As the urban population rapidly grow this would also increases the demand for transportation facilities. Car sharing is a simple solution to control or reduce this demand. Cars are one of the most frequently used types of mobility in today’s society as we always see congestion on the street. In addition to the fact that they are more private, they provide a comfortable and easy way to travel. Besides that, owning a car has several practical sides but there are externalities as this number continues to increase rapidly around the world and most individuals owned cars are parked for a significant time of the day due to work, studies and other activities.
As the number of cars on the streets increases, there is also an increase in congestion, parking and emissions. Land use for parking would also increase and in some developing countries there are few parking spaces for many cares which lead to great congestion of the streets due to the parked cars.
Car sharing could be a way to tackle this issue, allowing people to rent a car for a short time and distance.Car sharing provides the private vehicle needs to the individual without worrying about the fixed and unexpected costs such as responsibilities for maintenance, taxes and registration. The advantage would be to increase the daily use time per car rather than being parked and for the costumers by reducing the money spent on purchasing a car or maintaining it. This leads to fewer cars needed to satisfy everyone’s travel needs.
Car sharing companies also tend to use fuel-efficient or sometimes fully electric vehicles, which can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. It is estimated that transportation infrastructure with motorized mobility in cities estimated to double between 2015 and 2050Ћ. This problem is global and, for example, taking North America, we can see in (Figure 10) it is estimated that the fleet of private cars will increase dramatically if the policies for regulating transport in urban and rural areas have not changed by 2050. Figure 11: Mobility by mode of transport (SourceЋ)According to the International transport forum shared mobility mode, it shows that if the shared mobility model ( car sharing and demand responsive bus) are implemented, the number of car share users in Europe is predicted to reach 15 million by 2020 Ћ. Therefor, addressing car sharing perspective among people is a way to maintain our urban environment and in some cases a solution for cities that lack of capacity for public transportation like Amman.- Scooter sharingFor years, the use of scooters has been a major mode of transportation in many parts of the world due to the minimal parking area usage and narrow streets. In some parts of Europe (especially Italy and the Mediterranean), Japan and Taiwan, motorized scooters are very popular Ћ. In the very populated cities of Asia, parking spaces, traffic and congestion issues, the easy driving position makes the scooter a popular form of urban transport. The new scooter sharing sector has emerged in San Francisco since 2012 (see Figure 11). The rental system is based on registration in an application and then the registered customers can rent the scooter in a service zone for a period of time. The scooter sharing system currently exists in more than 60 cities worldwide, 84% of which are based in Europe and 97% of these scooters are electrical Ћ.Ultimately, the idea of scooter sharing services would be perfect for highly congested areas as it will reduce the road usage space and parking areas usage. Therefore, a promotion for this kind of services is a way to tackle environmental impact for urban mobility behaviors.Figure 12:Centers of distribution of the scooter worldwide (sourceЋ)- Kick scooter sharingFigure 12 shows the new electric scooters sharing system. Based on my early 2019 visit to Denmark, more and more kick scooters are being distributed in Copenhagen. Many people, especially youth would use this way of transportation for short distance instead of public transport as you can reach your destination with total comfort. Most of these scooters are electric. Therefore, the environmental impacts from using these scooters in at minimal levels.This sharing system is getting more and more popular around the world. In 2017, a company such as Bird started sharing services in Santa Monica for the first time. The sharing service has since then spread to more than 100 cities and more than 10 million rides have generating revenue of 2 billion Ћ. We are experiencing yet another possible beginning of a shared mobility revolution. There are four big companies on the U.S. market at this time (Bird, Lime, Jump, Spin). More companies are set to expand rapidly in Europe, such as TIER Mobility and Wind in Berlin and Swedish VOI Ћ. The sharing service system is similar to sharing a scooter. Registration via app will allow registered users to book a kick scooter via a smartphone application and use it as a free-floating system in a given area.Figure 13: Kick scooters in a city (sourceЋ)- Bike sharingIt’s attractive, comfortable, sustainable and very popular with tourists around the world, it’s probably one of the most popular ways to explore cities. Bicycle sharing has now evolved into other modes of transportation to be sharing of electric bicycles and even electric scooters. Over 1,500 motorcycle sharing programs are now operating globally (Figure 13).Many cities around the world are trying to tackle the congestion and pollution problem by dropping the number of cars in urban areas. This include policies and regulations that should be implemented to facilitate the biking infrastructure. In 2018, more than 18 million bicycles were available for the public useЋ. The use of bicycles has many health benefits as it considered as an exercise in the same time. In many developed countries its considered normal to bike to work or school such as Copenhagen, Denmark (see subchapter Ћ4.3). While in other developing countries the use of the bicycles might just be limited to children and the poor society. These stereotypes must be changes as this way of transport could have a great impact into making a greener urban transport and healthier society. Moreover, in the thesis there will be mention to a success biking system in Denmark as a case study.Figure 14: Estimated number of bikes sharing services worldwide (sourceЋ)Implementing such sharing services, means that the people should also have the acceptance to do so. Raising awareness and targeting the youth would be effective as they could be more flexible to change their transport behaviors into these means of transport. However, cycling or sharing services culture is not enough to implement these modes of transportation. A proper infrastructure should exist in order to use them in roads and an effective traffic calming should also exist to guarantee the safety of the road users.