his appointment and later join DRDO on 1 June, 1982. Before leaving ISRO Prof. Dhawan asked me to give a speech on the space programme profile in India by the year 2000. Almost entire ISRO management and staff attended it which was by way a farewell speech. When I joined DRDO, then Director SL Bansal took me to introduce me to the senior scientist in the laboratory. Meanwhile Anna University honored me with doctorate degree of science it was great that his achievements in the field of rocketry were recognized by the value of work in academic circle. When he started working at DRDO he observed that his colleague were not passionate about the work and he saw it as the devil and he made it clear that burial of this devil was essential for the rise and hope of vision. Late he guided his team to work on new project which had been hanging for quite some time. Kalam often tell his team members that “Missile development is a multi-dimensional business if you remain in one dimension for long time you will get stuck”.

Therefore his team continuously keeps working on different projects simultaneously. Kalam also not only described and explain the goals, but also made them an interplay between work and ourselves in which he quotes Ronald Fischer, “The sweetness we taste in the piece sugar is neither the property of the sugar nor a property of ourselves. We are producing the experience of sweetness in the process of interacting with sugar.” His team was highly professional but slightly bewildered. A high level body of scientist was formed to encourage the involvement of the middle level scientist and engineers in the management activities of the laborarty. This body was formed for the long term ‘Guided Missile Development Programme’ for which days of debate and weeks of thinking occurred and finally a paper was presented to further discuss with representative of three defense service. DRDO estimated a budget of 390 cr. And time period of twelve years. They wanted to develop two missiles a low level quick reaction tactical core vechile and a medium range surface to surface weapon system. In all this Kalam had to attend his niece wedding in the evening and it was morning time and he was in Delhi, it was almost impossible for him to go Rameswaram and attend the wedding ceremony he was heartbroken that because of his commitment towards work he failed to keep up his promise with his family and relatives. Later on the day the paper was presented to the Defense minister of India he approved it and then in the meeting Dr. Arunachalam his senior made the minister aware about his niece wedding today in evening at Rameswaram. Defense Minister readily made the Air force flight made available to him to which he can reach Rameswaram on time to attend his niece wedding. Dr. Arunachalam told ‘you have earned this for your hard work of the last six months.’ From this incident we can learn that if we are honest and sincere in our work then at last the fruit of the result will be given to us. Later Kalam in his life applied this principle and achieve great height of success.

Kalam completed his work and also kept his promise with his family and relatives to attend his niece wedding at Rameswaram. On 1990 Republic Day, when nation celebrated the forty fourth Independence Day and Kalam was conferred with Padma Vibhushan and with him his two colleagues were also awarded with Padam Shree. It was first time when in the free India so many scientist found their names in the award list. When after the award ceremony the mess bearer brought me my breakfast of idlis and buttermilk and smiled in silent congratulation for the award. This gesture touched the heart of Kalam. With this he want to compare with those people who go to abroad to earn money and its certain that they eventually earn more monetary benefit. But nothing is greater than to work for own country and for this earn love and respect from one’s own countrymen. Kalam was invited to Madurai Kamaraj University the same month to deliver the lecture on the convocation and according to Kalam the convocation is like opening the flood gates of the new or fresh minds which are ready to develop and make changes for the betterment of the country. There he also finds an opportunity to meet his high school teacher Iyadari Solomon and he took the taxi to meet his teacher and the governor of the function who was presiding the function was deeply moved on seeing the elderly teacher who has not forgotten his pupil long years ago. At the end of 1990 the Jadavpur University conferred him with the degree of doctor of science at a special convocation.

Kalam find out that his name was mentioned along with name of legend Nelson Mandela who was also honored at the same convocation. Initially Kalam argued with his mind that it is not possible that he has taken as much pain as Mandela did nor Kalam did something for the humanity but later he came to the conclusion that may be his name is written because of persistence and intensity of passion towards work which makes both of our name on the same list. “Be more dedicated to making solid achievement than in running after the swift but synthetic happiness.” In the year 1979 when SLV-3 rocket launched was failed and at that difficult period Dr. Brahm Prasad took and told “that you alone are not responsible for the SLV-3 failure all the team is standing by you.” Which give Kalam vital emotional support, encouragement and guidance. Further a detail report was analyzed that the cause of mishap occurred due to the failure second control system due to which no control force was available to which vehicle become aerodynamically unstable resulting in altitude and velocity loss. This caused the vehicle fall into the sea even before the other stages could ignite.

Even though failure were justified by the scientific reason but deep inside Kalam was not satisfied and felt restless many nights he knew that in abroad if such a mistake is done by the mission director he is fired. He apologized for his mistake to Mr. Dhawan, but Mr. Dhawan encouraged him and said “I am going to put Kalam into the orbit.” I guess Kalam should not be given all the credit for his excellence and success in his career because like in above incident Dr. Brahm Prasad helped Kalam to support in the difficult time, saved him from the harsh criticism and from answering the question of news reporter this helped Kalam in developing himself and get better in carrying himself. Just like in his early when he was student his teacher also thought him life lesson which helped Kalam in conquering success. The role of other also become important in the life of a successful people because they also help in shaping his personality and also effect his formation of thought which decide mentality, his mentality creates a characteristics of that individual from which thousands and lakhs of people gets influenced and are moved by his speech and acts.


Kalam was a man of motivation; mostly the youth was inspired by his quotes, speeches and his hardship under which he had gone to become the most influentialx man. In the books “Wings of Fire” Kalam had manifest his participation and involvement in India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle SLV-3 and Agni xprogrammes, he established and work in three scientific establishment- Space, Defense Research and Atomic Energy. Kalam sharex his experience of working with countryx best and scientific minds of the country. For Kalam there is no failure in scientific research even if there is a failure in an experiment then that failure could lead towards new discoveries and help the science grow to its maximum length and breadth. Thus for him there is no failure in scientific research. Emphasis to dream big so that achievement is never small. Kalam in his book thanks the nation greatest scientist Prof. Brahm Prasad, Prof. Vikram Sarabhai and Dr. Satish Dhawan who helpedx Kalam in many ways to overcome with his difficulties. At last Kalam believe a nation needs both the economic and security growth and development. Our self-reliance mission mission in defense system will provide the system the armed forces with a state of art competitive weapon system. The technology vision – 2020x will put into place certain schemes and plans for the economic growth and prosperity of the nation. These two plans have evolved out of the nationx dreams.

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Biography of Indian Scientist Abdul Kalam. (2021, Apr 01). Retrieved from

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