Chain of command
a. The chain of command assists commanders at all levels to achieve their primary function of accomplishing the unit’s assigned mission while caring for personnel and property in their charge. A simple and direct chain of command facilitates the transmittal of orders from the highest to the lowest levels in a minimum of time and with the least chance of misinterpretation. The command channel extends upward in the same manner for matters requiring official communication from subordinate to senior.
b. Commanders are responsible for everything their command does or fails to do. However, commanders subdivide responsibility and authority and assign portions of both to various subordinate commanders and staff members. In this way, a proper degree of responsibility becomes inherent in each command echelon. Commanders delegate sufficient authority to Soldiers in the chain of command to accomplish their assigned duties, and commanders may hold these Soldiers responsible for their actions. Commanders who assign responsibility and authority to their subordinates still retain the overall responsibility for the actions of their commands.
c. Proper use of the chain of command is vital to the overall effectiveness of the Army. Commanders must acquaint all their Soldiers with its existence and proper function. Effective communication between senior and subordinate Soldiers within the chain of command is crucial to the proper functioning of all units. Therefore, Soldiers will use the chain of command when communicating issues and problems to their leaders and commanders.
Open door policies
Commanders will establish an open door policy within their commands. Soldiers are responsible to ensure that the commander is made aware of problems that affect discipline, morale, and mission effectiveness; and an open door policy allows members of the command to present facts, concerns, and problems of a personal or professional nature or other issues that the Soldier has been unable to resolve. The timing, conduct, and specific procedures of the open door policy are determined by the commander. He or
she is responsible for ensuring that Soldiers are aware of the command’s open door policy.
Commanders will ensure that all members of their command receive timely performance counseling. Effective performance counseling of officers, noncommissioned officers (NCO), enlisted Soldiers, and DA civilian employees helps to ensure that they are prepared to carry out their duties efficiently and accomplish the mission. AR 623–3 and AR 690–400 contain counseling requirements in conjunction with the evaluation reporting systems. Unit commanders will determine the timing and specific methods used to provide guidance and direction through counseling. FM 6–22 provides advice and makes suggestions concerning effective counseling. Providing regular and effective performance counseling to all Soldiers, not just those whose performance fails to meet unit standards, is a command function. All commanders will ensure that their subordinate commanders have implemented and are maintaining an effective performance counseling program.
Staff or technical channels
Staff or technical channels may be used for sending reports, information, or instructions not involving variations from command policy and directives.
Command of installations, activities, and units
a. Responsibility. The senior regularly assigned United States Army officer present for duty normally has responsibility for the command of units, platoon level and above, except as shown in paragraphs 2–8a, 2–15, and 2–16. b. Command of installations. Command of Army installations is subject to policies, procedures, and regulations promulgated by HQDA.
(1) Command of Army installations is exercised by a senior commander (SC). The SC is designated by senior Army leadership. The SC’s command authority over the installation derives from the Chief of Staff, Army (CSA) and Secretary of the Army’s (SA) authority over installations. This is a direct delegation of command authority for the installation to the SC. The SC’s command authority includes all authorities inherent in command including the authority to ensure the maintenance of good order and discipline for the installation. (2) Army installations are identified in one of two categories as follows: (a) Installations managed by Installation Management Command (IMCOM). Installations that are managed by IMCOM are discussed in paragraph b(4)(e), below.
(b) Installations not managed by IMCOM. Installations that are not managed by IMCOM are discussed in paragraph 2–5b(4)(f), below.
(3) Joint bases. Army installations designated for management under Department of Defense (DOD) Joint Basing 6 AR 600–20 • 18 March 2008 Guidance shall be operated in full compliance with DOD requirements. In the event of a discrepancy between this regulation and the DOD policies or procedures for Joint basing, the DOD policies or procedures take precedence. (4) Roles and responsibilities.
(a) Senior commander. The SC is normally the senior general officer at the installation. The SC’s mission is the care of Soldiers, Families, and Civilians, and to enable unit readiness. While the delegation of senior command authority is direct from HQDA, the SC will routinely resolve installation issues with IMCOM and, as needed, the associated ACOM, Army service component command (ASCC), or direct reporting unit (DRU). The SC uses the garrison as the primary organization to provide services and resources to customers in support of accomplishing this mission. All applicable commands support the SC in the execution of SC responsibilities; therefore, the SC is the supported commander by the IMCOM region director (RD), the garrison and tenants. The SC—
1. Normally is a dual-hatted position. When this occurs the commander exercises discrete authorities as the SC and as a mission commander. The SC responsibilities and authorities are installation focused; the responsibilities and authorities as the mission commander are mission focused.
2. Can, in rare cases, be an HQDA-appointed civilian versus a uniformed SC, who will assume the SC roles and responsibilities with the exception of UCMJ and command authority. In these instances, the individual will be referred to as the senior manager. Prior to the appointment of the senior manager, command and UCMJ authorities for the installation will be specified.
3. Is responsible for synchronizing and integrating Army priorities and initiatives at the installation. On IMCOM managed installations there is a requirement for a strong collaborative relationship between the SC and the IMCOM RD. The SC commands the installation but funding of almost all installation activities flows through the RD.
4. Assumes the duties and responsibilities of the installation commander where that title is mentioned in U.S. Code or DOD or Army policies and regulations.
5. Assumes the duties and responsibilities of the senior mission commander where that title is mentioned in Army regulations except for regulations involving operational duties and responsibilities. Mission commanders will retain operational duties and responsibilities.
6. Unless prohibited by law or regulation, the SC may delegate, as necessary, assigned duties and responsibilities to the garrison commander (GC). Such delegation shall be made in writing and specifically state the duties and responsibilities so delegated and the termination date of the delegation.
7. Establishes installation priorities among all resident and supported units.
8. Prioritizes base operations support consistent with HQDA priorities and approved common levels of support (CLS) bands.
9. Oversees the CLS services and capabilities provided to customers. Ensuring that those services are provided within the HQDA guidance, designated priorities, and approved CLS bands and coordinates with the IMCOM RD to change HQDA approved CLS from green, amber, or red.
10. Approves and submits the installation master plan consistent with HQDA long-range plans and goals through the ACOMS, ASCCs or DRUs, and IMCOM. For IMCOM installations the SC collaborates with the IMCOM RD before the SC submits the installation master plan.
11. Approves the military construction, Army (MCA) and military construction, Army Reserve (MCAR) project priority list at the installation level. For IMCOM installations the SC collaborates with the IMCOM RD before the SC approves the MCA and MCAR project priority list for the installation. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers executes MCA/MCAR projects for the Army.
12. Reviews and approves the prioritization of Family and installation programs. For IMCOM installations the SC collaborates with the IMCOM RD before the SC approves Family and installation programs for the installation.
13. Installation force protection (FP) is as follows: (a) continental United States (CONUS) SC: as directed by U.S. Army North (USARNORTH) and in coordination with the installation management headquarters (IMCOM and Non- IMCOM), oversees FP on the installation; (b) outside continental United States (OCONUS) SC: in coordination with the ASCC and IMCOM is responsible for FP oversight on the installation.
14. Is normally designated as a General Court-Martial Convening Authority (GCMCA). The GCMCA orders will specify the appellate and review channels for SC GCMCA actions.
15. The appellate and review authority for administrative actions taken by the SC pertaining to individual Soldiers and DA Civilians will flow through ACOM, ASCC, or DRU channels unless otherwise specified in Army regulations. The terms “next superior authority,” “next higher authority,” “next higher commander,” and “next higher headquarters” as used in other Army regulations, mean ACOM, ASCC, or DRU commander or headquarters.
16. Serves as the senior Army representative to the surrounding community.
17. Senior rates the GC.
(b) Garrison commander. The GC is a military officer, lieutenant colonel or colonel, selected by HQDA. The GC commands the garrison, is the SC’s senior executive for installation activities, is rated by the IMCOM RD, and is senior rated by the SC. The GC is responsible for day-to-day operation and management of installations and base support services. The GC ensures that installation services and capabilities are provided in accordance with HQDA AR 600–20 •
18 March 2008 7 directed programs, SC guidance, CLS, and IMCOM guidance. The GC provides additional service support in accordance with HQDA directives and provides reimbursable services in accordance with memorandum of understanding or agreement (MOU/MOA). The GC is responsible to deliver Family and installation programs, coordinates and integrates the delivery of support from other service providers, and obtains SC approval of the installation master plan. The GC may be appointed as a Summary Courts-Martial Convening Authority or the Special Courts-Martial convening authority for the installation and its support area; in rare cases the GC may be appointed as GCMCA. In some cases, the senior official on an installation may be the garrison manager. A garrison manager (the civilian equivalent of a GC has the same responsibility and authority as the military counterpart with the exception of UCMJ and command authority. Prior to the appointment of the garrison manager, command and UCMJ authorities for the garrison will be specified. The GC responsibilities are—
1. Represents the Army and the installation in the surrounding community as directed by the SC. 2. Approves and issues garrison policies in accordance with respective Army regulations, or installation level policies involving tenant units as directed by the SC.
3. Approves and issues policies for IMCOM civilian workforce.
4. Develops and implements the Force Protection Program.
5. Supports mobilization station requirements.
(c) The ACOM, ASCC, or DRU on IMCOM managed installations.
1. Provide to IMCOM a prioritized list of MCA/MCAR projects and requirements that impact subordinate units to support the development of the military construction (MILCON) program and the program objective memorandum.
2. Provide IMCOM with subordinate mission priority requirements for MILCON and base operations.
3. Identify to IMCOM, through the CLS process and other requirements development processes, the required levels of garrison support needed to meet mission requirements. Also, identify to IMCOM any support requirements not included in CLS services. Collaborate with IMCOM in developing garrison support requirements that are applicable to all garrisons.
4. Evaluate the effectiveness of installation services and support and participate in the prioritization of these services and support.
5. Responsible for mobilization of subordinates as specified in AR 10–87. 6.
Provide prioritization requirements for information technology and training enabler support to IMCOM. 7. Responsibilities for FP are: (a) OCONUS: The Geographic Combatant commander exercises Combatant Command (Command Authority) (COCOM) authority over all aspects of FP in the AOR and delegates authority for FP as deemed appropriate and necessary. This includes all aspects of FP on Army installations without exception; (b) CONUS: Commander, USNORTHCOM has tactical control (for FP) over all DOD personnel and assets in the AOR. USARNORTH is designated as USNORTHCOM’s ASCC; the authority to execute the FP mission in CONUS is delegated from Commander, USNORTHCOM;
(1) USARNORTH has direct command and control authority over commands when executing FP responsibilities for installations/facilities (FP reporting commands/SCs when executing FP responsibilities for installations/facilities); (2) USARNORTH has a supported/supporting relationship with commands not executing responsibilities for installations/facilities (FP supporting commands). (d) Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management. The ACSIM is the proponent for all Army installations and in this capacity is responsible for installation policy development and implementation Armywide. The ACSIM does not exercise command authority over Army installations.
1. The ACSIM ensures that real property accountability and reporting is implemented at all installations (see AR 405–45).
2. The ACSIM manages HQDA level MILCON in accordance with HQDA priorities and guidance.
3. The ACSIM is the proponent for environmental policy Armywide. (e) Installation Management Command. The ACSIM is dual-hatted as the Commander of IMCOM. IMCOM is a DRU reporting to the ACSIM as described in AR 10–87. IMCOM manages Army installations assigned to it. IMCOM executes installation readiness missions, provides equitable services and facilities, optimizes resources, sustains the environment, and enhances the well-being of the military community. IMCOM is accountable for the efficient delivery of installation services and support. The IMCOM is responsive to ACOMs, ASCCs, and DRUs through a supporting to supported relationship.
1. IMCOM commands the garrisons assigned to it.
2. IMCOM and its subordinate organizations are supporting commands to the SC on IMCOM installations. There is a requirement for a strong collaborative relationship between the SC and the IMCOM RD. The SC commands the installation but funding of almost all installation activities flows through the RD.
3. The relationship between IMCOM and the commands of tenant organizations is analogous to the “supporting to supported” command relationship described in Joint Doctrine.
4. The IMCOM RD rates the GC.
5. IMCOM ensures compliance with HQDA directed programs and CLS bands. IMCOM staffs and coordinates with 8 AR 600–20 • 18 March 2008 HQDA funding requests for garrison support requirements identified by ACOM, ASCC, or DRUs that are not included in CLS services.
6. There is a difference between command relationship in CONUS and OCONUS for IMCOM installations. These relationships are depicted in figure 2–1..