Automated Intelligent Wireless Drip Irrigation Environmental Sciences Essay

Drip Irrigation is todays need because H2O is natures gift to the world and it is non limitless and free forever. Worlds H2O resources are fastly disappearing. The one and merely one solution to this job is automated Drip Irrigation system. In the field of agribusiness, usage of proper method of irrigation is of import and it is good known that irrigation by trickle is really economical and efficient. In the conventional trickle irrigation system, the husbandman has to maintain ticker on irrigation timetable, which is different for different harvests.

In Automatic microcontroller based trickle irrigation system irrigation will take topographic point merely when there will be intense demand of H2O. Irrigation system uses valves to turn irrigation ON and OFF. These valves may be easy automated by utilizing accountants and solenoids. The intent of this paper is to supply more installation in agribusiness field by utilizing radio detector web along with additive scheduling. Paper describes an application of a radio detector web for low-cost radio controlled and monitored irrigation solution.

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The developed irrigation method removes the demand for craft for deluging irrigation every bit good as trickle irrigation. usage of additive scheduling aid us to administer available H2O to the harvests if and merely if there is huge demand of H2O to the harvest in order to acquire maximal net income with minimal cost. Besides additive Programming helps us to make proper direction of available H2O.

Keywords – Irrigation- Surface, Drip, Wireless Sensor Network, Real Time Monitoring, Automation.

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Introduction

Agricultural irrigation is extremely of import in harvest production everyplace in the universe. In India, where the economic system is chiefly base on agribusiness and the climatic conditions are isotropous and are non able to do full usage of agricultural resources. The chief ground is the deficiency of rains and scarify of land reservoir H2O. so efficient H2O direction plays an of import function in the irrigated agricultural cropping systems. The demand for new H2O salvaging techniques in irrigation is increasing quickly right now. In order to bring forth “ more harvest per bead ” , agriculturists in ( semi ) waterless parts presently explore irrigation technique [ 1 ] . In the modern trickle irrigation systems, the most important advantage is that H2O is supplied near the root zone of the workss drip by trickle due to which a big measure of H2O is saved, at the present epoch, the husbandmans have been utilizing irrigation technique in India through the manual control in which the husbandmans irrigate the land at the regular intervals. This procedure sometimes consumes more H2O or sometimes the H2O reaches tardily due to which the harvests get dried. This job can be absolutely rectified if husbandmans use machine-controlled intelligent radio trickle irrigation system by utilizing additive Programming [ 2 ] .

Aim

To salvage H2O, energy and adult male power in the agribusiness sector

Handle the system manually every bit good as automatically

Detect H2O degree

To plan, which will be efficient and attempt reduction of the former.

Need OF THE PROJECT

Irrigation is an unreal application of H2O to the dirt. An irrigation system is a system that delivers H2O to an country where H2O is needed but non usually present in the needed sums. By and large, it is used for agribusiness and landscape gardening intents. The effectivity of the irrigation is determined by a figure of different factors, including the type of irrigation system and the conditions at its clip of usage. Additionally, irrigation besides has other utilizations in harvest production, which include protecting workss against hoar, stamp downing weed turning in addition Fieldss and assisting in forestalling dirt consideration. In contrast, agribusiness that relies merely on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry and farming. [ 2 ]

Types of Irrigation: Surface Irrigation: – Surface irrigation is defined as the group of application techniques where H2O is applied and distributed over the dirt surface by gravitation. It is by far the most common signifier of irrigation throughout the universe. Surface irrigation is frequently referred to as inundation irrigation.

Drip Irrigation: – Drip irrigation, besides known as trickle irrigation or micro irrigation or localized irrigation, is an irrigation method which saves H2O and fertiliser by leting H2O to drip easy to the roots of workss, either onto the dirt surface or straight onto the root zone, through a web of valves, pipes, tube, and emitter. It is done with the aid of narrow tubings which delivers H2O straight to the base of the works

EXISTING AUTOMATED DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM:

In Existing Automated Drip Irrigation system it is non possible to run it on determinations, it merely operated merely on individual dirt conditions like dirt wet, ph_value, and temperature, visible radiation. It operates on merely one status at a clip like if we utilizing soil wet detector to command machine-controlled trickle irrigation so whenever dirt wet degree is get lessening so & amp ; so merely it direct the valve to alter its place from OFF to ON, and if soil wet degree is go to the proper pre-setted degree at that clip system is acquire OFF automatically. This drip irrigation was performed by solar powered pumps. One of them ( pump-1 ) carries H2O from Dam Lake to H2O armored combat vehicle, another one ( pump-2 ) is used for accomplishing the needed force per unit area for irrigation.

Figure: Overview of the Existing Automated Drip Irrigation System

Relay Soil Moistr

Drip Temperature Valve Unit Sensor Unit

Farm Limit

Internet Base Station Unit Remote Unit LIMITATIONS OF EXISTING IRRIGATION SYSTEM:

In Current / Existing Automated Drip Irrigation system it is non possible to run it on determinations, it merely operated merely on individual dirt conditions like dirt wet, ph_value, and temperature, visible radiation. It operates on merely one status at a clip

PROPOSED AUTOMATED INTELLIGENT WIRELESS DRIP IRRIGATION USING LINEAR Scheduling:

It is slightly similar to the bing automated drip irrigation system, but along with that my purpose is to do my proposed system to be more intelligent that ‘s why I am traveling to utilize additive scheduling in my proposed system. In Current/ Existing Automated Drip Irrigation system it is non possible to run it on determinations, it merely operated merely on individual dirt conditions like dirt wet, ph_value, and temperature, visible radiation. It operates on merely one status at a clip like if we utilizing soil wet detector to command machine-controlled trickle irrigation so whenever dirt wet degree is get lessening so & amp ; so merely it direct the valve to alter its place from OFF to ON, and if soil wet degree is go to the proper pre-setted degree at that clip system is acquire OFF automatically. Here it is non traveling to look into handiness of H2O and demand of H2O. But my system is traveling to look into that and on that footing it is get operated. For that intent I ‘m utilizing additive programming attack in order to make proper usage of available H2O all the available harvests in the field where our system is get implemented to acquire maximal net income and besides with the aid of additive scheduling we easy place available H2O and needed H2O for the harvests.

PROPOSED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

Actuator

XBee

Detector

ADC

uC

Driver

Remote Monitor Control

XBee

Personal computer / Server

Figure: – Proposed System Architecture

Figure: – Proposed System Architecture

The purpose is to plan a micro-controlled and Personal computer driven automated drip irrigation system. This system must be able to command the valve timings of trickles automatically based on pre-programmed timings. The clip intervals for all the valves can be fed into Personal computer for an full hebdomad or month. Regional linguistic communication based GUI must be developed so that novice users must be able to feed in the timings or plan the hardware. An ADC connected to microcontroller must garner the humidness values for dirt at assorted points. These values must be visualized in package utilizing 3D secret plans to help the user in make up one’s minding valve timings.

A Personal computer interface is provided for easy scheduling of the hardware ( No traditional keypad-LCD interface for square informations entry ) .The 3D graphs generated from detector values located across the full field helps us to visualise, construe and take decisive actions for the peculiar state of affairs.

Figure: – Radio Sensor Network for Drip Irrigation System

Detectors ( Light, Temperature, PH_Value, Humidity ) : Detector Sense the different physical parametric quantities like visible radiation, ph_value of dirt, temperature and humidness and converts these sense informations into electrical signals ( either electromotive force or current )

Signal Array: It is aggregation of assorted detectors fundamentally it took input from detector and Federal that data as an input for the signal conditioning.

Signal Conditioning: It is really indispensable. By and large the signal obtained from detectors are weak hence we uses signal conditioning in order to maintain signal in to its original province. That means it works as like amplifier.

ADC ( Analog to Digital Converter ) : It Converts linear signal into digital signal and Federal that digital signal to the micro accountant as an input.

Micro-Controller: It is bosom of the whole system, means it controls the all activities of the system. It has memory in which control plans are saved.

Sensor Unit: The SU acquires informations given by the ADC, and the information sent to BSU. Value of ADC input which comes from the detector is stored in a 10-bit registry. Different type of detectors can be added easy for future developments.

Base Station Unit: The BSU is a maestro device that is programmed to read and to measure detectors informations, to command valves and to pass on with other units.

Personal computer ( Personal Computer / Server ) : Basically for Data Acquisition every bit good as logging intent we are traveling to utilize personal. The graphical visual image shows 3D Graphs generated from detector values located across the field.

Darlington Drivers: It is control unit which controls relays, fan, warmer and H2O pump harmonizing to the dirt conditions and provides necessary conditions to the dirt means humidness, ph_value, visible radiation, temperature.

Valve Unit: Valve unit has the same connexion with radio faculty and the same belongingss with SU. It has an end product for commanding the valve. This valve was operated digital end products on the microcontroller by transistor.

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

A radio detector web ( WSN ) consists of spatially distributed independent detectors to supervise physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, quiver, force per unit area, gesture or pollutants and to hand in glove go through their informations through the web to a chief location. The more modern webs are bi-directional, besides enabling control of detector activity. The development of radio detector webs was motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance ; today such webs are used in many industrial and consumer applications, such as industrial procedure monitoring and control, machine wellness monitoring, and so on. Wireless detector webs ( WSN ) have late been proposed for a big scope of applications in place and industrial mechanization. It consists of many bantam nodes, which have several detectors and a wireless interface that depends on the IEEE 802.15.4 criterion that supports big figure of embedded devices in one web. WSN can be used for many applications such as environment monitoring, medical applications, robotic systems and place and industrial mechanization.

Use OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING IN SYSTEM

Linear scheduling ( LP or additive optimisation ) is a mathematical method for finding a manner to accomplish the best result ( such as maximal net income or lowest cost ) in a given mathematical theoretical account for some list of demands represented as additive relationships. Linear scheduling is a specific instance of mathematical scheduling ( mathematical optimisation ) .

To measure control parametric quantities like how much entire H2O we have and what measures of different harvests must be used to give optimal throughput ( production )

E.g. how to split drip H2O timings in order to achieve best possible throughput.

Problem: – 1000 litres of H2O

Net income: – 4 Rs/Liter for Crop 1

5 Rs/Liter for Crop 2

Let ‘x ‘ = litres for harvest 1

‘y ‘ = litres for harvest 2

Then PROFIT ( P ) = 4 x + 5 Y ( to maximise )

ten + y & lt ; = 1000 — — — — — — — — — — — ( 1 )

Power required to direct 1 litre of H2O for harvest 1 = 2 Watts

Power required to direct 1 litre of H2O for harvest 2 = 3 Watts

Max power available = 2400 Watts

2x + 3y & lt ; = 2400 — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 2 )

Solution: –

Constraints x & gt ; =0, y & gt ; =0

x+y & lt ; =1000 — — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 1 ) 2x+3y & lt ; =2400 — — — — — — — — — — — — – ( 2 )

For Equation ( 1 ) put x=0 we get y=1000 and set y=0 we get x=1000 and for equation ( 2 ) put x=0 we get y=800 and put y=0 we get x=1200

Now solve these 2 equations we get the point where we get maximal net income

2x + 3y = 2400 — — — — — — — ( 2 )

-2x- 2y = -2000 — — — — — — — ( 1 ) multiplies by -2

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — – Y = 400

So put y=400 in equation ( 1 ) we get x=600

So now we have 4 points in graph

i.e. ( 0,0 ) , ( 1000,0 ) , ( 0,800 ) , ( 600,400 )

Now we have to cipher net income for that intent we have to set these Valuess in equation ( P = 4x + 5y )

For ( 0, 0 ) we get profit P = 0,

For ( 1000,0 ) we get profit P = 4000

For ( 0,800 ) we get profit P = 4000

For ( 600,400 ) we get profit P = 2400 + 2000 = 4400 = maximal net income

Hence

600 litres of H2O for harvest 1

And

400 litres of H2O for harvest 2

Use OF INTERPOLATION IN SYSTEM

To map the physical parametric quantity readings for countries in farm where taking manual readings is non possible. E.g. If we have a reading at 1 point and so straight at 2nd point 25 metres off. Then we shall extrapolate the values for points at every metre between the two measured points

Interpolation: -Interpolation is a method of building new informations points within the scope of a distinct set of known information points.

Extrapolation: – The term extrapolation is used if we want to happen data points outside the scope of known information points.

MATHEMATICAL MODEL

System can be stated as set S that consists of S = { N, Pr, Po, C, LP, X } ;

Where N = figure of harvests Pr = { pr1, pr2aˆ¦n } ; Set of net incomes generated per litre for harvest 1, 2aˆ¦n ( Input to the system ) Po = { po1, po2aˆ¦n } ; Set of values of power required to direct 1 Liter of H2O to harvest 1, 2aˆ¦n ( Input to the system ) C = { c1, c2aˆ¦ } ; Set of restraints the system must follow. ( Predefined ) LP = Liner Programming map that takes input Pr, Po and C and generates unknowns X= { x1, x2, aˆ¦xn } ; where x1, x2, aˆ¦xn are optimum values of H2O that must be provided to each harvest 1,2, ..n

Ten = LP ( Pr, Po, C ) ;

Advantage

Are comparatively simple to plan and put in

This makes addition in productiveness and reduces H2O ingestion

This is safest.

No work force is required

Reduce dirt eroding and alimentary leaching.

Here we are utilizing additive scheduling. it has besides some advantages that are as follows: –

LP is good for optimisation jobs affecting maximising net incomes and minimising costs.

The additive scheduling technique helps to do the best possible usage of available productive resources ( such as clip, labour, machines etc. )

In a production procedure, bottle cervixs may happen. For e.g. in a mill some machines may be in great demand while others may lie tick over for some clip. A important advantage of additive scheduling is foregrounding of such bottle cervixs.

Relatively speedy.

Guaranteed to happen optimum solution

Provides natural sensitiveness analysis ( shadow monetary values )

Disadvantage

As compared to Conventional Irrigation system equipments are costlier.

Require frequent care for efficient operation

Have limited life after installing due to the impairment of the fictile constituents in a hot, waterless clime when exposed to ultraviolet visible radiation.

Linear scheduling is applicable merely to jobs where the restraints and nonsubjective map are additive. In existent life state of affairss, when restraints or nonsubjective maps are non additive, this technique can non be used.

Factors such as uncertainness, weather conditions etc. are non taken into consideration.

Reducing the universe to a set of additive equations is normally really hard

CONCLUSION AND FEATURE WORK

The Automated Intelligent Wireless Drip Irrigation System Using Linear Programming provides to be a existent clip feedback control system which proctors and controls all the activities of trickle irrigation system expeditiously every bit good as it helps us for to make the efficient H2O direction in order to acquire more net income with less cost. Using this system, one can salvage manpower, every bit good as H2O to better productiveness and finally the net income.

In future if you modify it decently so this system can besides provide agricultural chemicals like Ca, Na, ammonium, Zn to the field along with Fertilizers with adding new detectors and valves.

Besides it is possible to registered husbandman to download trickle control timings from agricultural universities website and control ain trickle irrigation system harmonizing to university

Cite this page

Automated Intelligent Wireless Drip Irrigation Environmental Sciences Essay. (2020, Jun 01). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/automated-intelligent-wireless-drip-irrigation-environmental-sciences-new-essay

Automated Intelligent Wireless Drip Irrigation Environmental Sciences Essay

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