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His “ohio gang” consisted of Hughes, Mellon, Hoover, Albert Fall, and Daugherty. Hughes was secretary of state, Mellon- sec. Of treasury, Hoover- Sec. of commerce, Fall- Sec. of the Interior, and Daugherty- Attorney General GOP Reaction at the Throttle
Harding known as an “amiable boob” He wanted the gov’t to help guide business along the path to profits Adkins V. Children’s hospital (1923)- court reversed its own reasoning in Muller V. Oregon. They declared that because women now had right to vote, the were legal equals of men and couldn’t be protected The Aftermath of War
Washington returned the railroads to private management in 1920 Esch-Cummins Transportation Act of 1920- encouraged private consolidation of the railroads and pledged the Interstate Commerce Commission to guarantee their profitability.
Merchant Marine Act of 1920- authorized the Shipping Board, which controlled 1500 vessels , to dispose of much of the war time fleet at bargain prices La Follette Seaman’s Act of 1915- American shipping couldn’t thrive in competition with foreigners who often provided their workers with wretched food and low wages Labor board ordered a 12% cut in 1922.
2 month strike occurred Veterans Bureau created which was authorized to operate hospitals and provide rehabilitation for the disabled Adjusted Compensation Ac t- gave every former soldier a paid-up insurance policy due in 20 yrs America Seeks Benefits Without Burdens
Washington “Disarmament” Conference in 1921-1922. Invitations sent to the major naval powers except Bolshevik Russia Secretary Hughes declared a 10 year “holiday” on the construction of battleships Five-Power Naval Treaty of 1922embodied Hugh’s idea of the 5:5:3 ship ratio Four-Power Treaty bounded Britain, Japan, France, and the U.
S. to preserve the status quo of the pacific Coolidge’s secretary of state Frank Kellogg signed the wit the French foreign minister in 1928the Pact of Paris Hiking the Tariff Higher
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law During Harding and Coolidge, tariffs were increased rather than really being reduced The Stench of Scandal Forbes looted the gov’t of about 200 million under Harding, sentenced to two years of prison Teapot Dome Scandal- sec of interior, Fall, induced the sec. of the navy to transfer the oil reserve properties of Teapot Dome Wyoming and Elk Hills, California to the interior department Harding signed the secret order. Fall quietly leased lands to oilmen Sinclair and Doheny vut not until he received bribe of over 100,000 “Silent Cal” Coolidge
Coolidge was shy, quiet, and boring “cautious Cal” would bring back morality to the scandalous Harding regime Frustrated Farmers 1920 price of wheat went up to $3 a bushel “what belt” located in upper midwest The McCormick reaper allowed farmers to harvest an overabundance in wheat. Depression occurred in 20s Capper-Volstead Act- exempted farmers’ marketing cooperatives from antitrust prosecution McNary-Haugen Bill- sought to keep agricultural prices high by authorizing the gov’t to buy up surpluses and sell them abroad. Coolidge vetoed the bill twice A three-Way Race for the White House in 1924
Republicans nominated Coolidge for presidency in 1924 Democrats nominated John W. Davis Senator “Fighting Bob” La Follette led a new Progressive grouping. Gained endorsement of the American Federation of Labor Platform called for gov’t ownership of the railroads and relief for farmers, lashed out at monopoly and anti-labor injunctions, and urged an amendment to limit the Supreme Court’s power to invalidate laws passed by congress Foreign- Policy Flounderings
American troops removed from the Dominican Republic in 1924. Remained in Haiti until 1934.breifely removed from Nicaragua in 1925 1926 mexico began to assert its sovereignty over oil resources. Coolidge tried to negotiate America loaned 10 billion to allies during and after the war. U.S. wanted to be paid back and the allies protested that the demand for repayment was unfair Unraveling the Debt Knot
Allies demanded Germany to pay 32 billion in war damages Dawes plan of 1924- negotiated mainly by Dawes, it rescheduled German reparations payments and opened the way for further American private loans to Germany The Triumph of Herbert Hoover, 1928 Coolidge’s successor was the secretary of commerce, Hoover in the 1928 election Democrats nominated Alfred E. Smith. Was a colorful alcoholic. “Al(chohol) smith” Radio helped hoover win more than Smith
Hoover had strong faith in American individualism, free enterprise, and small government He endorsed labor unions and supported federal regulation of the radio broadcasting industry Hoover won election
President Hoover’s First Moves Agricultural Marketing Act- passed june 1929- set up the Federal Farm Board. Helped farmers help themselves 1930 the farm board created the Grain Stabilization Corp and the Cotton stabilization corp- goal was the buy up all the surpluses Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930turned out to be the highest protective tariff in the nation’s history The Great Crash Ends the Golden Twenties
Stock market crash came in October 1929 Partially because Britain raised their interest rates to bring back capital “black Tuesday” is also October 29, 1929 By the end of 1930 more than 4million workers in the U.S. were jobless 5000 banks collapsed in the first 5 yrs of the depression Hooked on the Horn of Plenty Great depression primarily brought on by overproduction by farm and factory Overexpansion of credit through installment-plan buying overstimulated production Drought scorched Mississippi Valley in 1930. Thousands of farms sold at auction of taxes People slept under “Hoover blankets (old newspapers) and fought over things in garbage cans Shanty towns called “Hoovervilles”
Rugged Times For Rugged Individuals Hoover feared that the gov’t handing out welfare/money would weaken or destroy the nation Hoover finally stepped away from his doctrine of individualism and accepted that the welfare of the people in a nationwide catastrophe is a direct concern of the national gov’t He would assist the railroads, banks, and rural credit corporations Hoover Battles the Great Depression
Hoover dam built for purposes of irrigation, flood control, and electric power Hoover vetoed the Muscle Shoals Bill because it was to dam the Tennessee River which meant to gov’t would sell electricity in competition with its own citizens/private companies Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)- made in 1932, it became a gov’t lending bank. Was designed to provide indirect relief by assisting insurance companies, banks, railroads, and state/local gov’ts Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act- passed in 1932, outlawed “yellow dog” (antiunion) contracts and forbade the federal courts to issue injunctions to restrain strikes and peaceful picketing Routing the Bonus Army in Washington
“Bonus Expeditionary Force” (BEF) were unemployed veterans who mustered 20000 people to set up a “Hooverville” on the capital to intimidate congress into giving them their entire bonus for the war General Douglas MacArthur evicted the people
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