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Automotive industry Essay

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In compliance with the fulfillment of the requirements on the course “Writing in the Discipline” and in accordance with your oral instructions dated November 19, 2013, we are submitting our library research paper entitled “The Uses of Automobiles”. The main purpose of this research paper is to know automobiles and its uses, to explain the advantages and disadvantages that automobiles bring to the society, and to suggest ways on how to conserve energy using new technologies of automobiles. We hope that this paper will meet your approval.

Respectfully yours, Kenneth Llauderes and Mark Joseph Sueta BSME- 1 BSME- 1.

The Uses of Automobiles A Library Research Paper Presented to Mrs. Astrid O. Haresco Faculty, Department of Languages Western Institute of Technology In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course ENGLISH 2- Writing in the Discipline By Kenneth Llauderes- BSME 1 Mark Joseph Sueta- BSME 1 February 2014 Table of Contents Page •Introduction 1 ?History 2 ?Contribution to the society 4 •Application of automobile as Transportation 5 ?Automobile Industry 5 ?Automobile Racing 6 ?Automobiles Business 9 •New Technologies of Automobiles 11 ?Antipollution Strategies 11 ?Safety Features 12 ?Hybrid- Electric Vehicles 13?

Computers and Navigation Devices 14 ?Eco- Friendly Automobile 16 ?Other Improvements 19 •Conclusion 20 •Recommendation 20 •Bibliography 21 Llauderes, K.

& Sueta, M. J. “The uses of automobiles”. Western Institute of Technology. 2014 Automobiles transport people in a more comfortable and more efficient manner. It is a propelled vehicle used primarily on public roads but adaptable to other surface. They are classified by size, style, number of doors and intended use. The typical automobile also called a car, auto, motorcar, and passenger car, has four wheels and can carry up to six people including a driver.

The researchers travelled and gathered information from the correct and truthful data from the internet and different libraries in Iloilo. The researchers conclude that automobiles change the world and the lives of the people because it has a profound impact on the society. As a whole it played a very important role in the society and it is one of the key elements of industrial economies and no doubt, it will continue to shape our culture and economy well into the next generations.

The researchers recommend that the overnment agencies especially Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC) support the production of automobiles that have antipollution features and they must impose rules and regulations, and build more highways and bridges in response on the increasing number of automobiles.

THESIS STATEMENT: Automobiles transport people in a more comfortable and more efficient manner. I. What is an automobile A. Definition B. History C. Contribution to the society II. Application of automobile as Transportation A. Automobile Industry B. Automobile Racing C. Automobiles Business III. New Technologies of Automobiles A. Antipollution Strategies B. Safety Features C. Hybrid- Electric Vehicles D. Computers and Navigation Devices E.

Eco- Friendly Automobile F. Other Improvements Introduction An automobile is a self- propelled vehicle used primarily on public roads but adaptable to other surfaces. They are classified by size, style, number of doors and intended use. The typical automobile also called a car, auto, motorcar, and passenger car, has four wheels and can carry up to six people including a driver. Larger vehicles designed to carry more passengers are called vans, minivans, omnibuses, or buses. In this paper, those used to carry cargo are called pickups or trucks, depending on their size and design.

Minivans are van- style vehicles built on a passenger car frame that can usually carry up to eight passengers. Sport- utility vehicles, also known as SUVs are more rugged than passenger cars and are designed for driving in mud or snow. The researchers chose automobile as their topic among all the topics because it is the one that people uses in their daily lives as transportation and because it is one of the key elements of industrial economies and no doubt it will continue to shape their culture and economy well into the next generations.

This paper is intended to analyze and examine how technology especially automobiles change the world and the lives of the people. This paper is all about automobiles, its history, uses and countries that produce automobiles. It also discusses about the advantages and disadvantages that automobiles bring to them. It also focuses on the manufacture and servicing of automobiles. 1 This paper is gathered from the correct and truthful data from different libraries in Iloilo and by the use of the internet, the researchers also gathered some data from different resources. They use the information from the latest resources of the library.

They also travelled in nearby provinces of Iloilo to collect knowledge that they apply in this paper. This paper is divided into three parts namely: what is an automobile; application of automobile as transportation and; new technologies of automobile to support the thesis statement: automobiles transport people in a more comfortable and more efficient manner. History The history of the automobile actually began about 4,000 years ago when the first wheel was used for transportation in India. In the early 15th century the Portuguese arrived in China and the interaction of the two cultures led to a variety of new technologies, including the creation of a wheel that turned under its own power.

By the 1600s small steam-powered engine models had been developed, but it was another century before a full-sized engine-powered vehicle was created. In 1769 French Army officer Captain Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built what has been called the first automobile. Cugnot’s three-wheeled, steam-powered vehicle carried four persons. Designed to move artillery pieces, it had a top speed of a little more than 3. 2 km/h (2 mph) and had to stop every 20 minutes to build up a fresh head of steam 2 As early as 1801 successful but very heavy steam automobiles were introduced in England.

Laws barred them from public roads and forced their owners to run them like trains on private tracks. In 1802 a steam-powered coach designed by British engineer Richard Trevithick journeyed more than 160 km (100 mi) from Cornwall to London. Steam power caught the attention of other vehicle builders. In 1804 American inventor Oliver Evans built a steam-powered vehicle in Chicago, Illinois. French engineer Onesiphore Pecqueur built one in 1828. British inventor Walter Handcock built a series of steam carriages in the mid-1830s that were used for the first omnibus service in London.

By the mid-1800s England had an extensive network of steam coach lines. Horse-drawn stagecoach companies and the new railroad companies pressured the British Parliament to approve heavy tolls on steam-powered road vehicles. The tolls quickly drove the steam coach operators out of business. During the early 20th century steam cars were popular in the United States. Most famous was the Stanley Steamer, built by American twin brothers Freelan and Francis Stanley. A Stanley Steamer established a world land speed record in 1906 of 205. 44 km/h (121. 573 mph).

Manufacturers produced about 125 models of steam-powered automobiles, including the Stanley, until 1932. 3 Contribution to the society The automobile has had a profound impact on the society. It has brought superhighways, paved bridges, motels, vacations, suburbia and economic growth which accompanied them. Automobiles provide a great deal of personal freedom to their owners. The article by journalist Kevin A. Wilson provides a history of automobile design and production in the United States, and surveys recent efforts to develop lower- and zero-emissions vehicles, such as electric cars and diesel-electric hybrid cars. As suburbs, generally without public transportation, grew, cars became necessary and auto sales increased.

Easy credit facilitated the purchase of cars. The number of cars on the road leaped from 40 million in 1950 to 60 million in 1960. The Federal Highway Act of 1956 created the Interstate Highway System, a 68,400-km (42,500-mi) network of limited-access highways. This system spurred further suburban growth. Technological advances transformed production. The new machine-tool industry, a trail of inventions, including the telephone, typewriter, linotype, phonograph, electric light, cash register, air brake, refrigerator car, and automobile, led to new industries.

Business leaders learned how to operate and coordinate many different economic activities across broad geographic areas. Businesses were thus able to become larger, and the modern corporation became an important form of business organization. 4 Application of Automobile as Transportation Automobile industry Automobile Industry is an industry that produces automobiles and other gasoline-powered vehicles, such as buses, trucks, and motorcycles. The automobile industry is one of the most important industries in the world, affecting not only the economy but also the cultures of the world.

It provides jobs for millions of people, generates billions of dollars in worldwide revenues, and provides the basis for a multitude of related service and support industries. Automobiles revolutionized transportation in the 20th century, changing forever the way people live, travel, and do business. The automobile has enabled people to travel and transport goods farther and faster, and has opened wider market areas for business and commerce.

The auto industry has also reduced the overall cost of transportation by using methods such as mass production (making several products at once, rather than one at a time), mass marketing (selling products nationally rather than locally), and globalization of production (assembling products with parts made worldwide). From 1886 to 1898, about 300 automobiles were built, but there was no real established industry. A century later, with automakers and auto buyers expanding globally, automaking became the world’s largest manufacturing activity, with nearly 58 million new vehicles built each year worldwide. 5 As a result of easier and faster transportation, the United States and world economies have become dependent on the mobility that automobiles, trucks, and buses provide.

This mobility allowed remote populations to interact with one another, which increased commerce. The transportation of goods to consumers and consumers to goods has become an industry in itself. The automobile has also brought related problems, such as air pollution, the emission of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming, congested traffic, and highway fatalities. Nevertheless, the automobile industry continues to be an important source of employment and transportation for millions of people worldwide. Automobile Racing Automobile Racing is a sport in which drivers race specially designed automobiles over tracks or courses of differing lengths, designs, and constructions.

The competition tests the skills of the drivers, the speed capabilities of the vehicles, and the endurance of both. Originally consisting of occasional challenges among wealthy individuals in the United States and continental Europe, automobile racing has evolved into an international year-round professional sport that is one of the most popular spectator attractions in the world. There are three basic types of race courses in automobile racing: (1) the oval track, (2) the road course, and (3) the straight-line course.

Oval tracks, which can be dirt, asphalt, or concrete, range in length from 0. 16 to 2. 5 mi 6 (0. 27 to 4 km). Some oval tracks, longer than 1 mi (1. 6 km) and highly banked (angled toward the ground), are called superspeedways. Road courses have either of two forms: courses that are created by temporarily closing city streets, and courses specially designed to duplicate the twists and turns of country roads but used only for racing. Road courses of both types are generally 1. 5 to 4 mi (2. 4 to 6. 4 km) long in the United States, sometimes longer in other countries. Straight-line courses consist of a simple strip of asphalt or concrete used for drag races between two vehicles.

Straight-line courses are generally 0. 25 mi (0. 4 km) long, but they can be 0. 125 mi (0. 2 km) long as well. There are five basic components of an automobile racing team: (1) the ownership, (2) the team manager, (3) the driver, (4) the support crew, and (5) the sponsors. The ownership of the car is in charge of the team but usually employs a manager to run operations on a day-to-day basis. The driver is always an independent contractor. Drivers usually compete in a variety of different cars for different owners throughout their careers. The support crew maintains the car before, during, and after races.

The driver and support crew work together during races to handle needed repairs, tire changes, and fuel refills (done during brief service breaks known as pit stops). Finally, sponsors, usually corporations, provide money to the racing team in exchange for promotional ties. The most obvious examples of this relationship are company and product logos, which are commonly seen on the outside of vehicles during races. 7 Although there are many categories of automobile racing—and many types and levels of competition within each category—the major forms of the sport differ in the United States and abroad.

In most parts of the world, the premier race series are those for Formula One (F1) vehicles and for sports cars. These competitions receive less attention in the United States, where the most important race series are those for Indianapolis (Indy) cars and for stock cars. Some drivers and teams move between American and overseas forms of racing, but this are uncommon. The coordinating committee for automobile racing in the United States is the Automobile Competition Committee for the United States (ACCUS), which serves as the U. S. representative on the Federation International de l’Automobile (FIA; International Automobile.

Federation), the worldwide governing body of the sport. ACCUS coordinates activities between FIA and six major sanctioning bodies for automobile racing in the United States—addressing rules, regulations, automotive specifications, safety, and related matters. The eight organizational members of ACCUS are Championship Auto Racing Teams (CART), National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), Indy Racing League (IRL), Grand American Road Racing Association (GRAND-AM), Professional Sports Car Racing (PSC), the Sports Car Club of America (SCCA), the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA), and the United States Auto Club (USAC).

8 Automobile Business Automobiles have changed and developed in response to consumer wishes, economic conditions, and advancing technology. The first gas-powered vehicles looked like horse buggies with engines mounted underneath because this was the style to which people were accustomed. By 1910, however, features like the front-mounted engine were already established, giving the automobile a look that was all its own. As public demand for cars increased, the vehicles became more stylized. The classic cars of the 1920s and 1930s epitomize the sleek, individually designed luxury cars called the “classic cars. ” During the 1940s and 1950s, automobiles generally became larger until the advent of the “compact” car, which immediately became a popular alternative.

The gasoline crisis is reflected in the fuel-efficient cars made in the 1970s and 1980s. Current designs continue to reflect economy awareness, although many different markets exist. In a turnaround economy like India, small can mean handsome returns. As auto makers Suzuki and Hyundai, focused on the sub-compact segment. It is thanks to buoyant small-car sales by their subsidiaries here that both Hyundai and Suzuki have posted record earnings growth, in the midst of a severe global downturn.

It suggests a growth-driver role for the domestic automobile industry, and not merely in terms of volumes and sales. 9 The auto companies and ancillary makers are confident of posting 10 percent rise in business, provided barriers to free movement of goods are removed. Over 80 percent of the players in the automobile industry, having units in north India, said business activities could grow by 10 per cent while 20 per cent of the respondents said business was likely to go beyond 10 percent, a survey conducted by the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry said.

Reeling under subdued demand for long, the domestic steel industry now hopes that the proposal to reduce excise duty on automobiles in the Interim Budget 2014-15 would spur demand for flat products. “The proposal to reduce excise duty on automobiles in the current economic environment is a welcome step, however it would have been more meaningful and impactful if the excise duty on steel would have been reduced,” Essar Steel. Leaving direct taxes untouched except for continuing the income tax surcharge on ‘super-rich’ individuals and corporate, the Interim Budget today slashed excise duty on cars and two-wheelers, and capital goods and consumer durables to boost manufacturing and growth.

10 New Technologies of Automobiles Antipollution Strategies Pollution-control laws adopted at the beginning of the 1990s in some of the United States and in Europe called for automobiles that produced better gas mileage with lower emissions. The California Air Resources Board required companies with the largest market shares to begin selling vehicles that were pollution free—in other words, electric. In 1996 General Motors became the first to begin selling an all-electric car, the EV1, to California buyers. The all-electric cars introduced so far have been limited by low range, long recharges, and weak consumer interest. Engines that run on hydrogen have been tested.

Hydrogen combustion produces only a trace of harmful emissions, no carbon dioxide, and a water-vapor by-product. However, technical problems related to the gas’s density and flammability remains to be solved. Diesel engines burn fuel more efficiently, and produce fewer pollutants, but they are noisy. Popular in trucks and heavy vehicles, diesel engines are only a small portion of the automobile market. A redesigned, quieter diesel engine introduced by Volkswagen in 1996 may pave the way for more diesels, and less pollution, in passenger cars. 11 Safety Features.

Manufacturers continue to build lighter vehicles with improved structural rigidity and ability to protect the driver and passengers during collisions. Bumpers evolved as rails or bars to protect the front and rear of the car’s body from damage in minor collisions. Over the years, bumpers became stylish and, in some cases, not strong enough to survive minor collisions without expensive repairs. Eventually, government regulations required bumpers designed to withstand low-speed collisions with less damage. Some bumpers can withstand 4-km/h (2. 5-mph) collisions with no damage, while others can withstand 8-km/h (5-mph) collisions with no damage.

Modern vehicles feature crumple zones, portions of the automobile designed to absorb forces that otherwise would be transmitted to the passenger compartment. Passenger compartments on many vehicles also have reinforced roll bar structures in the roof, in case the vehicle overturns, and protective beams in the doors to help protect passengers from side impacts. Seat belt and upper-body restraints that relax to permit comfort but tighten automatically during an impact are now common. Some car models are equipped with shoulder-restraint belts that slide into position automatically when the car’s doors close. 12.

An air bag is a high-speed inflation device hidden in the hub of the steering wheel or in the dash on the passenger’s side. Some automobiles have side-impact air bags, located in doors or seats. At impact, the bag inflates almost instantaneously. The inflated bag creates a cushion between the occupant and the vehicle’s interior. Air bags first appeared in the mid-1970s, available as an optional accessory. Today they are installed on all new passenger cars sold in the United States. Air bags inflate with great force, which occasionally endangers a child or infant passenger.

Some newer automobile models are equipped with switches to disable the passenger-side air bags when a child or infant is traveling in the passenger seat. Automakers continue to research ways to make air-bag systems less dangerous for frail and small passengers, yet effective in collisions. Hybrid- Electric Vehicles While some developers searched for additional alternatives, others investigated ways to combine electricity with liquid fuels to produce low-emissions power systems. The hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) uses both an electric motor or motors and a gasoline or diesel engine that charges the batteries in order to extend the distance that the vehicle can travel without having to recharge the batteries.

An HEV at a stoplight typically sits silent, burning no fuel and making no pollution, if the batteries are sufficiently charged. If driven slowly, as in heavy traffic, the vehicle might move only on electric power. 13 Only when more power is demanded for acceleration or to move a heavy load, does the gasoline or diesel engine come into play. Two automobiles with such hybrid engines, the Toyota Prius and the Honda Insight, became available in the late 1990s.

The Prius hit automobile showrooms in Japan in 1997, selling 30,000 models in its first two years of production. The Prius became available for sale in North America in 2000. The Honda Insight debuted in North America in late 1999. Both vehicles promised to double the fuel efficiency of conventional gasoline-powered cars while significantly reducing toxic emissions. The Ford Motor Company introduced the first U. S. -made hybrid when it began production for the Ford Escape Hybrid in August 2004. The 2005 model year Escape was also the first hybrid in the sport-utility vehicle (SUV) category. Electric Car.

Computers and Navigation Devices Computer control of automobile systems increased dramatically during the 1990s. The central processing unit (CPU) in modern engines manages overall engine performance. Microprocessors regulating other systems share data with the CPU. Computers manage fuel and air mixture ratios, ignition timing, and exhaust-emission levels. They adjust the antilock braking and traction control systems. In many models, computers also control the air conditioning and heating, the sound system, and the information displayed in the vehicle’s dashboard.

14 Expanded use of computer technology, development of stronger and lighter materials, and research on pollution control will produce better, “smarter” automobiles. In the 1980s the notion that a car would “talk” to its driver was science fiction; by the 1990s it had become reality. Onboard navigation was one of the new automotive technologies in the 1990s. By using the satellite-aided global positioning system (GPS), a computer in the automobile can pinpoint the vehicle’s location within a few meters. The onboard navigation system uses an electronic compass, digitized maps, and a display screen showing where the vehicle is relative to the destination the driver wants to reach.

After being told the destination, the computer locates it and directs the driver to it, offering alternative routes if needed. Some cars now come equipped with GPS locator beacons, enabling a GPS system operator to locate the vehicle, map its location, and if necessary, direct repair or emergency workers to the scene. Cars equipped with computers and cellular telephones can link to the Internet to obtain constantly updated traffic reports, weather information, route directions, and other data. Future built-in computer systems may be used to automatically obtain business information over the Internet and manage personal affairs while the vehicle’s owner is driving. 15.

Eco- Friendly Automobile Eight decades after the American auto industry turned away from the electric car in favor of gas-powered vehicles, the giant General Motors Corporation (GM) made a heralded return to the market with the first mass-produced version in the modern era, the EV1. The completely battery-powered $34,000 car, in development by GM since the late 1980s, was delivered amid fanfare to select dealerships in Arizona and southern California on December 5, 1996. Boasting a 137-horsepower engine that can silently accelerate from 0 to 97 km/h (0 to 60 mph) in less than nine seconds, the EV1.

(Electric Vehicle 1) is hailed by some observers as an automotive breakthrough. With few moving. parts there is little regular maintenance required and no tailpipe emissions at all. Engineered to be ultralight and extremely aerodynamic to conserve energy, the EV1 is the first electric car to be made entirely from scratch as a battery-powered vehicle since the early years of the century, when as many as one-third of automobiles were electric. Most current electric cars are converted gas-powered vehicles, such as an electricity-powered Ford Ranger introduced in the summer of 1996.

The EV1 was first shown to the public as a prototype model called Impact at the 1990 Los Angeles Auto Show. Consumer trials followed, as GM worked to overcome the challenges posed by an electric car: the limited travel range before needing a recharge, size and weight restrictions, power-draining auxiliaries 16 (such as heating systems), and the lack of an infrastructure of charging stations—the “gas stations” of the 21st century, according to electric vehicle backers. But there are also critics of the EV1, who point to the automobile’s relatively high cost and its limited range of 113 to 145 km (70 to 90 m) before its lead-acid batteries must be recharged.

The special device that can recharge the EV1 in about three hours costs an extra $2000. (Fully charging from a regular household outlet takes about 15 hours. ) Many of the doubters believe that battery technology is still too limited and that the EV1 risks ultimately hurting the cause of alternative-fuel vehicles. The more advanced nickel-metal hydride battery, which can hold a greater charge than a lead-acid battery, is just now becoming commercially available. Others argue that hybrid cars—combining electric power with internal-combustion technology— hold the best promise for the future of the automobile.

Other criticisms of the EV1 include the fact that the sporty vehicle is small, holding just two people. Because electric cars generally do not perform well in cold weather, the EV1 is available only in a few warm-climate cities to start out—Los Angeles and San Diego in California, and Phoenix and Tucson in Arizona. GM plans to make and lease—rather than sell—only a few thousand cars in the initial rollout. Critics of electric cars achieved a victory in March 1996, when California’s Air Resources Board (ARB) pulled back its controversial regulations that would have forced major auto companies to make zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) account for at least 2 percent of their sales in the state starting in 1998.

While the 17 ARB backed down on the first restriction, after being heavily lobbied by auto company representatives who argued that the technology was not adequately advanced, it retained the ambitious requirement that 10 percent of all new car fleets be ZEVs by 2003. The air quality of California’s urban areas is among the worst in the United States, and other pollution-plagued regions around the country are beginning to pass similar electric-car measures to address the problem. Beyond the threat of air quality regulations, General Motors is eyeing the electric vehicle as an important new product.

They believe that consumers concerned about air pollution levels and rising gasoline prices will be interested in purchasing electric cars. The world’s largest automobile manufacturer, GM was able to devote the resources necessary for such a costly, large-scale project—an estimated $350 million in development costs. The company has made the EV1 such a priority that it created a special division for the vehicle and bestowed the corporate name of General Motors on a car for the first time in history (although it is being marketed and distributed by GM’s Saturn division).

The EV1 is only the first of a variety of low- and zero-emission vehicles that are expected from auto manufacturers in the next several years. The Honda EV, powered by nickel-metal hydride batteries, is expected in 1997, and electric cars from automakers such as Ford, Toyota, and Chrysler are planned for release no later than 1998. GM also hopes to expand its line of electric cars in the near future, including an electric Chevrolet pickup truck targeted at commercial vehicle fleets in 1997. 18 Other Improvements During the 1980s and 1990s, manufacturers trimmed 450 kg.

(1,000 lb) from the weight of the typical car by making cars smaller. Less weight, coupled with more efficient engines, doubled the gas mileage obtained by the average new car between 1974 and 1995. Further reductions in vehicle size are not practical, so the emphasis has shifted to using lighter materials, such as plastics, aluminum alloys, and carbon composites, in the engine and the rest of the vehicle. Looking ahead, engineers are devising ways to reduce driver errors and poor driving habits. Systems already exist in some locales to prevent intoxicated drivers from starting their vehicles.

The technology may be expanded to new vehicles. Anticollision systems with sensors and warning signals are being developed. In some, the car’s brakes automatically slow the vehicle if it is following another vehicle too closely. New infrared sensors or radar systems may warn drivers when another vehicle is in their “blind spot. ” Catalytic converters work only when they are warm, so most of the pollution they emit occurs in the first few minutes of operation. Engineers are working on ways to keep the converters warm for longer periods between drives, or heat the converters more rapidly. 19 Conclusion.

Based on the data presented in this paper, the researchers conclude that automobiles transport people in a more comfortable and more efficient manner because it is used in the daily lives of the people as transportation and it is also good for business. The researchers further conclude that the automobile has had a profound impact on the society. It has brought superhighways, paved bridges, motels, vacations, suburbia and economic growth which accompanied them. As a whole, the creation of automobile has played a very important role in the society and in the daily lives of the people because it is one of the key elements of industrial economies and no doubt, it will continue to shape the culture and economy well into the next generations.

Recommendation Based on the conclusion, the researchers recommend the following: (1) That government agencies especially Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC) support the production of hybrid- electric vehicles, and eco- friendly automobiles because these have antipollution features. (2) That the government should conduct further research about automobiles because the researchers only comply the library research paper having limited information. (3)

That the government agencies should impose rules and regulations on the increasing number of automobiles; and or they should build more highways and bridges in response to this problem.


Bellis, Mary. (N. D. ). “Automobile history”. Retrieved on December 20, 2013 at www. about. com. Coffey, Frank. 2003. America on wheels: the first 100 years. United States of America: General Publishing. Crouse, William Harry. Automotive mechanics. United States of America: McGraw- Hill Inc. Grant, Alex. January, 2013. “Entrepreneur Philippines”. Covering all bases. Page 27. Inolino, Leth. July, 2013. “Entrepreneur Philippines”. Pushing.

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