Paper type: Essay Pages: 11 (2537 words)
Bimodal refers to having or providing two modes, methods or system but according to Spaull 2012, he defines it looking at educational dataset and that its involves the two education systems which present itself in a form of what is called bimodal distribution, where the performance would be looked in two humps rather than in one hump. According to Courtney (Taylor, 2017) a data set is bimodal if it has two modes. By that he means that there is not a single data value that occurs with the highest frequency instead, there are two data values that tie for having the highest frequency.
Therefore, bimodal is whereby we look at the two systems operating differently. Government produced unequal education expenditures whereby the amount spent on whites’ schools weren’t the same as the Blacks in urban areas and those who were in impoverished homelands even after 1994. All people had an access to education but the performance was not the same, some people were failing due to poor indication of real learning had an idea of that they will fail matric since matric exam were the only nationally standardised and extremely evaluated exam in the system.
The quality of schooling whereby there would be most functional schools which perform better than the dysfunctional schools. In other words, these are some of the reasons which led to the situation of two schooling system.The subjects compromising a course of study in a school or college is called curriculum, it the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process (Kelly, 2009, p.13). Curriculum is made for all students of school system. South Africa use Curriculum Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS) in Public schools. Therefore, the schooling systems of these countries won’t be same. Government schools that use CAPS they follow state guidelines and assessment procedures. The Development of Basic Education implemented the Annual National Assessments (ANA) curriculum from grade one to six. According to the Spaull’s reading in figure 7, shows that even though the curriculum is equal or same but the performance isn’t the same, for he took an example of the learners from different quintiles. The ones from quintile five schools answered correctly compared to those from of quintile one to three schools. The national curriculum can be same but due to different socio-economic status, language etc. the performance would be distinct and that would therefore lead to, for an example to poor performance.History of education involves the Apartheid Education, the Bantu Education, Models, and Outcomes Based Education etc. Apartheid was a system of government in South Africa that was abolished in 1994. It systematically separated groups on the basis of race classification. The law was made in South Africa that Apartheid system of racial segregate. In other words that means during the Apartheid system education was separated due the race a person come from. The Apartheid system came to an end when Nelson Mandela came to power in 1994.The Bantu Education took over in 1953 and was introduced by Dr Hendrik Verwoerd. It was a system that aimed to provide education for Black children. This type of system began the era of apartheid education because it led universities to split. South African people were divided into four population groups and were attending separated schools. It was illegal for a person to attend other population group’s school that was no assigned for him or her; this was the system that they were using. Bantu Education system was not a cause of the riots. It was, to a certain degree, a cause of dissatisfaction, this dissatisfaction was to some extent stirred up and exploited by those bent on creating disturbances(South African institute for Race Relations survey, 1989:501). It was seen as an effort to educate Black pupil in such a way that he would be submissive to Whites. The inequality within the four schooling system occurred and that applied to teachers qualifications, per capita funding, building equipment, faculties, book, stationery and results were measured in proportions and levels of certificates awarded.Models were different, there was Model B and C where there was equal amount of state funding but it was used by staff salaries, operations and administration. Model B C schools were schools that contain black students but are staffed by teachers from ex White schools. OBE (1997-2005) focuses on the learner’s acquisition of skills, knowledge, attitude and values. This system was introduced in grade1 in 1998, grade 2 in 1999 and grade 3 in 2000. During the OBE system, the inequalities of the many past decades, with the international funding, the Minister of Education aimed at upgrading faculties, providing more teachers to reduce the large learner-teacher ratios and providing in-service training to upgrade teacher competency.Teacher Education refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip teachers with knowledge, attitudes, behaviours’ and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school or in a community. South African schools have the issues of the weak institutional functional functionality, poor teacher content knowledge and insufficient time for pupil. There are many schools who fail to cover the official curriculum of the year. Teacher absenteeism is high and therefore that lead to the poor performance of the learners. South Africa has the features of the two education systems, dysfunctional and functional schools that operate in different ways even though they are under government. For an example in the Spaull’s reading in figure 9 where he shows the percentage of the Mathematics and language test and found out that South Africa’s scored less than other countries.According to Palardy, context is classroom’s characteristics, such as the composition of the student body, classroom structures and resources. However, it does not include teachers or their ability to teach. This represents a system-wide issue rather than one isolated to an individual classroom. Many of the achievement inequities arise within the same school, as the Palardy study found that black children are often assigned to a less-effective classroom rather than on a random basis. Different contexts can affect how well a student is prepared for each kind of learning and also the student’s view of learning and achievement in general (Nguyen, 2016) The strength and challenges of the school selected The school that I have selected is a public secondary school in South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal) located at KwaNobamba Tribal Authority, Makhosini Area, Ulundi, 3838, Zululand district. It is the rural school that I was studying in. It is attended by only Black learners. This school have strengths and challenges. In following there are two strengths and five challenges selected.Matric resultsThis school has an advantage of higher passing rate especially in matric, the percentage is always on 90 and above, although is not that much but in Zululand district it’s always on top 10. Teachers are active, committed in teaching learners because they use their spare time on learners. Especially grade 10-12 they are the ones who attend extra classes (evening classes and on weekends). In this high school teachers are making sure that learners go to matric just because they deserve it, they don’t want lazy learners who will decrease the percentage of the school. Most of the parents move their children from the town schools and private school just because they see teachers are committed in making their child’s future bright without wasting much money. Teachers are using the strategy of producing certificates to an individual did better in certain subject, and individual qualifying to get bachelors in monthly- terms that will determine whether at the end individuals increases or decreases the percentage. The school interact with other schools and swap teachers for teaching.Teacher’s qualifications and the shortage of them. Teachers are very committed in building learners future and make sure that they do their work as teachers. They are qualified (have degrees, honours and masters). The performance of the matric is high because of them, they try by all means to manage misbehaving learners. Teachers are enough except of those who teach mathematic, they usually drop out and one of the reasons that is the performance of the learners towards mathematics. They claim that learners hate maths and they doesn’t give it some time and practice it.Learners and parentsMost of the Learner’s they do not respect and love their work, they always outside and misbehave in classes especially those in lower grades. Their parents are not involved in their school work, they do not check their children’s work, and they do not come to collect their report cards in order to check learner’s results. If teachers ask for parents contact details some gives them incorrect numbers. Parents are the problem. They do not teach their children manners, respect or even a general knowledge of how to get along with others. Do parents make sure their children are prepared by having the necessary supplies? Do they make sure that their children do their homework? Do you they listen in class or are they the sources of class disruptions? No! When looking at these factors you will see that it is not schools that are failing but the parents. Teachers cannot do their jobs and the parent’s job. Resources and the influence of context on teachers’ workAlthough strength is there but challenges also attack. The school lacks amenities or infrastructure; there are lack of building and place (staff and class rooms). The challenge that they have is also of the resources (not enough text books 5-10 learners share a book because there are limited, no library, no computer labs, no projectors to show learners videos maybe of the topic a teacher is teaching about, not enough stationery (exercises, pens, papers etc.) Learners they cannot have enough time to study a book since they share and some cannot study together. Children do not know how to use a computer. There is no internet cafe whereby children would search some of the information when given an assignment. In this school they struggle with papers and to make copies for those in administration, no chalk to write in the board. There is an issue of sanitation (scarcity of water, there are limited water tanks) teachers and learners are sharing the same toilets that are not flushed.In terms of context, classrooms are small and poor, does not accommodate all learners. Teachers are unable to teach and also control or manage the one class of about 80 learners and there are no more widely spaces between learners desk. Since there are many, a teacher is unable to get to know his or her learner well and able to point him or her if heard the lesson or not. Most of the teachers are not staying around the school and some who lives in town; it takes them time to arrive at school even if they are using their own cars. Some teachers come from Mandeni, and Newcastle etc. There are broken windows glasses, in winter learners are suffering of cold and the time they feel cold they can’t pay attention to a teacher as well as the teacher, it is difficult for him or her to teach in a classroom that seems to be outside.School historyIt is the school that was named after a King who was the Zulu clan, just because Makhosini was the place of kings. It was established in 1952. Years ago, this high school was the only school there and people walked long distances every day to school. Some students went to school in short of clothes (shortage of shoes and jackets), lack of amenities, resources, sanitation as well as infrastructures and other quarrels of those years. Government increases the funding. Even if it was increased, but there were still challenges and inequality taking place. The school is in rural area, yes, it is not popular, even if you try to found out more about not information is there besides the address. The previous principal of this school was not always around the school. It was discovered that he’s the principal on others school and that some of the school money used it on his personal needs. In that case he was fired and the other person took over. The school matric results increase which was not happening while he was in charge. Solutions to the challengesTo the learners that are misbehaving, I would discipline them and tell myself that those who want to study they would listen and they would take my advices. To punish them I would give them more work to do. Encourage parents to come and their child’s work; provide them with resources such as pens since the department gives limited stationery and that are many. Principal must make sure that he has all the contact numbers of parents. Until parents should step up and do their job, nothing is going to get better.In terms of resources, I would try by means to negotiate with government or companies about improving the resources and infrastructure as well as amenities towards the school. I can raise a point to government that to all schools that falls under him should have equal resources if the other has computer lab and library, all should have it. I can also do donation from different places and business companies and also national program to uplift my school by equipping the supply of learning materials, the provision of libraries, water, toilets, repair of windows and leaking roofs, maintenance of desks and infrastructure.When it comes to classrooms and staff rooms, they have to be extended; only the government can sort that out. Learners should be confortable when they are learning as well as the teacher they need spaces to round the class when teaching and need also to know each and every learner in a class so he or she can be aware of the learner’s behaviour and performance. There should be a number that limit learners to enter so they won’t be many in one school while other schools are not enough. I will raise an opinion of the building of cottages inside the school for teachers who live far away from Ulundi to stay in it instead of using their salary to rent.South African government (public) schools do not operate in the same way; some are struggling and are different to each other. Yes, there are still challenges and inequality even though the government funding and access to education in South Africa has been increased for a example there are schools who are in short of stationaries, resources and poor performance etc.ReferencesAldrich, R. 2003. The Three Duties of the historian of Education. History of Education, 32(2).Gilmore, D, Crain, S, and David, D. (1999). Post-Apartheid Policy and Practice: Educational Reforms in South Africa.’ Pp. 341-350 in Education in a Global society: A Comparative Perspective, edited by Mazurek K, Margaret W, and Czeslaw M. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Pp. 341-343.Gilomeee, H. 2009. A Note on Bantu Education 1953-1970: South African journal of Economics, 77(1), p.193.Masondo, S (2016, May 31). Education in South Africa: A system crisis. CityPress. Retrieved 2017 May 04.Spaull, N. (2012, August 31). Education in SA: A tale of two systems. The Politicsweb. Retrieved from N. (2011). Primary School Performance in Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia and South Africa: A Comparative Analysis of SACMEQ III. SACMEQ Working Papers, 1-74.
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Bimodal refers to having or providing two modes. (2019, Aug 20). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/bimodal-refers-to-having-or-providing-two-modes-essay