Assessment for Learning
Assessment for Learning
“Assessment for learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there”. Assessment Reform Group, 2002 The teacher has ultimate responsibility for setting schemes of work for the class with clear objectives (Formative assessment) and writing end of term and end of year reports drawing together the information gained through assessment for learning. (Summative Assessment) The learning objectives are delivered to the class by the teacher and it is the TA’s responsibility to be aware of:
• the learning objectives, • the personalised learning goals for individual learners. • the success criteria for the learning activities • the assessment opportunities and strategies relevant to their own role in the learning activities While taking the children through the scheme of work the TA will support the children by discussing their individual objectives this can also be done with groups of children who are working at the same level with the same learning outcomes. This is done to check that the children understand what is expected of them.
This needs to be reviewed throughout the lesson. It is the TA’s job to pace the session to the learning style and ability of the children. At the end of the session the TA needs to give positive, factual feedback to the children and the teacher. This will include your observations on how the pupils responded and the strategies that were useful. The discussion between the teacher and the TA will enable further objectives to be set for the next lesson. Both the teacher and the TA are fully involved in the assessment of learner’ achievement with the TA fully supporting the teacher. 1.
2 Summarise the difference between formative and summative assessment. In 2004, at a conference of Assessors, Professor Paul Black pointed out “An assessment activity can help learning if it provides information to be used as feedback, by teachers, and by their students, in assessing themselves and each other, to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged. “ Formative and Summative Assessment are the two main forms of assessment used by the teaching profession. Formative assessment (Assessment for Learning) is the type of assessment that takes place day to day during lesson time.
It is the reviewing of progress and understanding of the pupil, against the learning objectives set by the teacher. This can be done in a variety of ways such as observation, open questioning of pupils, checking understanding and allowing the children to be involved in the reviewing process during and at the end of a lesson. It allows learners to self-assess and self-evaluate their learning experience hopefully enabling them to become responsible learners who understand what they have to improve to allow them to meet their goals. Formative Assessment: • occurs during the learning • done with learners
• processed focused • to improve learning • is personally referenced Summative Assessment (Assessment of Learning) is the pulling together of the learning outcomes of tests at the end of a scheme of work, formative assessment and professional judgements to provide an end of term report showing what the pupils have achieved, it could also take the form of a Key stage SATs. It is outcome focused, occurs after the learning has been taught and is a way of measuring and proving learning. Summative Assessment: • occurs after the learning • done to learners • outcome focused • to prove learning
• externally referneced While the two forms of assessment are entirely different the resulting information from both types can be used to help with setting learning objectives. The two types of assessment are not necessarily to be used separately they should complement each other, as the use of Afl can help pupils perform better on summative assessment tasks and summative assessment can reflect the impact of Afl. 1. 3 Explain the characteristics of Assessment For Learning. Assessment for learning encourages the learner to take responsibility for their own learning and achievements.
This is done by providing them with the following information: Learning intentions A learning intention is simply a description of what you want your pupils to know, understand or be able to do by the end of a lesson. It tells pupils what the focus for learning is going to be. They can also be call “Learning Objectives”, “Learning Goals” or” Learning Aims” Making sure that he pupils are aware of their learning intentions before the lesson begins in language that the pupils will identify with, focuses their attention to the learning and how to achieve their intention rather than the activity they are undertaking.
This can help keep the pupil focused on task for longer by increasing their motivation. The pupils should be reminded of the learning intentions throughout the lesson. Success Criteria This shows the learners what they need to achieve to meet the ‘Learning Intentions’ Success Criteria: • are linked to the learning intention; • are specific to an activity; • are discussed and agreed with pupils prior to undertaking the activity; • provide a scaffold and focus for pupils while engaged in the activity; and • are used as the basis for feedback and peer-/self-assessment. Formative feedback
About the quality of their work and what they can do to make it better; Giving pupils’ feedback and allowing them to feedback to the teacher how they feel their learning went. . Ambergate school regularly asked the children how they think they have done by giving a “thumbs up”, “thumbs down” or “thumbs sideways” to indicate how the children feel about what they have been taught. Sometimes the children will be asked what they know of the subject about to be taught and to mark themselves out of ten in their books. At the end of the lesson they then give themselves another mark out of ten and compare how they have fared.
Effective Questioning To create a classroom climate where pupils come up with their own ideas, think aloud and explore their understanding. Questioning should take the form of open-ended questions to encourage the children putting their own ideas forward without being led by an adult. The adult can then ask the children’s peers what they think of another child’s idea to generate feedback. Generally in the lessons in Ambergate school the children are reminded when working to ask, who, what, when, why and how to ensure they get sufficient feedback to enable them with the tasks set.
Peer and Self-Assessment and Evaluation. Peer and Self-Assessment enables learners to recognise success in their own and others’ work and to focus on how they are learning as well as what they are learning. Ambergate school regularly asked the children how they think they have done by giving a “thumbs up”, “thumbs down” or “thumbs sideways” to indicate how the children feel about what they have been taught. Sometimes the children will be asked what they know of the subject about to be taught and to mark themselves out of ten in their books.
At the end of the lesson they then give themselves another mark out of ten and compare how they have fared. To summarise Assessment for learning meets individuals needs and maximises their full potential through continual monitoring. All staff are allowed to contribute to future planning by feeding their findings back to the teacher. 1. 4 Explain the importance and benefit of assessment for learning. Continuous assessment improves performance and behaviour, allows pupils to work more independently and it also improves motivation and risk taking.
By increasing two way communications Assessment for Learning helps to strengthen the teacher pupil relations. From the teachers point of view AFl improves planning and delivery of the lessons while creating an opportunity to check the quality of the lessons and amend activities to ensure they meet the learning needs. For the child it tells them where they are with their learning in each subject, gives them ideas on how to further achieve to ultimately get success in the given goal.
Assessment approaches need to promote learner engagement and ensure appropriate support so that all learners can achieve their aspirational goals and maximise their potential. It has been proven that children who do not feel part of the learner process quickly lose interest. Therefore, responses should be based on thoughtful questions, careful listening and reflective responses and effective feedback strategies. 1. 5 Explain how assessment can contribute to planning for future learning carried out by • The Teacher
Assessment for Learning helps the teacher to make well-founded judgements about pupil’s attainment while placing responsibility for managing learning on the child, with the goal of pupils being more actively involved with the learning process. As indicated above, the process involves explaining learning outcomes to pupils, providing them with feedback on their progress and enabling them to develop their self-assessment skills so that they are able to reflect on, and recognise, their own achievements. Knowing precisely what the pupil understands & then moving them on leads to effective learning.
• The Learners The process will keep the pupil informed of on-going process, giving them an insight into how they learn and which areas they need to improve to achieve the objectives set. This helps to increase their confidence, motivation and independence and also how to recognise when they need to ask for help. • The Learning Support Practitioner. Assessment for learning will provide you with information of how each child learns and the knowledge they already have, which will help in how you further question the pupil.
This can be tailored to suit the individual pupils pace and ability to learn. In a recent Maths lesson on Division techniques, on periodically checking the children’s understanding it became clear that they knew how to divide using the Chunking Method but the answers that some of the children were getting were incorrect. This caused the TA to check their work and come to the conclusion that the children’s knowledge in subtraction of 3 figure numbers was letting them down.
On feeding back to the teacher she said she had noticed the same problem with the group of children that she was supporting. With this feedback, the TA and the Teacher implemented a refresher lesson on subtraction in the next Maths lesson to fill the gap in the children’s knowledge and allow the children to move forward with their knowledge and ultimate success with Division Techniques. Bibliography www. education. gov. uk Assessment for Learning for KS1 and KS2 Northern Ireland Supporting Teaching and Learning L3 – Louise Burnham.
Subject: Educational psychology,
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 10 October 2016
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