Ashley Fields Disseration Essay

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Ashley Fields Disseration

Ashley Floyd Fields This dissertation examines the concept of intuition in decision-making by means of a Literature Review and a study of measures within organizations. In the Literature Review, the nature and experience of the use of intuitive skills and abilities will be examined and discussed. Research questions regarding the relationship between intuitive-type thought processes and methods of thinking and decision-making are considered. Finally, the Literature Review will explore rational and non-logical processing styles in decision-making and the organizational positioning which call for an intuitive approach.

Using a survey instrument, the study will examine group differences in measures for individuals having various positions and functions within a variety of organizations. Dr. Gary Salton’s Organizational Engineering concepts (Salton, 1996) which are consistent with the concept of intuition, provide the focus of this study. Organizational Engineering differs from other theories by looking at intuition as a phenomenon arising naturally from the information processing and decision-making methods and modes employed by individuals.

The research question is: Do various combinations of method and mode produce results that are consistent with the findings other researchers have attributed to intuition? The research question was tested by five interrelated hypotheses. Three hypotheses were designed to examine both the Reactive Stimulator and Relational Innovator style component and their proposed relationship to hierarchy. In addition, two hypotheses were designed to test Research & Development, Information Technology, and Customer Service for the relative level of intuition required to discharge these functional responsibilities effectively.

All of the study hypotheses were found to perform as anticipated at a very high level of significance. However, in Hypothesis 2, the level of Reactive Stimulator did vary systematically within leadership ranks. Ashley Floyd Fields In fact, individuals using an unpatterned method (organization of data being input) and a thought and/or action mode (character of intended output) would arrive at decision options which would not appear to follow any of the standard, logical, and/or existing processes.

Thus, an outside observer would tend to attribute the unexpected idea as arising from some sort of insight process founded on intuition. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS While writing this dissertation, I continually thought of its beginning, when, in an intuitive moment, I decided to research the use of rational and non-rational thought processing within organizations. I believed then, and especially now, the topic would provide significant insight to the behavior within organizations at the individual, group and organizational levels.

The process I have gone through is not unlike what happens today in organizations. At various stages of development, I received a spectrum of responses, both encouraging and challenging. What I thought was “cutting edge” research many times felt like “bleeding edge” because one of the characteristics associated with intuition is the inability to fully explain how you arrived at the answer being professed. Fortunately, as happens in organizations, knowledgeable individuals stepped forward and supported going forward with the research.

At this time, I would like to gratefully acknowledge my committee members: Dr. Ron Fetzer, Dr. William Snow, Dr. Bill Harrington, and Dr. Joe Balloun. For anyone who has been or is currently in a doctoral program, you know words are inadequate to express appreciation for people who have dedicated themselves so that others, like myself, could achieve such a significant milestone as the completion of the research process. Another critical and crucial supporter of this work is Dr. Gary Salton. Dr.

Salton exemplifies the intuitive practitioner who, years ago, began developing the concept of Organizational Engineering and compiling the database which became the basis for this research. His unselfish contributions enable us all to benefit from organizational insights to this research which can facilitate new methods and better results at all levels for organizational workers. Also during the course of researching and writing this dissertation, I have been blessed to have discussed this work personally with individuals well known in the fields of business, organizational development, and change management.

I wish to thank the following people whose conversations were both encouraging and enlightening: Dr. Weston Agor, Dr. Bill Taggart, Patricia Aburdene, Dr. Charles Garfield, Dr. Elliott Jaques, Dr. Warren Bennis, and Sharon Franquemont. In addition, I wish to thank the individuals who have assisted me in various ways over the years. Lest I should unintentionally leave one or two out, I say to them sincerely “Much Thanks”. Without you I know I would not have made it. As you read this, you will know in your hearts and minds who you are.

Last but not least, I would like to express my love and appreciation for my family, who have sacrificed time and resources during both the course of study and the writing of this dissertation: To my loving and supportive wife, Sharon, who wanted me to finish as much as I did; to my children, Whitney and Geoffrey, who wondered if they would graduate high school before I completed my course of study; and to my parents who, “May They Rest in Peace”, did not live to see this moment in time, at least not from here on earth.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page List of Tables List of Figures Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Study Significance of the Study Theory/Aspect of Theory Being Tested Research Question Definition of Terms Overview of Total Research Study 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Definition of Intuition Major Theorists Researchers Management Oriented Research 28 Instrumentation Summary 3.

METHODOLOGY Variables Relational Innovator Dimension: Hypothesis 1 Reactive Stimulator Dimension: Hypothesis 2 Organizational Level: Hypothesis 3 Relational Innovator/ Reactive Stimulator: Hypothesis 4 Hypothetical Analyzer/ Logical Processor: Hypothesis 5 I-OPTTM Instrument Database Subjects Population Instrument Design Validity and Reliability of the Instrument Data Analysis Environment Summary 4. ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS Hypothesis One Hypothesis Two Hypothesis Three 1 1 1 2 7 7 8 9 9 10 18 40 42 44 44 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 54 55 55 57 59 59 60 60 63 67 ix xiю

Hypothesis Four Hypothesis Five Summary 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Overview of Significant Findings Limitations of this Study Implications for Human Resource Management Professionals Recommendations for Future Research Conclusions Appendix A. I-OPTTM SURVEY B. THE VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF ORGANIZATIONAL ENGINEERING INSTRUMENTATION AND METHODOLOGY C. PERMISSION LETTER D. CLASSIFICATION OF HIERARCHICAL LEVELS REFERENCES CITED BIBLIOGRAPHY 73 78 82 83 83 85 85 88 90 91 93 96 98 101 108 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10A. 10B. 11. 12. 13. 14A. 14B. 15. 16. 17A. 17B. 18. 19. 20A.

Instruments Measuring Intuition Examples of Work Groups in the Database Types of Industries/Areas Included in Database Organizational Distribution of Experts Occupational Positions of Experts Educational Achievements of Experts Statistical Results of Hypothesis 1: Relation of Hierarchical and Relational Innovator Levels Statistical Results of Hypothesis 2: Relation of Hierarchical and Reactive Stimulator Levels Mann-Whitney Test Results of Hypothesis 2a : Leaders versus the Population in Reactive Stimulator Score Hypothesis 2: Leader Median and Mean Reactive Stimulator Results Hypothesis 2: Population Medianю

and Mean Reactive Stimulator Results Non-Parametric Statistical Results of Hypothesis 3: Relation of Hierarchical Position to Conservator Pattern Levels Mann-Whitney Statistical Results of Hypothesis 3: Leaders versus Population in Conservator Pattern Levels Median Test Statistical Results of Hypothesis 3: Leaders versus Population in Conservator Pattern Levels Hypothesis 3: Population Conservator Pattern Descriptive Statistics Hypothesis 3: Leader Conservator Pattern Descriptive Statistics Mann-Whitney Statistical Results of Hypothesis 4: Changer Comparison of Research & Development and Information Technology Median Test Statistical Results of Hypothesis 4:

Changer Pattern Comparison of Information Technology and Research & Development Functions Hypothesis 4: Mean Research & Development Changer Pattern Results Descriptive Statistics Hypothesis 4: Mean Information Technology Changer Pattern Results Descriptive Statistics Mann-Whitney Test Statistical Results of Hypothesis 5: Conservator Comparison of Population and Customer Service Median Test Statistical Results of Hypothesis 5: Conservator Pattern Comparison of Customer Service And Population Hypothesis 5: Mean Customer Service Conservator Pattern Results Descriptive Statistics Page 40 52 53 58 58 59 61 63 66 66 67 68 70 71 72 72 74 75 76 76 79 80 80 20B. 21.

Hypothesis 5: Mean Population Conservator Pattern Results Descriptive Statistics Hierarchical Distribution of LeaderAnalysisTM Database 80 100 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6A. 6B. 7A. 7B. 8A. 8B. 9A. 9B. 10A. 10B. 10C. 11A. 11B. 11C. Basic Information Processing Model Large Scale Determinants of Information Processing: Method Large Scale Determinants of Information Processing: Mode Summary of Strategic Patterns Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Hypothesis 1: Median Scores by Hierarchical Rank Hypothesis 1: Mean Scores by Hierarchical Rank Hypothesis 2: Median Scores by Hierarchical Rank Hypothesis 2: Mean Scores by Hierarchical Rank Hypothesis 3: Median Scores by Hierarchical Rank Hypothesis 3:

Mean Scores by Hierarchical Rank Hypothesis 3: Median Score by Population and Leader Hypothesis 3: Percent of Cases Above Median by Population and Leader Hypothesis 4: Changer Pattern Median Scores by Information Technology and Research & Development Hypothesis 4: Changer Pattern Percent of Cases above Median by Information Technology and Research & Development Hypothesis 4: Changer Pattern Mean Scores by Information Technology and Research & Development Hypothesis 5: Median Scores by Population and Customer Service Hypothesis 5:

Percent of Cases Above Median by Population and Customer Service Hypothesis 5: Mean Scores by Population and Customer Service Page 3 3 4 8 16 62 62 64 65 69 69 72 73 76 77 77 81 81 82 CHAPTER 1 Introduction This study examines the concept of intuition in decision-making by means of a literature review and study of measures currently being used within organizations.

Human behaviorists have examined why the performance of some people get them to the top while others around them remain in lower levels of the organization. They have considered situations such as, given the same information, one person completes a problem-solving process much sooner than another with nearly the same responses and wondered how that happened.

This research focuses on the relationship between intuitive thought, organization level; and function. It explores the use of intuition in decision-making and the organizational conditions which call for an intuitive approach. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this research is to determine the systematic use of intuitive skills and abilities in business organizations.

Management research historically has been biased toward the analytical process in decision-making. This rational approach has been more popular as the preferred and acceptable method for studying management practices. Alternative unstructured methods have been ignored or labeled irrational in the negative sense.

However, since this study’s focus is centered on working adults, judgment can be reached using other non-logical thought processes such as intuition, which take into account years of expertise, considerable introspection, and/or informal rules learned over time. This study identifies major theorists and their opinions and findings, as well as their sources of learning. However, no attempt is made to exhaustively identify all sources referencing the theories and studies related to intuition.

Primary examination is given to twentieth century researchers, although earlier authors of prominence are noted in selected cases. Significance of the Study Eisenhardt (1989) linked rapid decision-making to such characteristics as decisive, operations-focused, hands on, and instinctive. Therefore, fast decision-making is linked to effective performance. As an example of behavior linked to fast decisionmaking, Eisenhardt found executives gathered real time information on firm operations and the competitive environment which resulted in a deep, intuitive grasp of the business.

This intuitively-based understanding translates into improved business performance. Many managers report using intuition in their decision-making, in spite of the deeply rooted bias against non-rational methods (Agor, 1984a; Agor, 1984b; Dean, Mihalasky, Ostrander, and Schroeder, 1974; Isaack, 1978; Mintzberg, 1976; and Rowan, 1986).

Reports of managers use of intuition ranges from inferential processes, performed under their own pre-existing database (Agor, 1986a,b,c,d) to acceptance and use of predictive abilities (Dean, Mihalasky, Ostrander, and Schroeder, 1974). Successful decision-makers have been found to have great predictive abilities (Cosier and Alpin, 1982; and Dean, Mihalasky, Ostrander, and Schroeder, 1974).

However, many managers remain unwilling to acknowledge their use of intuition, fearing negative responses from their colleagues (Agor, 1986a, 1986b, 1986c, 1986d). Additional researchers who influence this study are Barnard (1968), Vaughan (1979), Hermann (1981), Isenberg (1984), Simon (1987), and Parikh (1994). This study seeks to redefine intuition in a form which is acceptable to the rationalistic school and yet accommodates the scholarly but more inferential approaches.

The study explores the use of intuition in an extensive cross section of people in organized environments. Theory/Aspect of Theory Being Tested Gary Salton (1996) developed the Organizational Engineering theory as a way of measuring and predicting the behavior of interactive groups of people.

In Salton’s theory, human beings are regarded as information processing organisms, by which, the human is bound to the Input-Process-Output model (Figure 1) common to all information processors, regardless of their format. INPUT PROCESS Figure 1 Basic Information Processing Model (Salton, 1996, p. 9) OUTPUT Salton’s (1996) theory proposes the type of information sought and the intended direction of the output predetermines processing behavior.

For example, if the subject does not collect detail in the input phase of the process, his output will not likely be tightly structured, logical, precise, or optimal relative to the issue being addressed. Rather, minimal output will probably result. In effect, therefore an individual using an opportunistic strategy obtains speed of response at the price of precision.

Salton’s (1996) theory maintains an input-process-output model is largely governed by two large-scale factors: method and mode, which are conceived as continuums. Method (Figure 2) governs the character of input. At one end of the continuum is what Salton calls an unpatterned method. Using the unpatterned strategy, an individual simply acquires whatever information is readily available and appears relevant to the issue at hand. UNPATTERNED STRUCTURED “An Available Way” Convenient Expedient Opportune Spontaneous METHOD (INFORMATION ORGANIZATION) “A Predefined Way” Template Formula Scheme Pattern Map Figure 2 Large Scale Determinants of Information Processing: Method (Salton and Fields, 1999, p. 49).

The other end of the method continuum (Salton, 1996) is defined as a structured methodology. Here the individual has some form of structure and attempts to apply it to acquire information, which appears relevant to the issue at hand. An individual can move to any point on the continuum trading speed, precision, understanding and certainty of outcome with every increment along the scale. Salton (1996) defines the other large-scale characteristic as mode. This is visualized also as a continuum (Figure 3) ranging from thought on one polar extreme to action on the other. Salton defines thought not as a cognitive activity but rather as an intermediate result.

Therefore, under Salton’s definition, a plan requiring many hours of physical activity and which might fill reams of paper will still be considered a thought based response. It is intermediate. It has no effect on the outside world or the issue being addressed until it is acted upon. Action (Salton, 1996) is the other end of the mode continuum. Here, the subject acts directly to affect the issue in question. This action may or may not have been preceded by thought as defined by Salton. From this perspective of intuition theory, action can be seen as a more decisive, aggressive, or positive response by an external observer. Thought, on the other hand, appears to the outside observer to be more rational, reflective, or coherent.

Therefore, a subject tending to favor the action end of Salton’s continuum will tend to be seen as decisive, operations-focused, and hands-on. These characteristics were associated with people employing intuitive strategies (Eisenhardt, 1989). THOUGHT ACTION “An Intermediate Step” Plans Assessments Evaluations Judgements Advise Counsel MODE (DIRECTION FOR USE OF INFORMATION) “

A Direct Effect on the Issue under Consideration”” Initiative Intervention Act Execution Figure 3 Large Scale Determinants of Information Processing: Mode (Salton and Fields, 1999, p. 49) These basic components of Salton’s theory carry major implications for the study of intuition theory. Various combinations of method and mode produce behaviors paralleling the behaviors attributed to intuition.

For example, a person using an unpatterned approach appears to an outside observer to be following a more intuitive strategy. There appears to be no logical structure to the information required. The logic exists, but it is in the mind of the subject and concerns the potential relevance of information to the specific issue being addressed. If questioned, the subject may or may not be able to readily articulate why a particular element of information was selected. The outcome of this process is entirely consistent with rapid decision-making, displaying characteristics that are considered instinctive—a phenomenon often attributed to intuition (Eisenhardt, 1989).

The use of the unpatterned end of Salton’s continuum also produces results consistent with Clark’s (1973) view, since the person will not know how he knows what he knows. The mode element of Salton’s theory also has implications for intuition theory.

The thought side of Salton’s continuum focuses primarily on intermediate steps (study, assessment, evaluation, etc. ), many of which are not observable. Therefore, a person using an unpatterned method and thought mode may experience intuitive insights not visibly displayed. A person using an unpatterned method with an action mode, however, will exhibit behaviors an observer can readily attribute to intuition. Inputs potentially useful to address the issue at hand are quickly acquired and promptly applied.

A portion of these will successfully address the issue at hand and may be noticed by others who interact with the decision-maker. These outsiders may comment on the decision-maker’s insight, further establishing or reinforcing the decision-maker’s self-conception as being intuitive. An example may help illustrate this situation.

Consider a situation in which a person uses an unpatterned method to address a particular issue, such as when an executive interacts with the Board of Directors or with special interest groups. The person would begin indiscriminately seizing information, to help resolve the issue. If the person is also using an action mode, he will tend to apply the information without hesitation. If it works, the search is over.

If it does not, he or she returns to the environment, picks up another piece of information, and cycles through the process again. The indiscriminate acquisition of information increases the probability of discovering an improbable but valid way of addressing the issue. In other words, by not following an established structure, the person increases the odds of a serendipitous discovery or of a previously unrecognized approach to resolve a problem. This type of resolution is easily attributable to insight or intuition since it is unexpected and not readily attributable to an obvious antecedent. Intangible concepts like intuition may be the real stimulus.

Because research in information acquisition is limited as well as in planning the application, the cycles can occur very rapidly. The use of the action mode increases the probability an individual will repeatedly demonstrate intuitive-type results in a manner visible to others. This often-observed style or behavior in turn suggests an innate quality. Hence, the person is considered to be intuitive. Similarly, method and mode operate in a continuum; thus, people would exhibit degrees of intuition. However, the more committed a person is using an unpatterned method for information acquisition, the more likely they will display behavior attributable to intuition, and whom others will describe as using an intuitive strategy.

The focus on this combination of method and mode is similar to other thinkers in the field. For example, many issues addressed at the senior executive level do not have a readily identifiable structure of information acquisition. Some have parameters encouraging thought based (i. e. , intermediate) responses, while others will require immediate action/reaction. Therefore Salton suggests executives will use both nonlogical and logical methods in the conduct of their ordinary affairs—just as Barnard (1968) also proposed and Agor (1986a, 1986b, 1986c, 1986d) confirmed. Salton does not directly address intuition in his research because his focus is on the interactive behavior people use in group activity.

Other theorists and researchers have relied on psychologically based processes, which are not readily visible to external observers. However, as demonstrated above, Salton’s theory can readily serve as a vehicle for integrating the works of multiple authors who have written extensively on intuition. In addition, Salton’s theory has the merit of using ratio-scaled variables that allow people to express degrees of commitment to one or another strategy (i. e. , method and mode) which can be measured and tested. This study proposes the behavior a person exhibits using unpatterned information acquisition methods and action-based output modes will be consistent with the work found by numerous intuition theorists.

This study also proposes the use of these strategies (unpatterned method, action mode) will be systematically exhibited in a manner consistent with the findings of others. Research Question This study will focus on the following research question with regards to management decision-making and the use of intuition: Do various combinations of method and mode produce results that are consistent with the findings other researchers have attributed to intuition? Definition of Terms Organizational Engineering theory adopts a set of variables useful in describing the operation of the theory. This section defines these, as well as other terms applied in this study.

Intuition – A way of perceiving which relies on relationships, meanings, and possibilities beyond the reach of the conscious mind (Myers and McCaulley, 1985) and includes behavioral attributes (Brown, 1990). A way of knowing in which we often do not know how we know what we know (Vaughan, 1979). Hypothetical Analyzer – One who processes information in a thought-oriented mode using structured methods (Salton, 1996). Logical Processor – One who processes information with an inclination for the action mode using structured methods (Salton, 1996). Reactive Stimulator – One who processes information with an inclination for the action mode using unpatterned methods (Salton, 1996). Relational Innovator – One who processes information in a thought-oriented mode using unpatterned method (Salton, 1996).

Changer – This orientation pattern combines the styles of Relational Innovator and Reactive Stimulator (Salton, 1996). Conservator – This orientation pattern combines the styles of Logical Processor and Hypothetical Analyzer (Salton, 1996). Perfector – This orientation pattern combines the styles of Relational Innovator and Hypothetical Analyzer (Salton, 1996). Performer – This orientation pattern combines the styles of Reactive Stimulator and Logical Processor (Salton, 1996). Figure 4 (Salton, 1996) illustrates the various combinations and their resulting strategic patterns, given different primary and secondary strategic profiles. PATTERN Changer Conservator Performer Reactive Stimulator (RS) Logical Processor (LP) Figure 4 Summary of Strategic Patterns.

Perfector Relational Innovator (RI) Hypothetical Analyzer (HA) Overview of Total Research Study Chapter 2 reviews the findings of major authors in the field of intuition research and forms the foundation for the testable hypotheses to be used to examine the research question. CHAPTER 2 Literature Review Intuition is a relatively new subject of academic interest. Literature on the subject, particularly on its use in decision-making did not become prevalent until the early 1970s (Argyris, 1973a, 1973b; Clark, 1973; Dean, Mihalasky, Ostrander, & Schroeder, 1974; Jung, 1971; Leavitt, 1975a, 1975b; Livingston, 1971; Mintzberg, 1973, 1975, 1976; and Simon, 1977).

These works, along with research in the 1980s, incorporated intuition related literature and research prior to the 1970s and as far back as the 1950s (Riggs, 1987). This research study concentrates specifically on the research literature as it relates to the use of intuition in decision-making among organization managers and executives. Various organizational environments are examined in the literature review and thus, may be reasonably considered an overview of the subject. This research is classified into two categories: (1) theoretical developments concerning the concept of intuition, and (2) survey studies supporting the premise for using intuition in decision-making.

The overview provides information on the use of intuition in business organizations as a function of leadership and decision-making; and explores various well- established methodologies as well as those still in development. Definition of Intuition The term intuition is defined as “knowing something instinctively; a state of being aware of or knowing something without having to discover or perceive it…”. (Encarta, 1999). Intuition is seen as an innate capacity not directly accessible by considering the process which gives rise to a judgment or action involving it. Thus, intuition seems to be a residual process accommodating whatever can’t be explained by other means. The literature reflects the inherent lack of obvious conceptual framework for the term intuition.

Some of the alternative descriptors are ESP, psi, judgment, insight, and gut feelings (Dean, Mihalasky, Ostrander, and Schroeder, 1974); hunch (Barnard, 1968); extrasensory perception (Leavitt, 1975b); non-rational (Cohen and March, 1974); recognition (Goldberg, 1983; Ray and Myers, 1986), and edge (Tichy, 1997). Such non-specific definitions suggest that different authors and researchers could be describing different processes or even measuring different phenomenon. Conversely, experts could be referring to the same phenomenon with different labels.

Major Theorists This study attempts to capture the value of various theorists’ approaches by focusing on the central contribution of each, and how these compare or contrast to Organizational Engineering theory. Theorists are often classified as personality based such as Jung or transpersonal based such as Vaughan.

The more classical theorists’ approach view intuition as a distinct pattern of thought from the rational mode (Jung, 1971), while the transpersonal theorists’ approach considers the integration of rational and intuitive approaches and considers them both valid and separate, as well as complementary (Goldberg, 1983; Vaughan, 1979) One of the most important figures to focus on the concept of intuition is Carl Jung. His theory of psychological types is the basis for the development of the widely used Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Kroeger and Thuesen, 1992).

Jung’s theory of intuition suggests intuition is a psychological function present in all people to varying degrees and is manifested in personality types. Jung defines intuition as a perception and comprehension of the whole at the expense of details attributable to unconscious process.

Intuition is thus viewed as a cognitive function outside the province of reason and given consideration whenever established rational or other cognitive concepts do not work. In short, it is the perception of reality in which the intuitive knows, but does not know how he knows (Clark, 1973). Later, Jung broadens his thoughts on personality types by introducing the concept of synchronicity, which further helps to explain intuitive-type feelings and visions not attributable to coincidence (Rowan, 1986). Jung uses such phrases for intuition as hunches, inspiration, and insight to problem-solving methods, all of which reflect little patience for detail or routine (Behling and Eckel, 1991). Vaughan (1979) describes four

levels of intuition: physical, emotional, mental and spiritual. The theorists, writers and researchers describe intuition in both psychological and physiological terms. Intuition experienced through physical levels includes bodily sensations such as tension or discomfort. This is not to say however that every bodily sensation indicates an intuitive message, but these physical symptoms can be used for self-awareness, as well as a source of warnings and signs. Emotional intuitive messages take several forms, such as liking or disliking something or someone for no apparent reason, feeling the need to perform an action or do something, and sensing energy levels in oneself or others.

Emotional level intuition can be used to deepen one’s self-awareness and to understand others (Vaughan, 1979). The mental level of intuition is typically experienced as images or ideas. It may appear as the perception of patterns, insights, or images, especially in problem-solving situations. Intuition at the mental level can be used to trigger creativity, explore problem-solving areas not previously mined, and to enhance learning (Vaughan, 1979). Spiritual intuition does not rely on sensations, feelings, or thoughts. In fact, these are considered being distracters at the spiritual level (Blackwell, 1987; Vaughan, 1979). Spiritual intuition is a means for improving self-awareness and transpersonal experiences.

Vaughan does not clarify whether a single intuition mode is responsible for all four types or whether unique factors exist for each type. This generality suggests Vaughan is defining taxonomy rather than a theoretical specification which can be tested and validated through scientific methods. Salton’s Organizational Engineering theory however does account for all facets of Vaughan’s taxonomy. Salton’s theory focuses on inputs and outputs, regardless of the source or the outcome. Vaughan’s physical, emotional, mental or spiritual intuitive factors can be accounted for with equal facility. Salton’s Organizational Engineering theory argues intuition is the result of a single process.

Therefore, there is no operational need to specify the source or destination of the input-output chain (Salton, 2000). Vaughan’s approach may be of value in describing intuition but it is not suitable to test the concept. Like Vaughan, Salton is indifferent to the source of the input providing the initial drive toward an external response. Further, Salton makes no judgment about the value, or lack of value, of these explanations. The rational approach to intuition accepts the notion that the human mind has alternative methods of processing information and these methods influence behaviors. For example, Jung posits four independent but interacting categories of cognition— intuition, thinking, feeling, and sensing. Each of these cate.

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