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APUSH Chapter 21

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Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england’s view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.

Tom Shows
for those who were illiterate, these were plays/shows acting out scenes of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, many soldiers remembered them from childhood, it motivated them to fight

Hinton R. Helper
Wrote The Impending Crisis, a book about slavery. He said the non-slave holding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery.

He was captured and killed by Southerners

The Impending Crisis of the South
trouble-brewing book written in 1857 by Hinton R. Helper, attempting to prove that slavery hurt non-slaveholding whites the most, used statistics

New England Emigrant Aid Company
anti slavery organization that sent thousands to Kansas to forestall Southern interests there

Beecher’s Bibles
rifles shipped to antislavery settlers in kansas by the congregation Brooklyn, NY minister Henry Ward Beecher

Shawnee, Topeka
two places Kansas government was set up, first one for proslavery, second one for abolitionism

John Brown
violent abolitionist who murdered slaveholders in Kansas and Missouri (1856-1858) before his raid at Harper’s Ferry (1859), hoping to incite a slave rebellion; he failed and was executed, but his martyrdom by northern abolitionists frightened the South.

Pottawatomie Creek massacre
In reaction to the sacking of Lawrence by pro-slavery forces, John Brown and a band of abolitionist settlers killed five pro-slavery settlers in Kansas

Lecompton Constitution
Pro-slave constitution that got voted in for Kansas after anti-slavery people boycotted the election, originally voted “with or without slavery” still protected slaves already there

Bleeding Kansas
term referring the sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory.

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The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.

The Crime Against Kansas
Sumner’s speech that denounced slavery and Butler and resulted in his attack by Preston Brooks, very caustic

Charles Sumner
harsh and militant opponent of slavery, beaten with a cane by Preston Brooks after speech, collapsed unconscious and couldn’t return to senate for 3.5 years (seat kept open), symbol throughout the north.

Andrew Butler
this Senator from South Carolina was singled out in Charles Sumner’s “Crime Against Kansas” speech for choosing the harlot, slavery as his mistress

Preston Brooks
A hot tempered Congressman of South Carolina took vengeance in his own hands. He beat Sumner with a cane until he was restrained by other Senators. He later resigned from his position, but was soon reelected.

James Buchanan
15th President of the United States. He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South, and he was unable to forestall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860.

John Fremont
American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the United States Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. First Presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform of opposition to slavery (lost election of 1856).

ex president that the Know-Nothing party nominated in 1856

Dred Scott case
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south

Chief Justice Taney
said Constitution applied to white men only, conservative Supreme Court Chief Justice who issued the Dred Scott decision

Panic of 1857
Economic downturn caused by over speculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads; worst one psychologically

Tariff of 1857
Lowered duties on imports to 20% in response to a high Treasury surplus and pressure from Southern farmers.

Abraham Lincoln
Mr. second best, One of the most skillful politicians in Republican party. Lawyer. Tried to gain national exposure by debates with Stephen A. Douglas. debates attracted much attention. attacks on slavery made him nationally known. felt slavery was morally wrong, but was not an abolitionist. He felt there was not an alternative to slavery and blacks were not prepared to live on equal terms as whites. Won presidency in November election.

Freeport Doctrine
during IL debate with Lincoln, Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election. in response to Dred Scott

Harpers Ferry
place John Brown’s scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged

John Breckinridge
The South’s pro-slavery Democratic candidate in the election of 1860. Completed the split of the Democratic Party by being nominated. pro slavery

Constitutional Union Party
also known as the “do-nothings” or “Old Gentleman’s” party; 1860 election; it was a middle of the road group that feared for the Union- consisted mostly of Whigs and Know-Nothings, met in Baltimore and nominated John Bell from Tennessee as candidate for presidency-the slogan for this candidate was “The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of the laws.”

John Bell
Presidential candidate of the Constitutional Union Party. He drew votes away from the Democrats, helping Lincoln win. was a moderate and wanted the union to stay together. After Southern states seceded from the Union, he urged the middle states to join the North.

South Carolina
first state to secede in December, 1860 right after election

Confederate States of America
name adopted by the 11 (7 at first) Southern states that seceded from the Union during the Civil War, met in Montgomery Alambama

Jefferson Davis
President of CSA, from Kentucky like Lincoln, “all we ask is to be let alone”

James Henry Crittenden
A senator from kentucky, who attempted to form a compromise to bring the southern states back to the union. take on legacy of Henry Clay

Crittenden amendments
designed to appease South; said slavery was prohibited north of the 36 degree 30′ line; south of that slavery was given federal protection; President Lincoln rejected these amendments. Last ditch attempt to restore status quo at thirty-six thirty

Simon Legree
the cruel slave dealer in Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Uncle Tom
main character in Harriet’s Book, today it’s a negative term for African Americans that don’t stand up for their rights, etc.

Lawrence, Kansas
town that pro slavery people destroyed and burned everything as an attack on the free soilers, sparked the John Brown Massacre and eventual Bleeding Kansas

Marbury v. Madison
other Supreme court case where judicial review was used to nullify something (other one Dred Scott-Missouri Compromise)

amendment, judicial review
only two ways to change the constitution, for amendments need 2/3 BOTH HOUSES OF CONGRESS, 3/4 STATES RATIFY (today is 38)

vanilla candidate
term for a somewhat plain candidate, “basic” not that distinguished but still electable (Lincoln is example)

compact theory
claiming that the formation of the nation was through a compact by all of the states individually and that the national government is consequently a creation of the states, Southern argument for cession

self determination
the right of people to choose their own form of government, South say they are resembling patriots of revolutionary war in throwing off suppressive force, have the right to leave

southern nationalism
THe idea that the south would develop into its own country like, its how they became the confederates, don’t want to be dependent on North at all (banking, etc)

Lincoln-Douglas debates
During the race to become Senator Lincoln asked to have multiple debates with Douglas. Certain topics of these debates were slavery, how to deal with slavery, and where slavery should be allowed. Although Lincoln lost the election to Douglas, he was known throughout the country because of the debates.

American Party, Know-Nothing Party
Developed from the order of the Star Spangled Banner and was made up of nativists. This party was organized due to its secretiveness and in 1865 nominated the ex-president Fillmore. These super-patriots were antiforeign and anti-Catholic and adopted the slogan “American’s must rule America!” Remaining members of the Whig party also backed Fillmore for President.

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APUSH Chapter 21. (2018, Jan 05). Retrieved from

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