NCFE LEVEL 3 SUPPORTING TEACHING AND LEARNING IN SCHOOLS
Please save the Learners Declaration to your PC, add your details, and upload with your completed assessments. Assignment 1 – Understanding development and supporting equality, diversity and inclusion. QUESTION 1 a. Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years The main areas of development include: physical development, social and emotional development, intellectual development and language development. Through physical development, By age one young child is developing fallowing motoring skills.
Child sits without support and crawls pulls self to standing position and stands with help and without walks with aid plays games in imitation of adult, like ball rolling, reaches, grasps, puts object in mouth picks things up with pincer grasp (thumb and one finger) transfers object from one hand to the other drops and picks up objects Between one and two ? walks alone ? walks backwards ? picks up toys from floor without falling ? pulls toys, pushes toys ? seats self in child size chair ? walks up and down stairs with hand held ? moves to music ? builds tower of small blocks ? puts rings on stick turns pages two or three at a time ? scribbles ? turns knobs ? throws small ball ? paints with whole arm movement, shifts hands, makes strokes Between two and three ? runs forward, jumps in place with two feet together ? stands on one foot ? walks on tiptoe ? kicks a ball forward ? strings four large beads ? turns single pages ? snips with scissors ? holds crayon with thumb and fingers besides fist hold ? uses one hand consistently in most activities ? imitates circular, vertical, horizontal strokes ? paints with some wrist action; makes dots, lines, circular strokes ? rolls, pounds, squeezes, and pulls clay
Between three and four ? runs around obstacles ? balances on one foot and walks on a line ? hops on one foot ? pushes, pulls, steers wheeled toys ? rides tricycle ? uses slide independently ? jumps over six inch high object and lands on both feet together ? throws ball overhead ? catches a bounce ball ? uses clay material for plays (rolls different shapes) ? Plays with smaller and bigger blocks to build bridges and towers Between four and five ? jumps forward 10 times without falling ? walks up and down stair independently ? turns somersault ? cuts on line continuously ? throws ball with aim prints some capital letters ? paints and uses colouring books ? draws triangle, square and circle ? copies first name ? prints numerals 1 to 10 Between five and six ? runs lightly on toes ? walks on balance beam ? enjoys hopping ? skips jumps rope ? skates ? cuts out simple shapes ? draws diamond ? copies friends first names ? prints numerals 1 …… ? colours within lines ? has adult grasp of pencil ? had handedness well established ? pastes and glues appropriately Between six and eleven ? Loves active play but may tire easily.
? Does not understand dangers completely.
? Is still improving basic motor skills. Is still not well coordinated. ? Begins to learn some specific sports skills like football. ? May become a more picky eater. ? Uses crayons and paints with some skill, but still learning writing and cutting. ? Permanent teeth erupting, both molars and front teeth. ? Has better large muscle than small muscle coordination. ? Rides a bicycle. ? Starts to alternate restful activities independently. ? Enjoys competitive games. ? Has better eye-hand coordination. ? May ask questions about life, death, and the human body. ? Continues to be accident prone, especially on the playground. Has more control over small muscles, and therefore writes and draws with more skill. ? Displays a casual attitude toward clothing and appearance. ? Seems to be all hands and arms. ? Seems to possess boundless energy. ? Wants to excel in sports and recreational skills. ? Laughs at dark humor. ? Is energetic and spirited. ? Strives to be physically fit. ? Is fascinated with how the body works. ? May be curious about drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. Physical changes (Puberty) between ages eleven to forteen For girls, puberty begins around 10 or 11 years of age and ends around age 16.
Boys enter puberty later than girls-usually around 12 years of age-and it lasts until around age 16 or 17. Girls and boys usually begin puberty around the same time their mothers and fathers did. Talk with your child about the following physical changes that will happen during puberty. The changes are listed in the order in which they generally occur. Girls ? body fat increases ? breasts begin to enlarge ? pubic hair grows ? height and weight increase ? first menstrual period occurs ? hips widen ? underarm hair grows ? skin and hair become more oily ? pimples may appear Boys ? scrotum becomes darker testicles grow larger ? penis grows longer and fuller ? pubic hair grows ? breasts can get “lumps” and become tender ? height and weight increase ? muscles develop ? wet dreams occur ? voice cracks and gets deeper ? skin and hair become more oily ? pimples may appear ? underarm and facial hair grow Physical changes between ages fifteen and ninteen Boys and girls still exhibit markedly different levels of physical maturity as they enter middle adolescence. Girls ’rapid growth is generally tapering off, while many boys have yet to see the beginning of their much anticipated growth spurt.
By the end of this period most girls will be near their adult height; boys may continue to grow until age 18 or 19. Girls: ? growth in height continues, but at a slower pace than earlier; adult height is reached by age 16 or 17 ? breast development continues ? pubic hair thickens, darkens, and takes on adult triangular pattern ? underarm hair thickens ? hips widen; fat deposits in buttocks, legs and stomach increase ? menstrual periods become regular; ovulation is established; pregnancy becomes possible Boys: ? rapid growth in height and weight muscles fill out and strength increases dramatically ? voice deepens ? pubic and underarm hair appears and thickens ? body hair increases ? penis, scrotum, and testes enlarge ? ejaculation and nocturnal emissions occur Both Girls and Boys: ? always hungry; appetite is great ? need for sleep increases; may sleep quite late on weekends ? oily skin and acne may be problematic ? sweating increases ? rapid growth may cause clumsiness and lack of coordination ? sexual desires and fantasies increase Adaptive Milestones
Adaptive skills incorporate the area of self-help skills such as eating, drinking and dressing. By one: ? feeds self cracker ? holds cup with two hands; drinks with assistance ? holds out arms and legs while being dressed Between one and two: ? uses spoon, spilling little ? drinks form cup with one hand, unassistedd ? chews food ? unzips large zipper ? indicates toilet needs ? removes shoes, socks, pants, sweater Between two and three: ? uses spoon, little spilling ? gets drink form fountain or faucet independently ? opens door by turning handle ? takes off coat ? puts on coat with assistance washes and dries hands with assistance Between three and four: ? pours well form small pitcher ? spreads soft butter with knife ? buttons and unbuttons large buttons ? washes hands independently ? blows nose when reminded ? uses toilet independently Between four and five: ? Cuts easy foods with a knife ? laces shoes Between five and six: ? dresses self completely ? ties bow ? brushes teeth independently ? crosses streets safely Between six to twelwe: ? Growing independence ? Common fears include the unknown, failure, family problems, rejection, and death ? Friends are most commonly the same sex Begins to see others’ point of view more clearly ? Defines himself/herself in terms of appearance, possessions, and activities ? Are self-conscious ? Tattling – a common way to attract adult attention ? Feelings get hurt easily ? Needs about 10 hours of sleep a night ? Begins to think about his/her own behavior and see consequences ? Can talk through problems to solve them Between twelve and forteen ? Trying to find his/her identity ? Rapid body changes from puberty (girls mature before boys) ? Moodiness ? Shyness ? Greater interest in privacy Can express himself/herself better ? Uses actions more than words to communicate feelings ? Close friendships gain importance ? Influenced by peer groups ? Same-sex friends and group activities ? Shows parents less affection ? Realizes that parents have faults ? Revisits childish behavior ? Feels like nothing bad could possibly happen to him/her ? Focuses mostly on the present ? Experiments with the rules, cigarettes, drugs, and alcohol ? The adolescent can put together all the possible outcomes before beginning the problem (abstract thinking) Between forteen to seventeen Self-involvement ? Complains that parents get in the way of his/her independence ? Very concerned with appearance, body, and sexual attractiveness ? Changes relationships often ? Still feels like nothing bad could happen to him/her ? Engages in risky behaviors ? Poorer opinion of parents ? Tries to make new friends ? Competitive and selective peer groups ? Periods of sadness ? Intellectual interests are important ? Feelings of love and passion ? Development of principles ? Selection of role models ? More consistent evidence of conscience ? Ability to set goals is better Interest in moral reasoning Between seventeen and ninteen ? Firmer identity ? Can delay gratification ? Thinks ideas throug ? Expresses feelings in words ? Sense of humor more developed ? Interests are stable ? Emotional stability is greater ? Can make independent decisions ? Can compromise ? Pride in his/her work ? More self-reliant and independent ? Peer group not as important as a few good friends ? Greater concern for others ? Starts listening to parents advice again ? Greater concern for the future ? Thinks about his/her life role ? Concerned with serious relationships Clear sexual identity ? Useful insight ? Can set goals and follow through ? Accepts social institutions and cultural traditions ? Self-esteem is based on the adolescent’s view of himself/herself, rather than other people The aspects of social and emotional development include: response to adults, especially the mother’s face and voice, enjoying the company of others and games like peek –a boo, liking to please adults and perform for an audience and developing a sense of own identity and wanting to do things for themselves. Between birth to age of two Infants are exploring their world through sucking, grasping, gazing, etc ? Need consistency and will develop trust if they can rely on their parents ? Aware that objects exist even when out of sight (object permanence) Example: when a toy is placed under a blanket, child knows that the toy is still there ? Child mirrors another person’s behaviour after it has occurred (deferred imitation) Between two to seven ? Can move around and explore the world, giving him/her more independence (autonomy) ? The control the child has can give him/her self-esteem ?
Becomes curious about people, models adults, and becomes aware of gender differences ? Takes on new responsibilities and learns new skills ? Thinking is based on how the child sees the world; children believe that everyone thinks like they do (egocentrism) ? Begins to play by pretending an object is something else (symbolic play) Example: a block can be used as a telephone ? Focuses on one part of an object at a time (concentration) ? Can move around and explore the world, giving him/her more independence (autonomy) ? The control the child has can give him/her self-esteem ?
Becomes curious about people, models adults, and becomes aware of gender differences ? Takes on new responsibilities and learns new skills ? Thinking is based on how the child sees the world; children believe that everyone thinks like they do (egocentrism) ? Begins to play by pretending an object is something else (symbolic play) Example: a block can be used as a telephone ? Focuses on one part of an object at a time (concentration) Between seven and tvelwe ? Begins school and wishes to succeed ? Learns important skills and gains status among classmates ? Thought becomes more organized Can understand that something can have the same properties, even if it looks differently (conservation) Example: an equal amount of water is poured into a tall, skinny glass and a short, wide glass. The glasses look very different, but they still hold the same amount of water. ? Can reverse the steps he/she has taken (reversibility) Example: 5 + 2 = 7 and 7 – 2 = 5 ? Can sort dissimilar objects into groups that make sense (classification) ? Can put items in a particular order (seriation) Example: arranges toys according to height Between twelve and ninteen ? Concerned with appearance Development of a personal identity ? Thinks about the future (goals, occupation, a partner, etc. ) ? Capable of identifying a problem, coming up with several suggestions, and testing them ? Uses planning to think ahead ? The adolescent can put together all the possible outcomes before beginning the problem (abstract thinking) The intellectual (cognitive) development of a child aged 0 to 3 includes the child beginning the realise that others are separate beings, imitating others and trying out the ways of behaving in play and becoming more confident but still needing adult reassurance.
By one ? follows moving object with eyes ? recognizes differences among people; responds to strangers by crying or staring ? responds to and imitates facial expressions of others ? responds to very simple directions ? imitates gestures and actions ? puts small objects in and out of container with intention Between one and two ? imitates actions and words of adults ? understands and follows simple, familiar directions ? responds to words or commands with appropriate action ? is able to match two similar objects looks at storybook pictures with an adult, naming or pointing to familiar objects on request ? recognizes difference between you and me ? has very limited attention span ? accomplishes primary learning through own exploration Between two and three ? responds to simple directions ? selects and looks at picture books, names pictured objects, and identifies several objects within one picture ? matches and uses associated objects meaningfully ? stacks rings on peg in order of size ? recognized self in mirror, saying baby, or own name ? an talk briefly about what he/she is doing; imitates adult actions ? has limited attention span; learning is through exploration and adult direction ? is beginning to understand functional concepts of familiar objects and part/whole concepts Between three and four ? recognizes and matches six colors ? intentionally stacks blocks or rings in order of size ? draws somewhat recognizable picture that is meaningful to child if not to adult; names and briefly explains picture ? asks questions for information: why and how questions requiring simple answers ? knows own age ? knows own name has short attention span; learns through observing and imitating adults and by adult instruction and explanation; is very easily distracted ? has increased understanding of concepts of the functions and grouping of objects and part/whole ? begins to be aware of past and present Between four and five ? plays with words: creates own rhyming words, says or makes up words having similar sounds ? points and names four to six colors ? matches pictures of familiar objects ? draws a person with two to six recognizable parts, such as head, arms, and legs; can name or match drawn parts to own body ? raws, names, and describes recognizable pictures ? rote counts to five, imitating adult ? knows own street and town ? has more extended attention span; learns through observing and listening to adults, as well as through exploration; is easily distracted ? has increased understanding of concepts of function, time, part/whole relationships; function or use of objects may be stated in addition to names of objects ? time concepts are expanding; can talk about yesterday or last week, about today, and about what will happen tomorrow Between five and six retells story from picture book with reasonable accuracy ? names some letters and numerals ? rote counts to ten ? sorts objects by single characteristics ? is beginning to use accurately time concepts of tomorrow and yesterday ? uses classroom tools meaningfully and purposefully ? begins to relate clock time to daily schedule ? attention span increases noticeably; learns through adult instruction; when interested, can ignore distractions ? concepts of function increase as well as understanding of why things happen; ? ime concepts are expanding into an understanding of the future in terms of major events Between six and eleven ? Likes taking responsibility for simple household chores. ? Likes to make simple decisions. ? Counts to 100. ? Asks endless “how-what-when-where-why” questions. ? Continues to refine concepts of shape, space, time, color, and numbers. ? Begins to understand the difference between intentional and accidental. ? Begins to understand differences of opinion. ? Still has a short attention span (about 15 minutes maximum). ? Enjoys dramatic play. ? Rapidly develops skill in using language. Wants to be “first,” “best,” “perfect,” “correct,” in everything. ? Is greatly concerned with right and wrong. ? Has trouble with the concepts of honesty and dishonesty. ? Starts to use logical reasoning to solve problems. ? Enjoys dramatic play. ? Is often idealistic. ? Is keenly interested in projects and collections. ? Is proud of completing tasks. ? Resists adult guidance at times. ? Uses reference books with increasing skill. ? Gets immersed in a hobby or project, then drops it for another. ? May be a perfectionist. ? Generally follows instructions. ? Develops own standards of right and wrong. ? Is highly concerned about fairness. Is eager to learn and master new skills and proud of doing things well. ? Is concerned about personal abilities. ? Has some of his or her own standards of right and wrong Between eleven and fourteen ? Most 11- to 14-year-olds are still concrete thinkers-they perceive things as good or bad, right or wrong. This is normal. They are just beginning to imagine possibilities, recognize consequences of their actions, and anticipate what others are thinking. ? Youth begin to question family and school rules and challenge their parents. ? Preteens and teens tend to believe that bad things won’t happen to them.
This helps explain why they are risk-takers. For example, a young girl may believe she can smoke cigarettes without becoming addicted. ? Preteens and teens believe they are the centre of attention. This explains why they are painfully self-conscious–a tiny pimple may seem like the end of the world. Between fifteen and seventeen ? Teens are better able to solve problems, think about their future, appreciate opinions of others and understand the long-term effects of their decisions. However, teens tend to use these skills inconsistently; as a result, they sometimes do things without thinking first. Teens’ organizational skills improve. Many successfully juggle school, outside activities, and work. ? In an attempt to answer the questions “Who am I? ” and “What should I be? ” teens listen to new music, try out clothing fashions, and begin to explore jobs, religion, political issues, and social causes. ? Teens frequently question and challenge school and parental rules. Language development for children aged 0 to 3 includes making a variety of sounds. Happy ones. Children respond to music, sounds of animals, will try to mimic them especially sounds made by carer. By one ? Recognizes name Says 2-3 words besides “mama” and “dada” ? Imitates familiar words ? Understands simple instructions ? Recognizes words as symbols for objects: Car – points to garage, cat – meows Between one and two ? Understands “no” ? Uses 10 to 20 words, including names ? Combines two words such as “daddy bye-bye” ? Waves good-bye and plays pat-a-cake ? Makes the “sounds” of familiar animals ? Gives a toy when asked ? Uses words such as “more” to make wants known ? Points to his or her toes, eyes, and nose ? Brings object from another room when asked Between two and three ? Identifies body parts ? Carries on ‘conversation’ with self and dolls Asks “what’s that? ” And “where’s my? ” ? Uses 2-word negative phrases such as “no want”. ? Forms some plurals by adding “s”; book, books ? Has a 450 word vocabulary ? Gives first name, holds up fingers to tell age ? Combines nouns and verbs “mommy go” ? Understands simple time concepts: “last night”, “tomorrow” ? Refers to self as “me” rather than by name ? Tries to get adult attention: “watch me” ? Likes to hear same story repeated ? May say “no” when means “yes” ? Talks to other children as well as adults ? Solves problems by talking instead of hitting or crying ? Answers “where” questions Names common pictures and things ? Uses short sentences like “me want more” or “me want cookie” ? Matches 3-4 colours, knows big and little Between three and four ? Can tell a story ? Has a sentence length of 4-5 words ? Has a vocabulary of nearly 1000 words ? Names at least one colour ? Understands “yesterday,” “summer”, “lunchtime”, “tonight”, “little-big” ? Begins to obey requests like “put the block under the chair” ? Knows his or her last name, name of street on which he/she lives and several nursery rhymes Between four and five ? Has sentence length of 4-5 words ? Uses past tense correctly Has a vocabulary of nearly 1500 words ? Points to colours red, blue, yellow and green ? Identifies triangles, circles and squares ? Understands “In the morning” , “next”, “noontime” ? Can speak of imaginary conditions such as “I hope” ? Asks many questions, asks “who? ” And “why? ” Between five and six ? Has a sentence length of 5-6 words ? Has a vocabulary of around 2000 words ? Defines objects by their use (you eat with a fork) and can tell what objects are made of ? Knows spatial relations like “on top”, “behind”, “far” and “near” ? Knows her address ? Identifies a penny, nickel and dime Knows common opposites like “big/little” ? Understands “same” and “different” ? Counts ten objects ? Asks questions for information ? Distinguished left and right hand in herself ? Uses all types of sentences, for example “let’s go to the store after we eat” Between six and seven ? Names some letters, numbers, and currencies ? Sequences numbers ? Understands left and right ? Uses increasingly more completes descriptions ? Engages in conversations ? Has a receptive vocabulary of approximately 20,000 words ? Uses a sentence length of approximately 6 words ? Understands most temporal concepts Recites the alphabet ? Counts to 100 by rote ? Uses most morphologic markers appropriately ? Uses passive voice appropriately Between seven and eleven Children develop skills at different rates, but beyond 8 years, usually children will: ? Use language to predict and draw conclusions. ? Use long and complex sentences. ? Understand other points of view and show that they agree or disagree. ? Understand comparative words e. g. ‘it was earlier than yesterday’. ? Keeps a conversation going by giving reasons and explaining choices ? Start conversations with adults and children they don’t know. Understand and use passive sentences e. g. “the thief is chased by the policeman”. Between eleven and forteen ? Use longer sentences; usually 7-12 words or more ? Know how to use sarcasm. ? Know when others are being sarcastic to them ? Be able to change topic well in conversations. ? Use more subtle and witty humour. ? Shows some understanding of idioms, such as “put your money where your mouth is! ” ? Know that they talk differently to friends than to teachers. ? Understand and use slang terms with friends. They keep up with rapidly changing ‘street talk’ Between forteen and seventeen
As they get older, young people can: ? Follow complicated instructions. ? Know when they haven’t understood. They will ask to be told again ? Easily swap between ‘classroom’ talk and ‘breaktime’ talk ? Tell long and very complicated stories b. Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important It is important to recognise the difference so you can identify where children need help or may be at risk of having SEN Sequence means that there is a definite pattern to a childs development, a toddler being able to walk before they can run.
Rate means the speed in which a child develops. When a child develops if they achieve this by sequencing you are able to plan effectively and at the right time. When recording the rate of development it helps you to identify any concerns that you may have within the development area, this enables you to further investigate why this is happening. c. Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice 1. There are so many different theories regarding early childhood education and what is most important for a young child to learn.
There are as many different educational theories and schools as there are psychologists. Jean Piaget, Vygotsky, Erik Erikson, Maria Montessori, John Dewey, Frederick Froebel, Rudolf Steiner (Waldorf), Loris Malaguzzi (Reggio Emilia approach) have studied and established different modes of learning for the young child. It’s important to understand how a child learns in order to provide them with the ideal learning environment, whether it be in a state of the art classroom, or in a small village surrounded by mountains.
What matters most is that the child is learning how to observe his world, how to think, how to solve problems, how to navigate and function in his environment. The theorist whose theory is physical development is Arnold Gesell. His theory is that most physical skills cannot be taught but is programmed in our genetics, which means we will learn different physical skills when our body is ready to. In our setting, we support this by encouraging children but not forcing them to develop a physical skill. We provide a soft, cushioned area so that children can develop themselves physically without risk of hurting themselves.
The theorist who theory is language development is B. F. Skinner. His theory is that children use cognitive behavior when understanding and giving communication. They will use trial and error to get the right words out until they succeed. He believes that children observe adults and other children for the correct way to communicate and repeat the actions they have seen until they get it right. We support this at nursery by speaking clearly and simply and nodding or praising a child for getting a word, sentence or request correct. This is to encourage them to use the correct terms when they wish to communicate. Read about how to challenge discrimination
The theorist whose theory is intellectual development is Lev Vygotsky. His theory is that children learn new skills by being guided by cares and parents. An example of this is when a parent sings ’pat-a-cake’ to their child and helps them clap their hands until the child can clap their hands themselves. He believes that every new scene or interaction is a learning experience to children that they must be guided through until they know how react correctly. staff supports this by giving support if children are having difficulty managing a particular task.
We also give praise when children handle social interactions with good behavior to prove that we are happy and that what they have done is the correct way to behave. The theorist whose theory is Social Development is Albert Bandura. His theory is that children learn by observing how the main people in their life behave and imitating them. People they will observe are parents/cares/siblings/friends/etc. A child will repeat the behavior they have seen if it is rewarded with attention or praise. Staff behave calmly and use quiet communication to settle any disagreements.
Inappropriate behavior or language is not permitted, as children will copy this. The theorist whose theory is Emotional Development is John Bowlby. His theory is that early relationships with caregivers play a major role in child development and will influence how children react to social interactions with other people. He believes that children who are securely attached to their main cares generally have high self esteem and will be able to enjoy intimate relationships where the ability to share feelings will develop and will seek out social support.
We support this theory by easing children into nursery life slowly with visits that get longer and longer as the child becomes more comfortable. This is to prevent separation anxiety The theorist whose theory is Behavioral Development is B. F. Skinner. His theory was that if the main cares in a child’s life implemented behavioral modifications, the children would quickly learn the correct way to behave. Staff support this by praising and rewarding good behavior and giving time out and no attention to naughty behavior.
However, staffs are aware that our behavioral modifications will only work effectively if parents apply them at home as well 2. Humans are born with reflexes and senses in order to learn and relate. A young child will begin learning with his senses; seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching. Sensory learning is integral in order to properly develop the brain, and to connect body-mind awareness. The more interactions a young child is able to experience using all of his senses, the greater the imprint will be with his cognitive development.
Gone should be the days of giving a child a print-out of an apple to color green, red or yellow for a lesson plan. A child will best learn about an apple by touching it and describing how it feels and smells and tastes. The parent or teacher can cut the apple in half to show the inside and describe how the seed grew, by reading a picture book, or drawing the process on a chalk board. Children can count the seeds for a math activity. Ask the children the different ways an apple can be used as food, and write their answers on a chalk board or doodle pad. Observation includes exposure to different stimuli and materials.
Some of the best learning experiences are through hands on stimulation, touching different textures and surfaces, petting an animal at the petting zoo, digging in the dirt to plant the seed, and having the child describe the experience. How many blocks will be used to make the airport? What kind of sounds will we hear at the airport? It doesn’t mean you have to physically be at the airport, but allow the child to make observations in daily activities, and stimulate the learning experience by asking open ended questions. The child first learns how to observe, as we read above.
As the child develops and begins to communicate, the cognitive skills emerge. They are reinforced with repetition as the child recalls how to do something. Perhaps you have noticed that a child will go back to the same puzzle or the same activity often. It’s perfectly normal, and helps the child associate specific actions leading to specific results. Once the child feels successful with an activity, ask questions which directly relate to the activity. Which piece did you use first? Why? Allow the child to process the experience by describing his thought process.
The more a child is asked to describe and communicate the whys, hows, wheres, what ifs, whens, what kinds, etc. , the more the brain is being activated and sequential memory will be strengthened. d. Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern Speech and language are the main issue that can help children overcome most of their problems. By helping children gain the ability to use proper language we can help children gain confidence and self esteem.
When children have gained confidence and their language is at a same level as everybody else around them, they can interact with other children and not show frustration. This is because they can now express themselves. ? The Senco in an educational setting give support to children and families with special needs this person/s is also responsible for identification of special needs. Additional learning support staff works within and outside schools providing a range of services to help children who have certain specific educational needs.
This might include people like teaching assistants or advisors to provide support and train staff. ? Youth justice is based on children with behavioural problems these people will work with them and social workers to help them. Social workers are there to help vulnerable children and young people and their families this might include children on the child protection register or disabled children. Psychologist is a professional who helps support children who have learning or behavioural difficulties. They provide teachers and practitioners with aimed support programmes for that child once they have identified the child’s needs.
A specialist nurse provides support for the family and child especially if that child suffers from medical conditions that need specialist care. ? Also health visitors come under this title for measuring and assessing a child’s development. ? A psychiatrist is a doctor who is trained in mental health problems this person works alongside other professionals to help diagnose or support children and young people with mental health problems. Physiotherapist this professional help children with their movement especially those who have little or no movement they are trained to get the maximum movement and skill level.
Referrals can take the shape of common assessment form which are filled in then in my setting passed to the health visitor, speech therapist or other health professionals that are required after being checked by the senco in the room. Speech and language also have their own referral forms which will be filled in and checked by the Senco before being passed to the speech and language therapists. Early years action plans and plus plans are filled out and passed to the Senco who will then speak to an education psychologist. With primary and secondary schools – they have school action plans which will be run through their Senco.
Most of the the schools run individual learning plans. e. Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition Babies and young children are different and develop their skills at varying rates. However through the study of child growth and development, there are established times in which one expects certain physical, cognitive, and behavioral developments to occur. Early identification of developmental delays is critical to the remediation of any affected area of delay.
One area of need in early identification of problem is that of literacy – the skills of reading and writing. Children begin acquiring the skills for literacy very young, well before any parent even thinks about a potential problem in their child’s ability to read and write. Emergent literacy actually begins at birth and continues through the years prior to beginning school! It is during the years of speech and language development that young brains are networking the understanding and expression of their language systems – the systems of organizing and relating ideas, thoughts, and communication needs into a multi-sensory environment.
One may be surprised that the foundations of reading and writing begin so early, however the truth is that children begin making impressions of written information very young as they watch and monitor their environment. It can become a very difficult task for children and young people to communicate (both listening and speaking) who have a hearing impairment, moderate/severe learning difficulties or speech impediment. In order for children with disabilities to interact and develop with other children, it is essential that other alternative forms of communication are recognised.
Introducing sign language and using personal reference will help the way they communicate, also touch, basic facial and hand gestures are effective forms of communication, along with use of computers. There can only be one outcome on a child where early identification of particular disorders are recognised, and that is a positive one. Children are being helped and supported in areas that have been a cause for concern where they are under developing. If problems are not recognised early on, it will have a detrimental affect on a childs development.
They won’t be able to communicate with people confidently and may be misunderstood. They will be working at a low level in their language work which will carry on through with them to later life in general and this could result in them not being able to gain the qualifications they require to succeed and possess the job they desire. Whereas they could be receiving correct support and guidance if issues are recognised early on. Early intervention allows us to; ? Identify what helps communication and language to develop, ? Review their language provision and plan appropriately, ?
Ensure they are getting the most out everyday activities and experience, promoting all aspects of language and communication ? Make effective partnership with parents It is important to know that learning with disabilities is possible. Critical to this is identification of potential learning difficulties at an early stage in the development process. Attacking deficits early can aid significantly to the child’s ability to establish the foundations needed for reading and writing. If a child begins school without these baseline functions, the abilities to keep with the learning requirements over time will be difficult for the child.
Some of the early warning signs of possible learning problems recorded in the literature are as follows: ? Late talkers based on developmental scales and limited vocabulary knowledge and expression. ? Delayed in motor developments such as walking, standing, pulling up, or holding/manipulating objects. ? Lack of interest in books and in nursery rhymes or understanding rhyming words. ? Difficulty in remembering names of letters and relating them to their sounds. ? Problems in saying the alphabet or counting. ? Inability to understand simple directions and remember routines. Difficulty in paying attention and being easily distracted. ? Comprehension problems for basic language information. Learning is like constructing a building: in order for the building to have strength and stability, a firm foundation must first be laid. Without this foundation, the building will not support continued upward growth. In summary, success can most effectively be gained for children at risk for learning problems and disabilities by early identification of delay. Developmental and incremental physical, cognitive, and language acquisitions are foundational for learning.
It is essential that the underlying root cause of a problem be uncovered and remediated for the building blocks of learning to successfully take place. With early and correct diagnosis, children dealing with the affects of learning disorders can achieve more productively and effectively in their pursuit of personal life goals and ambitions. f. Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication The games support different elements of, effective speaking and listening which are needed for development of language and communication.
Setting the games and activities within an environment that supports communication enhances them even further. To support this idea there is an additional set of activities to help teachers and parents create an environment which supports communication. Sometimes just being more aware of language and communication can help to make the small changes that have the biggest impact on children’s speaking and listening. Activities to Encourage Speech and Language Development Birth to 2 Years ? Encourage your baby to make vowel-like and consonant-vowel sounds such as “ma,” “da,” and “ba. ” ?
Reinforce attempts by maintaining eye contact, responding with speech, and imitating vocalizations using different patterns and emphasis. For example, raise the pitch of your voice to indicate a question. ? Imitate your baby’s laughter and facial expressions. ? Teach your baby to imitate your actions, including clapping you hands, throwing kisses, and playing finger games such as pat-a-cake, peek-a-boo, and the itsy-bitsy-spider. ? Talk as you bathe, feed, and dress your baby. Talk about what you are doing, where you are going, what you will do when you arrive, and who and what you will see. Identify colors. ? Count items. ? Use gestures such as waving goodbye to help convey meaning. ? Introduce animal sounds to associate a sound with a specific meaning: “The doggie says woof-woof. ” ? Acknowledge the attempt to communicate. ? Expand on single words your baby uses: “Here is Mamy. Mamy loves you. Where is baby? Here is baby. ” ? Read to your child. Sometimes “reading” is simply describing the pictures in a book without following the written words. Choose books that are sturdy and have large colorful pictures that are not too detailed.
Ask your child, “What’s this? ” and encourage naming and pointing to familiar objects in the book. 2 to 4 Years ? Use good speech that is clear and simple for your child to model. ? Repeat what your child says indicating that you understand. Build and expand on what was said. “Want juice? I have juice. I have apple juice. Do you want apple juice? ” ? Use baby talk only if needed to convey the message and when accompanied by the adult word. “It is time for din-din. We will have dinner now. ” ? Make a scrapbook of favorite or familiar things by cutting out pictures.
Group them into categories, such as things to ride on, things to eat, things for dessert, fruits, things to play with. Create silly pictures by mixing and matching pictures. Glue a picture of a dog behind the wheel of a car. Talk about what is wrong with the picture and ways to “fix” it. Count items pictured in the book. ? Help your child understand and ask questions. Play the yes-no game. Ask questions such as “Are you a boy? ” “Are you Marty? ” “Can a pig fly? ” Encourage your child to make up questions and try to fool you. ? Ask questions that require a choice. “Do you want an apple or an orange? “Do you want to wear your red or blue shirt? ” ? Expand vocabulary. Name body parts, and identify what you do with them. “This is my nose. I can smell flowers, brownies, popcorn, and soap. ” ? Sing simple songs and recite nursery rhymes to show the rhythm and pattern of speech. ? Place familiar objects in a container. Have your child remove the object and tell you what it is called and how to use it. “This is my ball. I bounce it. I play with it. ” ? Use photographs of familiar people and places, and retell what happened or make up a new story. 4 to 6 Years When your child starts a conversation, give your full attention whenever possible. ? Make sure that you have your child’s attention before you speak. ? Acknowledge, encourage, and praise all attempts to speak. Show that you understand the word or phrase by fulfilling the request, if appropriate. ? Pause after speaking. This gives your child a chance to continue the conversation. ? Continue to build vocabulary. Introduce a new word and offer its definition, or use it in a context that is easily understood. This may be done in an exaggerated, humorous manner. “I think I will drive the vehicle to the store.
I am too tired to walk. ” ? Talk about spatial relationships (first, middle, and last; right and left) and opposites (up and down; on and off). ? Offer a description or clues, and have your child identify what you are describing: “We use it to sweep the floor” (a broom). “It is cold, sweet, and good for dessert. I like strawberry” (ice cream). ? Work on forming and explaining categories. Identify the thing that does not belong in a group of similar objects: “A shoe does not belong with an apple and an orange because you can’t eat it; it is not round; it is not a fruit. ” ?
Help your child follow two- and three-step directions: “Go to your room, and bring me your book. ” ? Encourage your child to give directions. Follow his or her directions as he or she explains how to build a tower of blocks. ? Play games with your child such as “house. ” Exchange roles in the family, with your pretending to be the child. Talk about the different rooms and furnishings in the house. ? The television also can serve as a valuable tool. Talk about what the child is watching. Have him or her guess what might happen next. Talk about the characters. Are they happy or sad?
Ask your child to tell you what has happened in the story. Act out a scene together, and make up a different ending. ? Take advantage of daily activities. For example, while in the kitchen, encourage your child to name the utensils needed. Discuss the foods on the menu, their color, texture, and taste. Where does the food come from? Which foods do you like? Which do you dislike? Who will clean up? Emphasize the use of prepositions by asking him or her to put the napkin on the table, in your lap, or under the spoon. Identify who the napkin belongs to: “It is my napkin. “It is Daddy’s. ” “It is Roberts. ” While shopping for groceries, discuss what you will buy, how many you need, and what you will make. Discuss the size (large or small), shape (long, round, square), and weight (heavy or light) of the packages. g. Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition Bereavement, serious illness or separation of a family can affect children and young people emotions. This can be displayed like anger, and depression. They might even show aggression or be withdrawn.
Physically they might suffer from a lack of sleep, have little or no appetite or they could possibly self harm. Older children or young people might cut themselves or something like drugs. Physiologically they might change behaviour this can include regressive behaviour, extrovert behaviour may be just uncooperative behaviour like slamming doors, staying out late or getting into trouble. Intellectual changes can include a lack of concentration, not joining in activities. Moving into a new setting like changing schools, preschool to school, changing young groups or leaving care can be emotionally upsetting.
Some children might be showing anxiousness at moving, sadness at moving and or loss of friends. This can change their behaviour younger children might show regression and clinginess. Children and young people might change behaviour and some might withdrawal other might show extroverted behaviour or illness. They might have a real illness or pretend so they don’t have to go. Older and younger children might have sleepless nights young children might have night mares, young people might be frightened of their future or where they might live. This can affect eating habits they might not have an appetite.
Moving home can be very stressful like moving settings children and young people can lose friends. They face the same emotional, psychical, physiological and intellectual affects as the moving settings but they also have the problem of a new county/country this can also affect them as they might be viewed as an outsider. Young people might self harm as they because of this. Puberty can affect children and young people emotionally hormones are pumped into the body causing mood swings. Teenagers become more self-conscious and can become aggressive and behavioural changes that can cause some teenagers to experiment with drug etc.
Physically the body will have growth spurts and sexual maturity will be reached as the sexual organs fully develop their bodies will look more like adults than children’s. Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transitions All children and young people need strong attachments as the theorist Bowlby has explained. They need consistency, trust and a good bonding whether it is with their key worker, teacher etc having someone that they can trust will make transitions easier for the child.
Children with positive relationships on transitions can have long term positive impacts of their ability to cope and be more resilient. They are likely to be more successful academically and socially they will feel cared for, valued and respected their learning development will continue instead of dip. They will feel more confident to explore and have self esteem and confidence so feeling more relaxed. Children will feel able to make new friendships. Young people might feel they need guidance and will not be afraid to ask for help even on sensitive subjects.
If a child has good transitions early in life this will make it easier for transitions later in life. QUESTION 2 a. Identify the current legislation and codes of practice relevant to the promotion of equality and valuing of diversity (Can not answer) b. Explain the importance of promoting the rights of all children and young people to participation and equality of access Every child and young person has the right to a broad and balanced curriculum. Schools have a duty to ensure that all pupils have equal access to the curriculum irrespective of their background, race, culture, gender, additional need or disability.
That is, not only the learning happening in the classroom, but everything which happens inthe life at the school. To understand the importance of supporting the rights of children and young people, it is helpful to look in more detail at the intended outcomes of legislation, codes of practice and policies. Policies on inclusion and equality of opportunity can only be successful if they help to raise achievement and to promote self-identity and good relationships through the participation of all children and young people. Raising achievement, promoting equality of access to the curriculum will maximise the personal chievement of children and young people. For a number of years, studies have shown that some groups of children do not meet their expected levels of attainment. The groups which have raised particular concern are children from black and minority ethnic groups or children who are vulnerable because of their economic or physical circumstances. Equal opportunity does not mean treating pupils the same, but ensuring that the curriculum meets the young persons individual needs. Participation involves everyone within the school. There should be opportunities to talk to children and their parents about all aspects of the school and the curriculum.
This could include the development and the review of school policies. Participation can be achieved formally through student councils and parents meetings. It may also take place in the classroom when children and young people can be asked about how they learn best, what works for them and what could be improved. Schools must recognise and support all pupils. This will promote a sense of belonging and self-esteem. When children and young people are able to participate fully, they feel valued for who they are and the contribution that they make.
This can be achieved by acknowledging and reflecting diversity within the school in the methods of teaching and the resources and materials used. Children and young people must also have the opportunity to become independent learners. When they are able to make choices, and have control of their own learning, children are more likely to be motivated and achieve their full potential. This gives children a feeling of selfworth and well-being. Policies which promote equality give out a positive message and encourage an atmosphere of mutual respect.
Children must have their rights protected, but should also learn about their responsibilities to others. Respect can be promoted informally through your everyday contact with groups of children and young people. Our own attitudes and actions will provide a model for children, so it is important that we demonstrate consideration and fairness in all our interactions. Culture can have many diff erent meanings and the way the term is used has changed over time. Culture can cut across nationality and religions. It is what gives groups of people in our society their identity.
It also refers to the way groups live, for example, shared customs, thoughts, arts, language and social activity. Recognising and promoting the cultural diversity of individuals and groups within the school will enrich learning and promote the knowledge and understanding of all pupils, specially those whose home language is not English. It is important that schools celebrate the different cultures of pupils. Schools most likely have a policy in place which states how to ensure inclusive practice, including the additional support for pupils who need to improve their English.
It is important to understand the cultural diversity of the pupils within the school. Understanding and taking account of their background and culture is essential to build eff ective relationships. The diverse cultures in society should be recognised and reflected throughout the curriculum. For example, incorporating music, foods, stories and drama from a range of cultures will contribute to a rich curriculum. This will demonstrate that not only valuing the culture of groups but also supporting all pupils to explore and understand cultures which are diff erent from their own.
Everyone who is working in schools must be aware of ways that children can experience prejudice and discrimination. Prejudice can occur through lack of knowledge and understanding of diversity. Prejudice is making assumptions about children or young people because they belong to a particular group. For example, a child who has a disability may be assumed to have learning difficulties. When people demonstrate prejudice, they often label children. A label may be given to an individual or group. It happens when a particular characteristic or label is given because of prejudices.
For example, a group of children who receive additional support with reading may be labelled as the ‘slow’ group. Boys may be expected to be ‘noisy’ and girls ‘quiet’. Prejudice and labelling can lead to discrimination. Discrimination happens when children do not receive equality of opportunity. Some individuals or groups are more likely to experience discrimination. This may happen because of their race, culture, social background, sexual orientation, special educational needs or disability. Children and young people may experience direct discrimination or indirect discrimination.
Direct discrimination This is when children and young people are not allowed to access part of the curriculum and school activities because of their particular situation such as race, gender or disability. An example is where a school does not accept a pupil because of their special educational need or a group of pupils do not let another pupil join in with them because of their race. Indirect discrimination This is more difficult to spot. Indirect discrimination occurs when practice and procedures are applied without consideration to individuals’ circumstances.
A child will not be excluded directly but will be unable to participate because of their personal situation. For example, a school visit to caves where pupils must wear a hard hat will indirectly discriminate against a pupil who wears a turban as part of their religion. Discrimination can be: Institutional: this happens when the policies and procedures of an organisation allow practice which directly or indirectly discriminates against someone Individual: this may be practised by individuals or groups within the school.
Individuals could be staff, visitors to the school or other children and young people. Prejudice and discrimination can only have negative eff ects on children and young people. As well as aff ecting academic progress of children, discrimination can negatively impact their overall health and well-being. When children or young people feel they are being discriminated against they may experience: loss of self-esteem disempowerment confusion anger lack of motivation depression All those working in the school have a legal duty to protect the rights of children and young people.
It is important to examine our own attitudes and values critically, to consider how that might impact your work with children. An individual’s background, upbringing and experiences can have an effect on attitudes towards individuals and groups, so it is important to recognise these. Personal prejudices, which may lead to discriminatory practice, can be overcome through developing a greater understanding of diverse groups in society. For example, you can overcome them by finding out about the religious beliefs and cultures of the children you will work with, and by knowing about any special educational needs or disabilities.
Do not make assumptions about children and young people. Finding out about their backgrounds, interests, abilities and individual needs will help you to provide more eff ective, appropriate and personalised support. c. Explain how to promote anti discriminatory practice in work with children and young people The promotion of anti-discriminatory practice should underpin all work in schools. It is not sufficient to have policies in place which make statements about anti-discriminatory practice or just to talk about it. Schools must demonstrate anti-discriminatory practice.
They must also monitor the ways that positive practice impacts on the education and well-being of the children and young people. Once you become a member of the school team, you share responsibility to ensure that anti-discriminatory practice is promoted. You must also recognise when discrimination is happening The best ways to promote the values are: Be a good role model – do not just talk about antidiscriminatory practice, but demonstrate it in everything you do. Appreciate and promote diversity and individuality of children and young people by acknowledging their positive abilities.
Listen to and involve children and young people in the promotional activities, and respond to their concerns. Recognise that the child or young person is at the centre of the learning by treating each one as an individual. Have realistic but the highest expectations of all children and young people. Support a positive ethos within the school. Give pupils the confidence and skills to challenge prejudice or racist behaviour of others. Recognise and question anti-discriminatory practice. PLEASE UPLOAD YOUR COMPLETED ASSIGNMENT ONTO THE VLC IN THE ASSIGNMENT 1 SUBMISSION AREA
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