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Within the English parlance there exists a axiom that ‘knowledge is power ‘ – this statement is substantiated by the fact that throughout recorded history civilizations have placed great importance upon acquisition and the acquisition of cognition. However, this brings forth a more of import inquiry – how in world was this knowledge-base acquired. Basically, the most efficacious agencies in continuing this cognition was composing. This presents a job of its ain – the innovation of alphabets and linguistic communications day of the months back around 5000 old ages with the Sumerian cuneiform being considered the oldest known linguistic communication.
For the most of history people relied on unwritten transmittal. However, orality is capable to alter and is susceptible to change with far greater easiness than composing and later composing holds far greater value, particularly within the modern context. Languages have accordingly evolved ( albeit borrowing from other linguistic communications ) to identifiable and recognized systems of sounds and grammatical forms, and significantly assorted books.
English in today ‘s society is deemed lingua franca and has become the preferable linguistic communication of commercialism every bit good as academe.
However, most people in the UK ( due to the system of instruction ) learn either Gallic or German as a subordinate linguistic communication to some extent. These linguistic communications present troubles of grammar, sentence structure, vocabulary and pronunciation foremost, but non with the book – as all employ the ‘Latin ‘ alphabet.
However, there is an addition in people larning other linguistic communications ( besides the aforesaid ) like Arabic. This presents the pupil ab iniitio with a greater challenge – that of larning an wholly new book.
Besides, Arabic is alone in that it behaves as a linguistic communication both as an Abjad ( a consonant based Alphabet that usually merely represents consonants ) and as a standard alphabet. Therefore, an novice must pass clip
familiarizing themselves with the alphabet before plunging farther into the linguistic communication. Arabic presents another job, its book is non inactive like English – i.e. the characters remain a changeless form graphological form irrespective of their place in a word – Arabic, is unstable, the letters readily change their visual aspect depending on where they appear in a word, each Arabic missive posses an initial, median and concluding signifier, every bit good as a base entirely signifier.
Recently, the democratization of computing machines ( and engineering at big ) particularly in the Western universe has resulted in a great addiction upon cognizing how to utilize them and in conveying information to the multitudes through them. E-learning is going progressively popular – particularly with greater entree to the cyberspace. Professor Diana Laurillard re-affirmed the significance of e-learning when she said “no sane individual can state that e-learning is non essential.” Rather, e-learning is “the most exciting thing to hold come our manner since the innovation of writing” . The effectivity of E-Learning is farther underscored with the increased popularity of programmes like Rosetta Stone and Pimslow – designed to assist learn linguistic communications efficiently and expeditiously.
The above being considered the purpose of this undertaking is to set about the development of such an e-learning programme for the Arabic Language. The undertaking will take to learn how to compose and read the linguistic communication. To make this the latest e-learning techniques will be employed in peculiar to help a novice in the right manner to read and compose assorted missive signifiers and diacritical Markss ( points and elan ‘s above and below letters that influence the corresponding letters sound ) . The undertaking aims to assist novices to derive a greater assurance in larning to read Arabic.
The purposes and aims of this undertaking is to research into several cardinal countries to develop an effectual e-learning system and measure if the techniques implemented in the system were effectual.
In an e-learning environment if an“integrative” larning attack is implemented over a “behaviourist” acquisition attack so the terminal user will profit more from the acquisition experience through utilizing the e-learning application.
The term e-learning can mention to the procedure of larning through engineering such as a personal computing machine or the cyberspace [ Poulin R ] . However the term e-learning can be loosely defined due to the nature of technological development and the velocity at which this is happening [ Meyers, Jeremy ] and the stuffs that are used in the elearning procedure.
Furthermore E-learning is non merely going progressively common and popular because of technological promotions but because of the handiness of personal computing machines to the mean family [ BBC News, 2002 ] . Besides consideration must be given to the addition in usage of e-learning within educational establishments like universities for illustration to distance pupils and administrations to develop employees [ BCS News 1 ] . Other grounds as to why e-learning has become widespread are the great advantages it presents over traditional face-to-face acquisition. Although this point raised is problematic e-learning does hold some clear advantages over face-to-face acquisition such as:
To hold a full apprehension of CALL1 it would be wise to look at it ‘s history and development from when it began to present twenty-four hours. CALL has been developing over the past 40 old ages and has been through three specific phases [ Warschauer M, 1996 ] . The first phase of CALL, viz. “Behaviouristic CALL” , was developed in the 1950 ‘s and subsequently implemented in the 1960 ‘s. It was built on the popular theories of larning at that clip. These theories included thoughts that larning stuffs were to be repeated to be effectual, the computing machine was ideal for executing this undertaking and that the user can travel at their ain gait as each user would hold their ain computing machine. Such learning methods were known as “drill and practice” due to the nature of the system and it ‘s low degree of interactivity with the user [ Warschauer M, 1996 ] .
The 2nd phase of CALL known as “Communicative CALL” like the first phase was based on popular larning theories at the clip it was developed and used in the 1970- 80 ‘s [ Warschauer M, 1996 ] . This phase was concerned with go forthing behind what were seen as uneffective techniques in behavioristic CALL and implement a more synergistic system that would prosecute the user [ Stevens V, 1989 ] .
The 3rd and current phase of CALL known as “Integrative CALL” is built on some recent cardinal technological promotions that occurred in the last 20 old ages. These technological promotions are digital multimedia and the cyberspace [ Warschauer M, 1996 ] .
Digital multimedia refers to a individual interface or computing machine plan that is built up from a combination of two or more media [ Chapman, 2000 ] . In utilizing digital multimedia and CALL approach many effectual e-learning systems have been developed. However the applications that are to the full synergistic are few due to the bulk being developed missing a strong pedagogical foundation [ Warschauer M, 1996 ] .
The cyberspace is a big aggregation of interrelated computing machine webs in communicating with one another via a common protocol [ Coulouris et Al, 2001 ] . Sing the cyberspace and development of integrative CALL 1 can detect that the cyberspace provides a rich resource to the content that is being taught from the universe broad web. Furthermore it allows pupils and instructors likewise utilizing integrative CALL developed systems to hold one-to-one or one-to-many contact in existent clip. This helps coaction of undertakings and no bound to the location of the user [ Warschauer M, 1996 ] .
1 Computer Assisted Language Learning will be abbreviated to Name throughout the remainder of this study. Although digital multimedia has been restricted to utilize on computing machines via CD-ROM in the past looking into recent developments in the universe broad web and more specifically web 2.0 we find this is no longer the instance and that digital multimedia is of all time present on the universe broad web via the cyberspace [ O’Reilly, 2005 ] . What this means for intergrative CALL is that the web is no longer a text-based medium which was the instance when this phase of CALL began [ Warschauer M, 1996 ] . Rather synergistic and integrative environments can be developed to increase the efficiency of e-learning systems via the web gaining the full potency of intergrative CALL [ Robinsonova N, 2008 ] .
An of import portion of planing an e-learning system is research different types of scholars and understanding how the human head, more specifically memory plants. Upon understanding these two of import countries the mark audience of the proposed elearning system will be easier to understand and specific techniques can be implemented in the e-learning system. Looking at the Honey and Mumford theoretical account where four distinguishable types of scholars were identified these were: militant, reflectors, theoreticians and pragmatists [ Honey, P. & A ; Mumford, A. 1982 ] .
The Arabic Language
Interview with Arabic instructor
Research into what possible tools could be used to develop the e-learning system
Evaluation of bing e-learning systems
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