Essay, Pages 14 (3375 words)
To weak Could not levy taxes, had economic problems causing social unrest Not strong enough to hold states together Regulations state to state hard to deal No uniform tax, different taxes in each state Rebellions with direct challenge towards congress for more national government or even a dictatorship, unable to deal with national problems 2. American Manufactures- replace state tariffs with uniformly high national duty Merchants and shippers- single national policy not state-to-state policies Land
Speculators- wanted treat of Indians removed from their western tracts People who owed money-states to stop issuing money, which lowered the value of what they received in payment Investors-in Confederation securities wanted the government to fund the debt and thus enhance the value of their securities Large property owners- looked for ways to protect against mobs (shays rebellion) 3.
Character of the men at the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention Founding fathers (all states except Rhode Island) 55, Young men, around 44 only Franklin was advanced age Represented propertied interest of the country
Feared follies of democracy but suspicious of concentrated power Washington was elected head, and Madison was most essential.
Provided the plan of Virginia that was used in establishing new constitution. The Foundation of the debate was made off of Randolph’s (Virginia) excepted Idea of supreme legislation, Executive and Judicial branches Franklin was also important, remained calm, telling the delegates if they failed they would despair of est. govt. by human wisdom, and leave it to chance of warned conquest. His influenced allow delegates to refuse to give up and they came up with he Great Compromise 4.
Madison with the Virginia Plan that called for new national legislation with 2 houses. In the lower house states represented by population. members of upper house elected by lower house. Was changed to upper house to be elected by state government, each state then was given at least one member in upper house. Paterson New Jersey Plan for a federal govt. with one legislation, each state equal representation and gave congress-expanded powers of tax and to regulate commerce (tabled by Congress) smaller states needed in ratification.
It gave the upper house to be elected by state egislation giving least one member from each state in the upper house b. The convention was divided by Would states really be represented equally in upper house or would the larger states have more members Great compromise-states represented in the lower house on the basis of population the upper house, states would be represented equally with 2 members apiece Slavery being counted in taxation or population counts for the representation. South Carolina wanted slaves to be considered property govt. evied taxes but people in the head count for representation. Those in the north wanted the opposite of this. Great compromise- each slave counted as three-fifths of a free person in determining taxation and representation Power to regulate trade effect cotton economy, which relied on slavery and sales abroad Great compromise- not allowed to tax exports and forbidden to impose a duty more than 10 dollars a head on imported slaves and no authority to stop slave trade for twenty years 6.
Efforts to preserve ideals of the revolution by eliminating disorder and content Effort to crest a strong national govt. to exercise authority Under impact of business depression The weakness and ineptitude of national government The treats to American territories from Great Britain and Spain The inability of either congress or state govt. o make good their debts The interstate Jealousies and barriers to trade Widespread use of inflation producing paper money Lawlessness that was Shays rebellion The timely adoption of the Constitution could save the young republic Effect to protect the economic interest of existing elites Conservative business interest who feared that the decentralized political structure of republic imperiled their financial position Economic reasons Wanted government able to promote industry and trade, protect private property and ake good on the public debt Constitution was an economic document drawn from superb kill by men whose property interest were at stake Articles could have produced a permanent government Effort to protect individual freedom and to limit the power of the federal govt. Debate between the federalist and antifederalist New constitution with Bill of rights economical distress were likely to support the constitution; states that were stable and prosperous were likely to oppose it 7. Role of the branches in the Constitution Legislative- House of Representatives based on population rep. nd Senate based qual rep. each elected for different terms, and different ways to check power Judicial- protection from both executive and legislative, Judges and Justices appointed by the president and then confirmed by the senate would serve for life Executive- president power to veto acts of congress The federal government would divide power between state and nation (power in part from the people) to protect from the tranny of the people or the mob, and of excess of democracy (shays rebellion) Only House of rep. elected directly by the people Senate, president and federal Judges would be isolated from public . Who and what is the Federalist?
Called federalist because the term once used by opponents of centralization Implying they were less committed to a nationalist government than in fact were Hamilton, Madison, Franklin, Washington, Jay important federalist Wrote federalist papers They were actually wanted stronger central government to check power of masses 9. To get their views seen, Madison, Hamilton, and Jay published federalist papers in the newspaper explaining the virtues and meaning of the constitution Concerned with public masses, waned govt. to function at some distance from public passion nd strong enough to act against threats to order and stability 10. Antifederalist concerns Recognized need for govt. but concerned in state or concentrated power than dangers of popular will Opposed constitution because it placed obstacles between people and the exercise of power Name implied they had nothing to offer but opposition and chaos Believed constitution would betray those principles est. trong, possible tyrannical govt, that could increase taxes, obliterate states, wield dictoral powers, favor the wellborn over common people and put an end to individual liberty Biggest concern was lack of Bill of rights 1 1 . The process of ratification for the Constitution Ratified by 9 of 13 states would become law Delaware, New Jersey, New Hampshire and Georgia ratified fast (support) Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts more of a struggle Virginia and New York antifederalist feared the states commercial interest would suffer and would not ratify unless had the Bill of Rights (and did finally ratify) North Carolina waited to see what would happen to the amendments Rhode Island did not even participate (no support) 12. Congress continued work of the Constitutional Convention by..
Was in charge of amendment to protect state powers, rest were to provide basic rights Congress to determine the number of Supreme Court Judges to be appointed and the kinds of lower courts to be organized Made Judiciary Act of 1789- provided Supreme Court six members, Chief Justice and five associate Justices; 13 districts with one Judge apiece, and three circuit courts of appeal, with one district Judge Lastly congress gave finial decision in case involving constitutionality of state laws to supreme court Created 3 departments or cabinets- state, treasury, and war 13. Washington selections for cabinets Secretary of treasury- Hamilton Secretary of war- general Knox Attorney general- Randolph Secretary of State- Jefferson 14. 1750 differences in philosophy heats the debate about constitution -Caused by not solving problem but vague compromises Federalist Nation-state with strong govt. ith a centralized authority Complex commercial economy Proud standing in world affairs Hamilton Republicans Modest government Not highly commercialized or urban, but predominately rural and agrarian Most power for people and state Madison and Jefferson 15. View of society and politics by Hamilton and who should govern Government was he central most power, with centralized authority, a complex commercial economy, and standing in world affairs Needed the support of the wealthy and powerful Stable, effective govt. required enlightened ruling class 16. Hamilton’s plan for paying the debt and restoring credit or federalist program To exchange certificates that congress issued for uniform, interest- bearing bonds, payable at definite dates To assume over state debts, so states would look to central govt. or eventual payment Did not want to pay off the debt but to create a large debt Old bonds being paid off, new ones issued created creditors-the wealthy class more ikely to lend money to the government and have permanent stake Sale of western lands main revenue Create national bank-provide loans and currency to business, give safe place to deposit federal funds, help collect taxes and disburse govt. expenditures, keep price of govt. bonds high through Judicial bonds, govt would have monopoly and appoint 1/5 of the directors Exercise paid by distillers for alcoholic liquors, falling heavily on the backcountry (Penn, VI, NC) where they converted corn/rye crop to whiskey Other Wrote “report on manufactures for stimulating growth of industry for a healthy oundation in manufacturing This appealed to wealthy, merchants or any powerful group 17. How the federalist programs were enacted and agreed upon National bank, exercise tax on whiskey, tax on imports, federal govt. ill assume the national debt To pay bondholders themselves, not the original lenders who had sold their bonds on their own accord Changed location of nations capital to appease VI, who did not want to pay for states with larger debts; location is on Potomac River between Virginia and Maryland Argue that national bank was compatible with the intent of the onstitution, even though it did not explicitly authorized it; senate, house, and Washington agreed to the bill with a charter for 20 years Won passage of new tariff that raised rates Opposition and success Farmers opposed tariffs (were the vast majority) Madison, Randolph, and Jefferson against bank (republicans) Was a successes in that it won the support of influential segment of the population It restored public credit, bonds were selling abroad at or above values of other nations Speculators reaped large profit Manufactures profited from the tariff, and merchants benefited from new banking system 8.
Rising in opposition No policy in constitution about political parties (Washington warns against politics but some what supports federalist) Federalist now had an interested and overbearing majority (tyrannical) Enacted program that many leaders opposed Est. national network of influence that embodied the worst features of a party Used control of appointment and awarding govt. franchise To reward supporters and gain allies Local associations full of aristocrats standing in local communities Resembled corrupt British Needed vigorous opposition to balance the power (republican party) Republican Party had partisan influence, every state formed committees, societies, and caucuses Republic of smaller govt. Repub. orrespond across state lines and influencing state and local elections Both parties claimed to serve the greater good Neither would concede the right of the other exist The first party system 19. Jefferson and Madison Agrarian republic Sturdy, independent farmer citizens Limited commercial activity, farmers would market in both national and international market for their goods Limited industry, with manufacturing capacities advanced industrial economy because of the number of property less workers Decentralized system Hamilton believed in a central govt. with large roles in commerce and foreign affairs of other countries. He believed in Enlightened class (wealthy), with a centralized authority and highly industrious 20.
French Revolution creates differences (mod rule) Federalist horrified by the event in which the monarchy was executed Republicans applauded the democracy and anti-aristocratic spirit (even imitated French radicals) Federalist numerous in commercial centers of northeast and southern coast Republicans numerous in rural areas of South and West 21 . Washington underscored the difference between the Constitution and Articles of Confederation by exerting authority and using militia of 3 other states, to defeat the revolt against the whiskey excise tax. Instead of leaving the issue to Pennsylvania to deal with as they had done under the Articles of Confederation to give Massachusetts the power of dealing with Shays Rebellion. 22. By showing the government’s new power in interfering in others affairs by destroying the whiskey rebellion it provoked the frontier people to be loyal by intimidation.
By accepting their territories as new states in the Union it won their loyalties. After Bill of Rights was added, North Carolina (1789), Rhode Island (1790), New states were Vermont after NY and NH gave their claims up to it (1791), Kentucky when VI gave up claims (1792), and Tennessee (1796) after NC gave up rights to it Constitution did little to resolve Indian issues Article 1 excludes “Indians not taxed” from being counted in the population totals that determine # of seats states would receive in House Gave Congress power “to regulate Commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes” Article VI bound new govt. o respect treaties negotiated by the confederation, but did not clarify legal standing of natives It recognized existence of ribes as legal entities, but not foreign nations Not citizens nor represented Constitution did not govern relations between whites and Indians over land No clear guide lines to rights of nation in a nation, that natives had sovereignty U. S. relationship with natives characterized by treaties 23. Difficulties during French war This tested U. S. neutrality in the conflict Problem with French diplomat, Genet Instead of Genet landing in Philadelphia to Washington, he went to Charleston, he planed to use American ports to outfit French warships, encourages American ship wners to become French privateers, and commissioned Clark on military expedition against Spanish going against Washington and neutrality act Made Washington and federalist mad, tried to recall him but Genets party was out of power, so was sent to political asylum in U. S.
Royal Navvy starts seizing American ships engaged in Trade with French in West Indies Hamilton feared war would end imports from England, which was most of the revenue for maintaining his financial system Did not want new Secretary of State, Randolph (pro-French) to negotiate and persuaded Washington to send John Jay to ecure compensation for recent British assaults on American shipping, to demand withdrawal of British forces from the frontier posts, and to negotiate a new commercial treaty No war, the Jay treaty-developed undisputed American sovereignty over entire Northwest, and produced commercial relationship with Britain Opposed by republicans and some federalist and created public denunciations, but ratified 25. Relations with Spain Jays treaty caused Spain to fear Americans and British would Join and challenge Spain’s possessions Pinckney treaty-Spain recognizes the right of American of the Mississippi River to New Orleans to reloading on oceangoing ships, agreed to fix Florida’s boundary to 31 parallel, and for Spanish to prevent Indians in Florida from launching attacks 26. Presidents election of 1796 and Adam Hamilton had too many enemies but Adam was directly associated with none of the unpopular Federalist measures 27.
Administrating a Federalist President and Republican Vice President Fierce factional rivalries, Hamilton favored Pinckney, Adams running mate Pinckney’s supporters declined to vote for Adams, and he manage to beat Jefferson by 3 votes, ut a still larger number of Adams supporters declined to vote for Pinckney, Jefferson was second in balloting and became Vice President Adams assumed presidency under inauspicious circumstances, he presided over divided party which faced a strong and resourceful Republican opposition committed to its extinction Hamilton remains most influential Federalist, and Adams never challenged him effectively Adams was talented statesmen, not talented at conciliating differences, soliciting support, or inspiring enthusiasm Assumed own virtual correctness would sustain him, even if usually wrong 28. Quasi war American relations with Great Britain and Spain improved with the Jay and Pinckney Treaty, but France alliance deteriorated and started capturing American ships over seas, sometimes imprisoning the crew Pinckney arrived in France and the governor refused to receive him as an official representative of the U. S. Many of Adams advisers favored war like Secretary of State, Thomas Pickering but Hamilton recommended conciliation and Adams agreed in an effort to stabilize relations Adams appointed a bipartisan- with Pinckney, Marshall, and Gerry to negotiate with France, Paris in 1797. agents of French foreign minister Prince Talleyrand emanded a loan for France and a bribe for French officials before any negotiation the French insults and urging preparation for war to Congress When Adams turned in the report of the American commissions over to Congress after deleting the names of the 3 French agents and named them “Messrs. X, Y, and Z” it created outrage against France and strong support from the Federalist in response to the XYZ affair- creating an undeclared war Congress was persuaded to cut off trade with France, to repudiate the treaties of 1776, and to authorize American vessels to capture French armed ships over seas 1798, Congress created a Dep. f Navvy and appropriated money for the construction of new warships (thus winning duels against the French) American became a virtual ally of the British Adams sent a new commission to Paris in 1800 and the new French govt. agreed to a treaty, that canceled the old agreement of 1778 and est. ew commerce arrangement The war ends peacefully and the U. S. frees it self from entanglements of the French alliance 29. Alien and Sedation Acts Alien Act- placed new obstacles in the way of foreigners who wished to become American citizens, and strengthened the presidents hand in dealing with them Sedation act-allowed govt. to prosecute those engaged in sedition against the govt. , libelous or treasonous activities were prosecuted, and the law made it possible for the federal govt. to strife any oppression This acts were enacted to silence Republican opposition, the sedation act meant that govt. could arrest and convict Republic newspaper, whose only crime was criticizing the federalist 30.
Virginia and Kentucky resolution Republican leaders hoped the reversal of Alien and Sedation Act on the state legislature because of the Acts opposition against Republicans The republicans laid ut a theory for state accusation, one by Jefferson, called the Kentucky resolution, adopted by Kentucky legislator and the other by Madison, called the Virginia resolution approved by Virginia legislature Both resolutions used idea of John Locke to argue that the federal govt. had been formed by a compact among the states and possessed only certain delegate powers, whenever it exercised any undelegate powers like the acts they were unauthorized and the state had right to nullify the appropriate law This revealed resentment toward policies that the Government assed, exercising more power than ever before and using power to benefit one party Even if the Republicans did not get support for nullification, they succeeded in elevating their dispute to national level (nation became divided politically resulting many arguments) 31 .
Issue of 1800 election Issue of nation very divided politically resulting in one of the most ugliest elections in American history with Mudslinging Jefferson accused of too radical, having wild followers would bring terror comparable to the French Revolution and his romantic involvement with a slave women Adams was portrayed as a tyrant conspiring to ecome king, and that the federalist were plotting to subvert human liberty and society, republicans carried the city by vast majority and Jefferson was elected but the constitution called for each elector to “vote by ballot for two persons” and they had an elector cast one vote for his party’s presidential candidate and another for the Vice President. To avoid a tie between Jefferson and Burr, the Republicans had intended for one elector to refrain from voting for Burr but both candidates tied any ways with 73.
The House of Representatives had to choose; each state delegate would cast a single vote. The new Congress had an republican majority but would not hold office till after the president was inaugurated, so it was up to the Federalist. Hamilton concluded that Burr was too unreliable and Jefferson was elected 32. Adams reaction in losing the presidency He took steps to make the party’s hold on the courts secure By the Judiciary Act of 1801 , Federalist reduced the number of Supreme Court justiceships by one and increased the number of federal Judgeships as a whole Adams appointed Federalist to the newly created position and in “midnight appointments” stayed up till midnight signing the new Judges commission