APUSH Chapter 25 Vocabulary

new immigrants
immigrants from southern and easter europe who formed a recognizable wave of immigration from the 1880s until 1924, in contrast to the immigrants from western Europe who had come before them

settlement houses
mostly run by middle-class native born women, they were in immigrant neighborhoods and provided housing, food, education, child care, cultural activities, and social connections for new arrivals to the United States

liberal protestants
members of a branch of Protestantism that flourished from 1875 to 1925 and encouraged followers to use the Bible as a moral compass rather than to believe that the Bible represented scientific or historical truth

Tuskegee institute
a normal and industrial school led by Booker T. Washington in Alabama. It focused on training young black students in agriculture and the trades to help them achieve economic independence. Washington justified segregated, vocational training as a necessary first step on the road to racial equality, although critics accused him of being too “accommodating”

land-grant colleges
colleges and universities created from allocations of public land through the Morrell Act of 1862 and the Hatch Act of 1887. These grants helped fuel the boom in higher education in the late 19th century and many of today’s public universities derive from these grants

pragmatism
a distinctive American philosophy that emerged in the late nineteenth century around the theory that the true value of an idea lay in its ability to solve problems. People who thought this embraced the provisional, uncertain nature of experimental knowledge

yellow journalism
a scandal-mongering practice of journalism that emerged in New York during the Gilded Age out of the circulation battles between Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World and William Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal. The expression has remained a pejorative term referring to the sensationalist journalism practiced with unethical, unprofessional scandals

national american woman suffrage association
an organization founded in 1890 to demand the vote for women. It argued that women should be allowed to vote because their responsibilities in the home and family made them indispensable in the public decision making process

woman’s christian temperance union
founded in 1874, this organization advocated for the prohibition of alcohol, using women’s supposedly greater purity and morality as a rallying point

world’s columbian exposition
held in chicago, americans saw this world’s fair as their opportunity to claim a place among the world’s most civilized societies, by which they meant the countries of western europe. the fair honored art, architecture, and science, and its promoters built a mini city in which to host the fair that reflected all the ideals of city planning popular at the time.

dumbbell tenements
high rise urban buildings that provided barrackslike housing for urban slum dwellers

birds of passage
immigrants who came to america to earn money for a time and then returned to their native land

social gospel
the religious doctrines preached by those who believed the churches should directly address economic and social problems

hull house
settlement house in the chicago slums that became a model for women’s involvement in urban social reform

social work
profession established by jane addams and others that opened new opportunities for women while engaging urban problems

american protective association
nativist organization that attacked “new immigrants” and roman catholicism in the 1880s and 1890s

national association for the advancement of colored people
organization founded by du bois and others to advance black social and economic equality

progress and poverty
henry george’s best selling book that advocated social reform through the imposition of a “single tax” on land

cormstock law
federal law promoted by a self-appointed morality crusader and used to prosecute moral and sexual dissidents

women and economics
charlotte perkins gilman’s book urging women to enter the work force and advocating cooperative kitchens and child-care centers

jane addams
leading social reformed who lived with the poor in the slums and pioneered new forms of activism for women

charles darwin
english naturalist who had the theory that higher forms of life had slowly evolved from lower forms, through a process of random biological mutation and adaptation

booker t. washington
former slave who promoted industrial education and economic opportunity but not social equality for blacks

w.e.b. du bois
harvard-educated scholar and advocate of full black social and economic equality through the leadership of a “talented tenth”

joseph pulitzer
journalism tycoon, hungarian born and near blind who was a leader in the technique of sensationalism in St. Louis and especially with the New York World. He introduced yellow journalism

william randolph hearst
another journalism tycoon, who was expelled from harvard college for a crude prank, built a powerful chain of newspapers, beginning with the San Francisco Examiner in 1887

john dewey
an educator and philosopher of pragmatism. He founded the Laboratory school at the university of chicago to experiment with an educational philosophy rooted in “learning by doing”. He stressed the positive virtues of experience, cooperation, and democracy, and he urged philosophers to abandon futile debates about knowledge in favor of tackling the real “problems of men”

horatio alger
a popular writer, who wrote more than 100 volumes of juvenile fiction. He implanted in his readers moral lessons and the conviction that there is always room at the top

mark twain
midwestern-born writer and lecturer who created a new style of american literature based on social realism and humor

carrie chapman catt
leader of the women’s suffrage battle, she was a pragmatic and businesslike reformer of relentless dedication. They de-emphasized the argument that women deserved the vote as a matter of right, because they were in all respects the equals of men, instead, they stressed the desirability of giving women the vote if they were to continue to discharge their traditional duties as homemakers and mothers in their increasingly public world of the city

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