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APUSH chapter 39 and 40 part 1 Essay

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John F. Kennedy
He was the youngest, most glamorous, and first Catholic president ever elected. He won the 1960 presidential election against Nixon. During his presidency, he sent the Green Beret (Marines) to Vietnam and he helped develop the Peace Corps. His foreign policy was Flexible Response and his domestic program was the New Frontier. He appointed his brother, Robert Kennedy as Attorney General. Robert Kennedy dealt with the Civil Rights issue as well. John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Nov.22, 1963.

Robert F. Kennedy
He was JFK brother and also appointed attorney general of the U.S. Robert and president JFK helped in the civil right movement, by encouraging and gave financial backing to private foundations, SNCC, and other civil rights groups. Exuding his own boyish charm and wrapped in the Kennedy family mystique, Robert excited crowds to wildly outpourings. In 1968 the night of the California primary, Robert Kennedy was shot and killed by an Arab immigrant resentful of the candidate’s pro-Israel view.

Robert S. McNamara
He was the president of the Ford Motor Company, who left the seat to take over the Defense Department. He helped president Kennedy pushed the strategy of “flexible response”. It was Kennedy’s plan to deal with foreign powers by not always resorting to nuclear weapons but using specialist like the Green Beret. When he expressed his “increasing discomfiture” about the course of the Vietnam event and was quietly removed from office.

Charles de Gaulle
President of France, he was suspicious of American plans for Europe, and wanted to recapture the feeling of the Napoleonic era. He constantly vetoed actions by or in the interest of the U.S. that would increase their control in European affairs.

New Frontier
The New Frontier was the new programs introduced by President Kennedy in the early 1960’s. These programs included the space program to the moon and the peace corp. The peace corps was proposed by Kennedy which was an army of idealistic and mostly youthful volunteers to bring American skills to underdeveloped countries. While the NASA program was designed as a race against Russia to land the first American on the moon.

Credibility Gap
This was the gap between the people and the government that grew as the people became disillusioned with the Vietnam War and Watergate.

Vienna Summit
JFK met with Soviet premier Khrushchev at Vienna in June 1961. There the Soviet leader threaten to make a treaty with East Germany and cut off Western access to Berlin, but the JFK refused to be bullied. Despite that the construction of the Berlin Wall begin in 1961, where barb-wire and concrete barrier was plug in. The Wall stood for almost three decades as an ugly scar symbolizing the post-WW2 division of Europe.

Richard Nixon
He was inaugurated in 1969 and urged the American people “to stop shouting at one another.” Nixon brought a valuable asset with him to the White House; his broad knowledge and thoughtful expertise in foreign affairs. President Nixon’s also announced his policy “Vietnamization” to withdraw the 540,000 U.S. troops in South Vietnam over an extended period. This allowed the South Vietnamese to keeping fighting their own war with American money, weapons, and training. It would bring an end to the war in 1973. Next Nixon created the Nixon Doctrine during the Vietnam War. It stated that the United States would honor its existing defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.

Spiro Agnew
He was the governor of Maryland who ran as Vice President with Richard Nixon in 1968. He was known for his tough stands against dissidents and black militants. He strongly supported Nixon’s desire to stay in Vietnam. He was forced to resign in October 1973 after having been accused of accepting bribes or “kickbacks” from Maryland contractors while governor and Vice President.

Daniel Ellsberg
He was a former employee of the Defense Department who gave the New York Times the “Pentagon Paper” to be published in 1971. These Pentagon Papers expose the blunders and deceptions of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. Noticeably among those deceptions was the provoking of the 1964 North Vietnamese attack in the Gulf of Tonkin. Ellsberg made himself an enemy of the White House and what exploited by the White House to plug up leaks.

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