Battery Examination Essay
The focused goals of the study is to identify the problems encountered by the senior nursing students under the new curriculum CMO 14 in making a research thesis considering the different factors identified such as student factors, research instructor factors, research adviser factors and curriculum factors. The study was conducted at Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya specifically in the School of Health Sciences. The respondents of the study were the senior nursing students officially enrolled in Nursing Research 2. The researchers adopted the descriptive correlational method of research.
The Slovin’s formula with the sampling error was used to determine the sample size. Stratified random sampling was used in this study to enhance the representativeness of every section of the officially enrolled senior nursing students in Nursing Research 2. One hundred thirty eight (138) senior nursing students were randomly chosen from the five (5) sections to answer the questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared and validated by the 5 instructors. Then, it was distributed and answered by the selected students from the different sections officially enrolled in Nursing Research 2.
Upon the retrieval of the questionnaire, all the data gathered were collated, tabulated and analyzed with the results as follows: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 1. Characteristics of the senior nursing students with respect to gender Out of 138 respondents 51 were male comprising 37. 0% of the population while 87 or 63 % comprised the female. 2. Characteristics of the senior nursing students with respect to academic classification Ninety-two percent of the respondents belong to non scholar group. Nine or 6. 5% belongs to dean’s lister group and only 1. 4% belongs to half/full tuition scholar group.
3. Characteristics of the senior nursing students with respect to the attitudes towards making a thesis. On the attitudes towards making a thesis, the highest mean was recorded on “All members should participate in research activity” (3. 83) and “Making a thesis is easy” (1. 777) as the lowest mean. 4. Characteristics of the senior nursing students with respect to the Hindrances in completing Thesis On the Characteristics of the senior nursing students with respect to the Hindrances in completing Thesis, the highest mean of 3. 06 was recorded on Curriculum factors; followed by 2.
2645 on the Student Factors; followed by 1. 90 on research adviser factors and lowest mean of 1. 88 in research instructor factors. 5. Characteristics of the senior nursing students with respect to the Perceived Problems in Organizing and writing thesis On the Characteristics of the senior nursing students with respect to the Perceived Problems in Organizing and writing thesis, the highest mean of 2. 93 was recorded in writing a thesis and 2. 911 in organizing thesis 6. Significant relationship between the problems encountered by the senior nursing students in making a research thesis in terms of the following: 7.
1 Profile variables The profile variables are not significantly related to the problems encountered both in organizing and writing thesis. This means that the problems encountered by female and male students have no difference. Academic classification of students is not also significantly related to problems encountered. 7. 2 Attitude and profile variables The attitude of the respondents is not significantly related to either gender or academic classification meaning that the attitude of the male and female could be either positive or negative.
The type of attitude toward completing thesis is also independent from the academic classification of the students. All the above mentioned factors are independent to each other. 7. Hindrances Encountered and the profile variables The hindrances encountered are not significantly related to the gender and academic classification. The hindrances identified are independent of gender and academic classification meaning the same hindrances are being experienced by either male or female, deans lister, scholar or not. Conclusions 1. Gender of the respondents More than half of the population consisted of female.
This may be so because Nursing is a female dominated course based from the enrollment data of SMU. (Dean’s Office List of Enrollees) 2. Academic Classification of the Respondents Bachelor of Science in Nursing is board course and mandated by CHED. Its curriculum is closely evaluated in order to maintain its high standards. To be a scholar in this field is not easy. Students will undergo rigorous trainings in all aspects even as early in the first year. 3. Attitude towards Making Thesis Majority of the respondent agreed in the stated opinions and have a positive attitude towards making a research thesis.
However the statement “Making a thesis is easy” appeared to be in a disagreeable nature because indeed making a thesis is not easy. 4. Hindrances in completing thesis The respondents expressed highest agreement that curriculum factors are the number one hindrance encountered by the senior nursing students in making a research thesis followed by the Student Factors, then research adviser factors then research instructor factors. 5. Perceived problems in organizing and writing thesis Organizing thesis is a problem to them in completing their thesis. Writing their thesis seems also a problem encountered in completing a thesis.
6. Significant relationship between attitude in completing thesis as to gender and academic classification The attitude of the male and female could be either positive or negative. The type of attitude toward completing thesis is not affected by the academic classification of the students. 7. Significant relationship between the hindrances encountered in completing thesis as to gender and academic classification.
The hindrances identified are unaffected by gender and academic classification meaning the same hindrances are being experienced by either male or female, deans lister, scholar or not. This shows that whatever gender, with high or low academic standing, experienced the same problems or hindrances in conducting a research. Recommendations The most common factor that affects the respondents in completing their thesis is the curriculum. They find the offering of subjects overlapping and in conflict with other major subjects resulting to confusion as to what to prioritize.
The researchers recommend that review of the sequence of subjects offered should be done by the implementers. Consultation with the students should also be done since they are considered as the first and foremost recipient to whatever changes the school implements. Curriculum cannot be changed since it is mandated by CHED Memo but its sequence of offering can be changed according to the needs and benefit of the most important stakeholders of any institution, the STUDENTS. CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Rationale.
Polit and Beck (2008) defined research as a systematic inquiry that uses disciplined methods to answer questions or solve problems. The ultimate goal of research is to develop, refine and expand a body of knowledge. Intelligent nurse can go into research because nurses have been trained to be sharp observers. But according to Hochbaun (1967) (as cited in the study of Felipe, M. et. al (2010) on their study entitled “Barriers in Conducting Nursing Research Among Senior Nursing students”) observation is not enough.
Researchers must also be trained in designing studies, carrying out whatever technique is most appropriate, analyzing data, and reporting the findings. Judgment and decisions must be made by the investigators and later by those who are in the position to apply findings in the work situation. Researchers are not “born”; they learn the development of skills. The Nursing batch of 2011-2012 is the first batch under the new curriculum of CHED memorandum order no. 14. CHED memorandum order no. 14 series of 2009 also known as CMO 14.
It is concerned with the policies and standards for Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) Program. It emphasizes the Bachelor Science in Nursing (BSN) curriculum as a competency-based and community-oriented curriculum in the Philippines. In this curriculum, many subjects are taken by the students in advance like Nursing Research 1 and 2. Comparing to the old curriculum, these subjects are taken in the first and second semester during fourth year. While in the CMO 14 article V section 9, Nursing Research 1 is taken during second semester during third year and nursing research 2 in the first semester during fourth year.
In this case students under this curriculum find it hard to adopt/cope up with the standards of this curriculum. Another reason is, Nursing Research 1 is being taken together with the 2 major subjects, the NCM 104 and NCM 105 during third year second semester and NCM 106 and NCM 107 with Nursing Research 2 during first semester fourth year. Budgeting time and choosing subject to be prioritized is difficult since this subject needs enough and equal time. The purpose of this study is to know the problems encountered by the senior nursing students in completing a thesis output under the new nursing curriculum.
The literature about the many challenges, problems, difficulties and other factors that arise in writing a thesis are discussed as follows; According to Andre DeHon as cited in his article How to be a Winner: Advice for students starting into thesis work. The biggest challenge they face at the onset of any new project is that there is a huge amount of stuff they need to know to tackle their problem properly. While this phenomenon is true in the small for the beginning researcher, it is also true in the large for any thesis project.
So learning how to cope with this challenge for them is an important skill for them to master to become a good researcher. In contrast with, blocking their action and progress while waiting for complete knowledge is the road to failure. In an article written by Ethridge (2008) he enumerated several steps on how to become a skilled researcher. First is the students should have a basic knowledge and background about the subject matter. They must also have the desire to learn more and be willing to give a lot time and effort to arrive at a result that is worth reporting to others.
But before the actual conduct of the study, students must have to lay their initial plans. Researchers should anticipate that the entire conduct of the study would be very time consuming so they should know the length of time and amount of effort they would give. Employing the long view, ones inner thirst for more knowledge and determination to succeed will be grounded in the focused, previously planned and logical direction of research, whilst acting as a springboard, from which to explore the path to end-vision.
Practical strengths will also come into play, such as attention to detail, ability to gather and order information consistently, determination to withstand the frustrations of time consuming and repetitious work, study and wok processing skills and finally, the ability to use both sides of the brain to forge links, will produce excellent results. Ofoegbu, F. I. (2004) the study addressed the issue of teacher motivation as an essential factor for classroom effectiveness and school improvement. Teacher motivation has to do with teacher’s desire to participate in the education process.
Teacher motivation could be referred to as those factors that operate within the school which if not made available to the teacher could hamper performance, and causes stress all of which would subsequently reduce classroom effectiveness and student quality output. This implies that teacher motivation includes factors that cause, channel sustain and influence teacher’s behavior towards high management and academic achievement standards in school. Therefore teachers need appropriate assistance to raise present commitment to work.
No matter how energetic, enthusiastic and committed a teacher might be, his effort and level of performance might not produce the required results in student. Professor Gary Parks (2009) presented in his book “Common Obstacles in Writing Research Paper” that there are many challenges that arise in writing thesis papers. Looking for information exactly on topic (and nothing else), a paper without an edge, a source-driven paper and not taking the time to finish the paper seem to be the most common problems experienced by students in online English 102.
He also said that many students encounter problems organizing and writing the thesis paper because they fail to research the general topic before they decide on a thesis statement; they fail to provide an appropriate thesis statement; they fail to provide a connection between the thesis statement and all of the topic sentences in the paper; they fail to support the paper with adequate information that is relevant only to the topic of the paper; or they fail to correctly cite their sources.
Many students encounter problems with the thesis paper because they do not fully review all of the information available. As a result, the student may choose a topic that is too general or too specific for the number of pages that required. Of all the mistakes that students make when writing a thesis paper, properly citing sources within the texts is a major one. When a paper is incorrectly cited or fails to give credit altogether to the person whose ideas they borrowed, the student has committed plagiarism.
Furthermore, he enumerated some obstacles students met in thesis making and this are as follows: they had tough time to understand the lectures, they might have missed the lectures due to job, any social activity or illness, they don’t have enough time to thinking about the thesis topic due to job, the teachers are not helpful enough, they may have difficulty to analyze the thesis paper topic and lack techniques to choose thesis paper topic, their friends can’t help you since they are already busy doing their own thesis, they have the idea but can’t put it in words, they can do it but afraid that it might be disapproved.
Salve Regina University (2009) cited in her study entitled “Factors that can contribute to academic difficulty” some of the general reasons why many students experience academic problems. The factors were the motivation and purpose, difficulty adjusting to college life, study skills and personal issues. Academic difficulty can stem from the events outside the academic arena or outside collegiate life. Student might have been dealing with an issue for a period of time, or an expectedly face with something that challenges their academic performance.
Torke, Abraham and Upadhya, (2007) stated that peer instruction will also promote student’s participation and improve student’s performance. Gravetter and Forzano (2009) theorized that beginning students make many mistakes in trying to find a thesis topic. They mention these mistakes in the hope that we will either avoid them altogether, or recognize when we are making one and quickly shift gears. They also mention that one very common mistake is choosing a topic that is not of the researcher’s interest. Unless you are somewhat interested in the topic you pick, you will find this task extremely laborious.
As a result, you are likely to lose motivation, and your thesis project will no doubt reflect this, they added. Another mistake is picking a topic that is too safe or too easy, hoping to save time and effort. This common mistake disregards the purpose of planning and conducting a thesis which is to learn something while reading and understanding. According to McAshan, H. H. (1963) one of the first errors which may appear (and often does) in scientific study is the lack of a clear definition of the problem accompanied by lucid statement of some testable hypothesis.
Graves, (1983) Grossman et. al, added that “Teachers need to write in order to become effective writing teachers. ” The thesis takes up everything. According to Danish Student Counseling Service the student sets aside friends, girl-/boyfriend, work, and extracurricular activities to spend all his/her time on writing the thesis. Life is set aside for the sake of the assignment, but there is no energy for it. The entire day is being set off to working on it, but there is no separation between working hours and leisure time.
Nlison & Stomberg (2008) found that the extrinsic motivators such as teachers in involvement, organization of the program, contents in the studies associated to the profession, life situation and friendship during the studies were more commonly used as explanation to the student motivation scores than with intrinsic factors such as attitude to the study and study result suggesting that these are motivating factors that influenced learning. Finding of the study also reveal that there are gender differences in over all motivation score with females scoring that male students.
Jacobson (as cited in Nlison & Stomberg, 2008) confirm that when he found that female students had higher intrinsic motivation than male and that female students exert themselves more as well as having a more thought-out strategy for studies. Garner E. (1996) barriers to great communication include gender as a barrier in research, wherein he emphasized the distinct differences between the speech patterns in a man and a woman that may also give a significant impact or effect on conducting an ongoing research study.
A man talks in a linear, logical and compartmentalized way, features of left- brain thinking whereas a woman talks more freely mixing logic and emotion, features o both sides of the brain. Self efficacy and Learning strategies have been found to be associated with academic performance (Pintrich & Degroot, 1990, Pintrich & Schrauben, 1992, Chye et al. , 1997 as cited in Andrew & Vialle, n. d). Risemberg and Zimmerman as cited in Andrew & Vialle, n. d suggest that students who are high achievers use more self –regulated learning strategies than low achievers (1992) although these strategies may vary among students.
(Zimmerman & Martinez Pons 1990, Ablard & Lipschultz 1998, as cited in Andrew & Vialle, n. d. ) Knowing and understanding the reasons why students are having difficulty in completing a quality thesis output is a way of identifying strategies to improve the teaching-learning process in the research subject. At the same time to help the students identify their own strategy in facing these problems. Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework of this study revolved around the problems encountered of the senior nursing students in completing a thesis.
With this problem are the factors identified namely the student factors, research instructor factors, research adviser factors, and curriculum factors. DEPENDENT VARIABLE Problems encountered by the senior nursing students in completing their thesis output * Student factors * Research Instructor factors * Research Adviser factors * Curriculum factors INDEPENDENT VARIABLE * Gender * Academic Classification Problems encountered by the senior nursing students in completing their thesis output in terms of; * Organizing * Writing * Attitude towards making a thesis Thesis output Figure 1. Conceptual Framework.
The illustration shows the thesis paradigm of this study. The dependent variables are the problems in completing a thesis output in terms of Student factors, Research Instructor factors, Research Adviser factors and Curriculum factors. The independent variable includes personal profile of respondent under which are; Gender and Academic classification. There are two separate boxes; one box contains the attitudes towards making a thesis and the other box contains problems encountered in terms of organizing and writing thesis. All of these factors lead to the development of a quality thesis output.
Statement of the Problem This study is conducted to determine the perceived problems by the senior nursing students of Saint Mary’s University of Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya in completing thesis output under the new nursing curriculum. It aimed to determine their problems encountered in completing a thesis output. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the characteristics of the senior nursing students with respect to the following variables; a. Gender b. Academic Classification 2. What is the attitude of the students towards making a thesis output?
3. What are the hindrances in completing thesis output under the new nursing curriculum? 4. What are the problems encountered by the senior nursing students in completing a thesis output and; a. Organizing a thesis b. Writing a thesis 5. Is there a significant relationship between the problems encountered the senior nursing students in completing their thesis output under the new nursing curriculum in terms of; a. Gender b. Academic Classification 6. Is there a significant relationship between attitude in completing thesis and; a. Gender b. Academic classification 7.
Is there a significant relationship between the hindrances encountered in completing thesis and; a. Gender b. Academic classification Statement of Hypothesis There is no significant relationship between the problems encountered the senior nursing students in completing their thesis output under the new nursing curriculum in terms of; a. Gender b. Academic Classification Significance of the Study A study on different problems encountered in completing a thesis output is indeed important for it served as an opener to students on how to face these challenges in completing their thesis.
Hence, this can gauged the awareness of the student researchers in attacking or facing these problems. Similarly findings will yield benefits to the following: Nursing Students This study is purposely conducted specifically for the nursing students enrolled in fourth year. Results or this study will help them gain more knowledge on how to attack problems that are being encountered in completing thesis and be able to create a good and successful thesis outputs. Future Researchers Enormous young minds who wish to venture of related concepts in their thesis may get advantage on the results of this study.
They can make of the results as future reference but can counteract information herewith if the case may convey. Research Instructors and Advisers This will serve as a basis in formulating new approach in enhancing the teaching-learning process in research classes here at Saint Mary’s University. The result of this study will give the instructors some insights. This will make instructors be more aware in knowing why nursing students cannot make a good thesis outputs on time.
By knowing these, they would be able determine their weaknesses as an instructor and to device an effective teaching strategy for better learning. Scope and Delimitations of the Study This study covered respondent’s demographic profile according to gender, academic classification and attitude towards making a thesis. Hence, it also covers respondent’s different problems encountered. This study is for the students who are enrolled in nursing research because they are still on the process of learning the ways and strategies in completing a thesis output; thus they can be able to identify the problems they are facing while making their thesis.
The study is limited to the analysis of data gathered from the respondents who were chosen by the researchers via stratified random sampling. Relevant documents, articles and write-up regarding the study were included in the analysis as well. Answers to the questions about the problems encountered by the senior nursing student in completing their thesis are based on the respondent’s perception only. Definition of Terms The following terms are defined according to the context of the study and how these terms were utilized.
Academic Classification is defined as the classification of students whether they are dean’s liters, half/tuition scholars, working scholars or non scholars. Attitude towards making a thesis refers to the students’ natural inclination in making a thesis Completing thesis process of accomplishing and compiling all parts of a thesis output Curriculum factors refers to the elements of a course of academic study in nursing that contributes causally towards making a thesis Gender refers to the sexual identity, especially in relation to society or culture, whether they are male or female.
New curriculum refers to the CHED memorandum order number 14 series of 2009 Organizing thesis refers to the structuring and ordering of concepts and ideas necessary in making a thesis. Problems Encountered refers to the hindrances and difficulties confronted by the students in making a thesis. Research Adviser factors this pertains to the instances constituting the consultant that contributes to the perceived difficulties of the students in making a thesis.
Research Instructor factors pertains to the instances constituting the professor that contributes to the perceived difficulties in making a thesis but is limited to his/her personality as a whole. Respondent’s Demographic Profile is information about the person or individual. Student Factors refers to the factors intrinsic to every individual student Student Problems refer to any difficulties or questions that raise conditions to be resolve by both the researchers and the respondents. Teacher Factors are contributory aspects, relationship and limited to teacher personality as a whole.
Thesis output is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author’s research and findings. Writing thesis refers to the process of producing and making a thesis. CHAPTER II RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design In this study the descriptive correlational method is used in determining the relationship of the problems encountered by the senior nursing students in completing their thesis output under the new nursing curriculum.
It is descriptive because it presented the profile and characteristics of the respondents according to gender, academic classification and attitude towards making a thesis. Locale of the Study The study was conducted at Saint Mary’s University, one of the top performing institutions nationwide. The target populations of the study are students of the School of Health Sciences specifically the fourth year students under the new nursing curriculum or the CHED memorandum Order No. 14 (CMO 14) who are enrolled in Nursing Research 2.
The study was conducted in the said area for easy accessibility of respondents. Research Environment The study made use of documents from primary and secondary sources of data. The profile of BSN senior students which consist of the gender, academic classification and attitude towards making a thesis and their evaluation to the identified problems encountered by the senior nursing students in completing their thesis output under the new nursing curriculum were obtained from the questionnaires that were distributed to the respondents.
The data gathered were used as basis in determining the problems encountered senior nursing students Saint Mary’s University in completing a thesis output under the new nursing curriculum which can later help and guide the students and instructors determining ways solve the causes of these problems. Population and Sample The respondents belong to the population of senior nursing students enrolled in the school year 2011-2012 who spent their baccalaureate years under nursing program of Saint Mary’s University.
To determine the numbers of sample, the researchers coordinated with the office of the University Registrar for requisition of furnished copy of the list of target population. The population consists of 211 students, by using the Slovin’s formula and adopting the sampling error of 5% (0. 05) sample size is computed as follows; Determination of Sample Size Slovin’s Formula n = N/ (1 + Ne2)n = 211/ (1+211×0. 052) n= number of samplesn = 211/ (1+ 211×0. 0025) N= total of populationn = 211/ (1+. 5275) e= margin of error n = 211/ 1. 5275n = 138. 13 or 138 Research Instruments.
The researchers utilized researcher-developed Questionnaire checklist. Questionnaire were developed by the researchers based on the problems identified by the Senior Nursing Students during the “on the spot interview” and “focus group discussion” with them, and some were adopted from a previous study entitled; Barriers in conducting nursing research among senior nursing students by Felipe, M. et al.. The finished and developed questionnaire was checked and evaluated by the research adviser, research instructor and research coordinator to ensure reliability and validity of the questionnaire.
Piloting the questionnaire to selected and reliable individuals was also done to ensure its validity. The questionnaire has two parts; the first part is the respondent’s personal profile such as Gender, Academic classification, and attitude towards making a thesis.
The second part is composed of 65 questions, 8 questions was to assess the attitude of the respondent towards making a thesis 7 questions are based on student factors, 9 are on research instructor factors, 7 on research adviser factors, 8 questions on curriculum factors, 9 questions which are based on problems on organizing and 17 questions on the problems on writing thesis.
These sets of questions addressed the problems encountered in completing thesis output. Table 2. 1 Distribution of items Content Item Number Student factors Attitude towards making a thesis1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 Student Factors 9,10,11,12,13,14,15 Research instructor factors 16, 17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24 Research Adviser factors 25, 26,27,28,29,30,31.
Curriculum factors32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39 Problems on: Organizing a thesis 40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48 Writing a thesis49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57 58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65 Copy of the questionnaire was personally distributed and floated by the researchers to the respondents who were chosen employing stratified random sampling at different times. The data were organized, tabulated, interpreted and presented in their textual or tabular method. Data Gathering Procedure.
Prior to the conduct of the study, the researchers devised a questionnaire to gather qualitative data that pertains to the problems encountered by the senior nursing students in completing their thesis output under the new nursing curriculum. The questionnaire was presented and carefully scrutinized by experts composed of research instructor, research adviser and research coordinator for content validity to gain approval for its utilization in the study. When the validity and reliability of the questionnaire was established, it was ready for floating.
Thus permission to float the questionnaire was asked from the Dean of the School of Health Sciences. With all the information gathered from the Dean of the School of Health Sciences Department regarding the total number of enrollees of the senior nursing students enrolled in nursing research 2 and upon receiving the positive response, the questionnaire was reproduced according to the number of respondents. The questionnaire was validated and distributed to randomly selected respondents. A letter was attached to the questionnaire stating a brief background of the study. Retrieval of Questionnaires Development of Questionnaire.
Floating of Questionnaires Approval and Validation of Questionnaires Permission to Float Questionnaires Reproduction of Questionnaires Figure 2. 2 Flow Chart Treatment of Data and Statistical Tool After the floating and retrieval of questionnaires, the data were coded and encoded; the researchers consulted an expert for the application of SPSS in the calculation and analysis of data. The researchers used percentage and frequency to answer the problem number 1. What are the characteristics of the senior nursing students with respect to the following variables Gender, Academic Classification, Attitude towards making a thesis output?
Mean and Standard deviation were utilized for problems number 2; What is the attitude of the students towards making a thesis output? Problem number 3; What are the hindrances in completing thesis output under the new nursing curriculum? , and Problem number 4; What are the problems encountered by the senior nursing students in completing a thesis output in terms of organizing a thesis and writing a thesis? The Pearson product moment Correlation Co efficiency (r) was used to analyze the problem number 5. Is there a significant relationship between the problems enco.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 24 September 2016
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