1. He claims that the Fertile Crescent got its name because it was fertile. He also reinforces his claim by refering that crops such as wheat and barley grows there.
2. Because beer was discovered while humans were storing grain and were one of the foods or drinks humans consumed after they domisticated their crops it is an example of plant doministication.
3. Hunter gatherers previously led semi settled lives. But the ability to store grain encouraged them to stay in one place.
4. Grain was the basis of the national diet in both Egyptian and Sumarian civilizations it was consumed in both solid and liquid forms which is bread and beer.
5. Before humans began farming humans lived a nomadic live of hunting animals and consuming them as food but after humans began farming farming encouraged them to settle down which became the basis of civilization.
6. In ancient Greece wine symbolized ones social status because wine was assumed as a more fancier drink than wine it led to symbolized ones social status.
7. The Greeks drank wine in the Symposion which was a formal drinking party and would try to outdo each other inwit, poetry, or rhetoric while drinking wine.
8. Wine was a symbol of fertility, immortality, and divinity in ancient rome.
9. Convivium was a Roman banquet. In the convivium different wines depending on their positions in society were served to people in the convivum. For many people the convivium was seen as a opportunity to emphasize social divisions.
10. For Christians wine was seen as a holy drink because in Christianity wine is seen as the blood of Christ himself ,but for Muslims wine was seen as a evil drink which was used by satan to stir hatred and enmity among people because of this religious reason wine was prohibited among muslims.
11. The knowledge of distillation was one of the many aspects that was preserved and extended by Arab scholars , and Arabic having been translated into Latin helped western europians making sprits.
12. Distilled alcoholic drinks were used as medicine in Europe. It also helped making perfumes and introduced new chemistry principles in Europe.
13. Distilled drinks provided a durable and compact form of alcohol for transport on ships so distilled drinks were perfect for colonialists who had to travel long distances on ships. Also many natives preferred to trade Europian distilled drinks with their goods which made Europians possible to colonize and trade slaves in return of distilled drinks.
14. In the 18th century scurvy was a concern among sailors who weren’t able to gain enough vitamin C due to their long journeys on sea. To prevent scurvy British sailors drank spirits mixed with lime juice on the other hand French sailors were given drinks which did not contain vitamin C which made French sailors vunurable to scurvy.
15. Spirits were a big part of American trade. By trading spirits such as Rum with other continents America was able to build up their economy.
16. Exposing oneself to strong alcoholic drinks such as spirits could have various brain problems such as behavior change ,hallucinations ,slurred speech in addition one could be dependant on spirits once it starts to affect ones performance in school or at work.