Aristotle & Socrates
Aristotle & Socrates
Philosophy comes from the Greek roots meaning “the love of wisdom. ” Philosophers are persons who have a compelling need to pursue wisdom. Since the beginning of time, wise man and women have dedicated themselves to asking “Big Questions”. Depending on the questions, there are various areas of philosophy including metaphysics, epistemological, axiology, ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, social philosophy, and logic. Homework Make a “Creative” representation of someone (fictional or real) you consider a wise person. Be prepared to present it in class and explain what characteristics make a person wise.
Archetypes Archetypes are basic images that represent our conception of the essence of a certain kind of person…. usually considered to be shared by all of humanity throughout time. Philosophical archetypes are philosophers who express an original or influential point of view in a way that significantly affects subsequent philosophers and non-philosophers. Western philosophy has been dominated by males of European ancestry. Relativism- Relativism is the belief that knowledge is determined by specific qualities of the observer.
In other words, absolute (universal) knowledge of the truth is impossible; “one opinion is as good as another”. Philosophy week 2 Pre- Socratic philosophy: Asian sages and the sage The Sage The sage is an archetypal fig. Who combines religious inspiration with a love of wisdom? Found in ancient Asia, they are the oldest philosophical archetypes, identifying happiness and teaching the good life. Asian cosmology is not based on empirical (numbers, data, statistics) or scientific evidence.
It contends (argues) that everything is working harmoniously, following the Tao (Force or flow of energy in life), or the “path” or the “way” There is no separation between heaven and earth, divine and human, but is working together; all is one reality containing yin and yang. Yin represents earth, weakness, darkness, negative, and destruction. Yang represents heaven, strength, light, positive and construction. One cannot live without the other, keeping the universe in balance. Think Lao-tzu Confucius Siddhartha Gautama The Sophists (Meaning Wise in Greek) First professional educators, Charged fee to teach.
Argued that the difference between a good and bad argument is custom and individual preference, nothing is bad or good in nature. They argued for relativism, both cultural and individual. Journal 3 Read pages 59-60 Reflect upon ways you have been a victim of ethnocentrism. Reflect upon ways you are ethnocentric Reflect ways America is ethnocentric. Since 911. The Person Socrates (470-399 B. C. E) was the first major western philosopher. He wrote no philosophy and what we know of him comes chiefly from his pupils Plato and Xenophon.
Socrates challenged the sophists doctrines of relativism and moral realism he often taught that beauty and goodness determined by utility (If it serves a purpose) His Teachings Socrates is most famous for his style of philosophical inquiry known as the Socratic Method or dialectic. Education is supposed to draw knowledge out of you instead of riding with you like an empty vessel. Among his teachings, his most persistent command was know you. Believing an unexamined life was not worth living, he saw himself as a kind of “Physician of the soul.
” He believed that the real person is not the body, but the physics-mind-soul. Journal 5 Read the trial and death of Socrates on pages 110-115 How does death and his art of dying relate to his teachings History Plato was a member of the Athenian aristocracy and Socrates’s most favorite and important student Athenian democracy was irrational mob rule. Founded famous academy to educate wise rulers In Plato’s metaphysics, the highest level of reality consists of timeless “essences” called forms. Platonic forms are independently existing, noncapital “some-things” Plato divided reality into to two world’s dualism.
The highest level of reality is eternal and changeless being. The other is the evolving physical world, known as the coming According to Plato the sophists could not discover truth because they were preoccupied with the world of ever changing perceptions and customs. For Plato the chief distinction between knowledge and opinion is that knowledge is fixed, absolute and eternally true. Whereas opinion is unanchored and changeable. According to plait opinion lives in the realm of becoming truth and knowledge are found on the level of being. The Divided line 133-135.
The simile of the sun 135-137 The Allegory of the cvae137-139 The divided line A+B= World of Forms (Being, Knowledgeable) C+D= Physical world (Becoming Opinion) Metaphysics | Epistemology(study of knowledge) | Higher Forms(Example: the good) | A: Understanding | Lower Forms(Example: Form human) | B: Reasoning | Sensible Objects (Example: Mother Teresa) | C. Perception | Images(Example: Mother Teresa’s Photograph) | D. Imagination | Simile of the sun Plato compared the absolute form of the good to the sun; the good makes the existence of everything else possible.
The good cannot t be observed by the five senses and can be known only by pure thought or intelligence. It is the source of both the value and the existence of all other forms. Allegory of the cave In the allegory for the cave, Plato categorized three levels of awareness by referring to three distinct levels of reality: two levels of becoming and one ultimate level of being. Lowest Level: No imagination or perception Informed level: Wider range of basic understanding. Awakening Highest level: Soul has no need for perception or interpretation.
The Republic (Socrates book for perfect utopia) Plato agreed that there is a reciprocal relationship between the individual and the kind of society in which he or she lives. The ideal state, for Plato, meets three basic characteristics 1) Nourishing needs, 2) Protection needs 3) Ordering needs These needs are best met by three classes: Workers, Warriors, Guardians or Philosopher – Kings. The republic contrasts two views of morality. The instrumental theory of morality asserts that right and wrong must be determined by the consequences our actions produce.
The functionalist theory of morality holds that right and wrong can only be understood in terms of the way they affect our overall functioning as human beings. According to Plato, the just state functions fully; the unjust state is dysfunctional, only when all classes of people are virtuous according to their natures is the state whole, healthy, balanced and just. In order to be a just human being, balanced. Virtuous. – temperance, courage, wisdom, justice(essence and balance of the soul) Plato thought the worst kind of Gov. was a tyranny. And democracy was a tyranny.
Democracy makes little tyrants out of everybody. Journal 6 According to Plato’s philosophy, please answer these questions: Carefully explain the relationship of the individual to the state in Plato’s Republic. Why is the relationship significant? What does Plato see as the most unjust type of person and state? Do you agree? Explain. Explain the origin and nature of democracy according to plan. Aristotle The person Aristotle was Plato’s most illustrious student and went on to be the personal tutor of Alexander the great. He eventually created his own school called the lyceum.
In contrast to Plato, Aristotle introduced the idea of naturalistic or scientific knowledge gained from collecting facts and usual factual info to make the world a better place. Aristotle was a naturalist. Naturalism if the belief that reality consists of the natural world and that the universe is ordered. Everything follows discoverable laws of nature. His Philosophy Aristotle believed that form and matter can be intellectually separated but cannot live independently in reality. The form of something is called its essence. Matter is the common physical material stuff but it has no distinct characteristics without a form.
Aristotelian form is that which is in matter and makes thing is what that is. So, individual things are “formed matter. ” Aristotle argued that complete understanding of a thing required identifying its “four causes. ” 1st cause: Material cause, the material thing is made of Cause: formal cause. The form the thing takes cause: Efficient cause, the triggering motion that begins the thing Cause: Final cause, the Telis, or the ultimate purpose for which the thing exists. In living things, Aristotle called the final cause, Entelechy, meaning having its purpose within.
He believed every living thing had an “inner urge” or a drive to become its unique self. He believed nature was ordered and guided internally. Journal 7 Consider the quotes on page 153. Please write a few paragraphs for each one describing what they mean to you and how they relate to you. For Aristotle, psyche or soul is the form of the body. Soul is entelechy. Like every other instance of form and matter, for Aristotle the soul can’t be separated from the body and its body and it’s impossible to affect the body without also affecting the soul or to affect the soul without affecting the body.
Aristotle taught that humans had a hierarchy of three kinds of souls, each higher level containing the aspects of the lower levels: 1st level: Lowest soul called vegetative or Nutritive, responsibility for absorption 2nd Level: the sentient or sensitive soul, registers all info regarding form of other things. 3rd Level: Highest Soul found in humans only, called rational soul, and includes the other two plus the capabilities for analysis, understanding relationships and decision-making. According to Aristotle the good is that which all things aim.
It is their entelechy Eudemonia which often translated to happiness means being really alive rather than just existing. According to Aristotle happiness requires activity good habits and practical wisdom. Aristotelian moderation is based on the concept of wisdom hitting the mark between too much and not enough Virtue consists of hitting the mark or the mean but vice consist of being off by too much (excess) or too little (Deficiency) Journal 8 Read pages 172-176 Explain the importance of hitting the mark and character to Aristotle’s concept of happiness What is the principle of meaning?
Philosophy study guide Academy- Alexander the Great An Unexamined Life Aristotelian Forms Aristotle’s Hierarchy of souls Aristotle’s Idea of a Good life Aristotle’s Teacher Entelechy Hitting the mark Lyceum Naturalism Plato’s 3 classes of people Plato’s feelings toward democracy Democracy Plato’s four cardinal virtues Plato’s teacher Platonic Forms Simile of the sun Socrates Death sentence Temperance The republic Three levels of human souls Tyranny journal 1 Wisdom | Knowledge | Theoretical Knowledge | Practical Knowledge | Belief | Mere Belief | Willed Ignorance |
Definition and Examplesjournal 2 Write how each of the eight paths are relevant in today’s world journal 4· Socrates’ “electric shock” effect on Athens resulted in death, however it gave him a place in history as a great thinker wise sage. From pages 87-95, read each quote in the margins· Please write the quote that shocks you and Reflect upon its meaning to you. Absolute truth is “Truth” with a capital T. What do we know so far? Modern Philosophy(How do you know that it’s true? ) After Christianity began to grow, most Europeans turned to god as the ultimate source of wisdom and the church as the ultimate authority.
However, by the 17th century scientific ad advancements and the decline of the authority of a single church began the era of modern philosophy. It was a shift from metaphysics to epistemology. Rene Descartes(1596-1650) is the father of philosophy. He came up with rationalism. Dcccd. edu> then go to student services, then libraries. 3 ears of Western Philosophy- 1 Classical, what is truth? essentialism; Modern- How do you know it’s true? Rationalism; Rationalism is the epistemological position in which reason is said to be the primary source of all knowledge.
Rationalist believe in the coherence theory of truth: that new or unclear ideas should be evaluated in terms of rational or logical consistency and in relation to already established truth. Rationalism says that abstract reasoning can produce absolutely certain truths about reality and that some truths can be discovered without observation, experiment or experience. These truths are innate ideas or a priori ideas. A priori can be known without experience or experiment but Posteriori ideas are derived from experience and experiment.
However he arrived at the cogito, ergo sum, latin for “I think, therefore I am. ” This, along with a satisfactory belief in god, stood as his undoubtable truth. Journal 9 Please do the philosophical queries(Green Boxes) on pgs. 252 and 253 Jeremy Bentham- resurrected hedonism, in direct response to the conservative ruling class in Britain. The result he created the “greatest happiness” principle also known as the Principle of Utility, that states we should always act to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number.
Benthams hedonic calculus was a crude method of reducing stress to simple calculation of units of pleasure versus units of pain. Psychological hedonism- pain and pleasure determine what we shall do Ethical hedonism- pain and pleasure point to what we ought to do. Bentham extended the ethical reach of the pleasure principle beyond the human community to any creature with the capacity to suffer. He argued that insisting that animals lack moral worth was akin to racism. John stuart mill He believed that there is an empirical basis supporting his claim that refined pleasures to crude ones.
Mill disagreed with Bentham that all motives are egotistic and based his more refined philosophy in the social feelings of all people for unity with each other. Mill believed in the possibility of altruism, the capacity to promote wellbeing of others, he argued that the lack of altruistic feelings and ignorance of the higher pleasures were products of poor education and harsh conditions, not quality of human nature. According to mill, the selfishness and lack of mental cultivation are the chief causes of unhappiness, and can be cured with a proper education and legislation.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 28 October 2016
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