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APUSH: Chapter 41 Vocabulary

Monica Lewinsky
young White House intern whose sexual affair with President Clinton led to his impeachment

Al Gore
President Clinton’s loyal vice president who won the most popular votes but lost the election of 2000

Richard Cheney
George W. Bush’s vice president who vigorously promoted conservative domestic policies and the invasion of Iraq

H. Ross Perot
Texas billionaire who won nearly 20% of the popular vote as third-party candidate in 1992

Barack Obama
Illinois senator who became the first African American to be elected president, in 2008

Slobodan Milosevic
Serbian president who conducted vicious ethnic cleansing and was eventually forced from office

George W. Bush
son of a former president whose narrow election as president in 2000 did not prevent him from pursuing a strong conservative agenda in office

William J. Clinton
the first baby boomer president who was the first Democrat elected to two full terms since Franklin Roosevelt

Saddam Hussein
long-time Iraqi dictator who was overthrown by invading American armies in 2003

Hillary Rodham Clinton
first presidential spouse to be given major policy responsibilities and to win election to the United States Senate

Newt Gingrich
fiery Republican Speaker of the House who led his party to great victory in 1994 but resigned after Republican losses in 1998

Osama bin Laden
wealthy Saudi Arabian exile who formed a global terrorist network that assaulted the United States

John McCain
veteran reform-minded senator who won the Republican Party presidential nomination in 2008

Robert Dole
1996 Republican presidential nominee who was soundly defeated by Bill Clinton

William Rehnquist
Chief Justice of the United States who presided at the impeachment trial of President Clinton

Kenneth Starr
prosecutor against Clinton in the Lewinsky scandal

Susan and Jim McDougal
couple involved in Whitewater Affair who received prison sentences with Susan receiving an additional 18 months due to her refusal to testify

Gennifer Flowers
model and actress who obtained notoriety after revealing a sexual relationship with President Bill Clinton

Paula Jones
former Arkansas state employee who sued President Bill Clinton for sexual harassment

Boris Yeltsin
President of the Russian Republic in 1991 who helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign

Lech Walesa
co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc’s first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland

F. W. De Klerk
white South African prime minister who worked with Nelson Mandela to end the Apartheid

Nelson Mandela
spent 27 years in prison for “sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government” in South Africa, and upon his release, began negotiations with President F. W. de Klerk, which led to the removal of Apartheid; elected President of South Africa in 1990

Yasir Arafat
PLO leader who negotiated with Yizhak Rabin on a principle of self-rule for the Palestinians within Israeli before he was killed

Yizhak Rabin
Israeli premier who signed self-rule agreement with Palestine

Trent Lott
served as a member of the U. S. House of Representatives and as Senate majority leader

Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Clinton-appointed female Supreme Court Justice

Amy Tan
wrote the “Joy Luck Club,” which was widely hailed for its depiction of the Chinese-American experience of the 20th century

Toni Morrison
author of “Beloved” and winner of the Nobel Prize for literature

Joy Harjo
poet, musician, and author who was often cited as playing a formidable role in the second wave of the “Native American Renaissance”

Raymond Carver
contributed to the revitalization of the American short story in literature during the 1980s (ex. “Cathedral” and “The Bath”)

Eve Ensler
playwright, performer, feminist, and activist who was best known for her play “The Vagina Monologues”

David Hwang
American playwright of Chinese heritage (ex. “M. Butterfly” and “Golden Child”)

Tony Kushner
prominent American playwright who was best known for his gay fantasia on national themes, “Angels in America”

Jackson Pollock
pioneer artistic creator of “abstract expressionism” in the 1940s and 1950s

O. J. Simpson
former football star whose murder trial became a focus of racial tension

Madeleine Albright
Secretary of State who tried to work out peace in the Middle East

Democratic Leadership Council
centrist Democratic organization that promoted Bill Clinton’s candidacy as a New Democrat

Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell
shorthand phrase for compromise policy that emerged after Clinton’s failed attempt to end ban on gays and lesbians in the military

Branch Davidians
fundamentalist group whose compound in Waco, Texas was assaulted by federal agents in 1993

Columbine High School
Colorado high school where a deadly shooting in 1999 stirred a national movement against guns and gun violence

Contract With America
conservative campaign platform that led to a sweeping Republican victory in the 1994 mid-term elections

NAFTA (North America Free Trade Agreement)
controversial free trade agreement between the United States, Mexico, and Canada that virtually eliminated trade barriers between the three nations

WTO (World Trade Organization)
international trade organization that prompted strong protests from anti global trade forces in the late 1990s

Haiti
Caribbean nation where Clinton sent 20,000 American troops to restore ousted President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power

Lewinsky Affair
the sexual scandal involving a young White House intern that led to impeachment but not conviction of President Clinton

Green Party
third party, led by environmentalist Ralph Nader, that took votes from Democratic presidential nominee Albert Gore in 2000 election

Electoral College
constitutional institution for choosing presidents that came under severe criticism after the 2000 popular vote winner failed to win the office

Pentagon
the other site of direct attack by terrorists on September 11, 2001, besides the twin towers of the World Trade Center

Al Qaeda
the international terrorist network headed by Osama bin Laden

Patriot Act
controversial law restricting civil liberties, passed in the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks (law that allowed a bunch of telephone taps and stuff which kinda violated civil rights but hey, that’s safety!)

Abu Ghraib Prison
Iraqi prison where alleged American abuse of Iraqi prisoners inflamed anti-American sentiment in Iraq and beyond

Taliban
terrorist Islamic organization that ruled off and on in Afghanistan

Whitewater Affair
questionable Arkansas land deal with Tom McDougal

Impeachment
perjury before a grand jury and obstruction of justice; however deplorable Clinton’s personal misconduct, sexual transgression did not rise to the level of “high crimes and misdemeanors” prescribed in the Constitution

Sunbelt
population movement from northern and eastern states to southern and western states (Virginia to California)

Apartheid
policy of strict racial segregation imposed in South Africa to permit the continued dominance of whites, politically and economically

economic sanctions
boycotts, embargoes, and other economic measures that one country uses to pressure another country into changing its policies

“ethnic cleansing”
a systematic elimination of people based upon their ethnicity

GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
international trade organization that encourages free trade by lowering tariffs and other trade restrictions

PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)
political movement uniting Palestinian Arabs in an effort to create an independent state of Palestine

Solidarity
Polish labor union crushed by the communist-imposed martial-law regime in 1983

Mutualistas
group of Mexican Americans who pooled their money for legal aid and to defend themselves against violence

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