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APUSH Chapter 13 Vocab

Abraham Lincoln
got noticed in the public eye during the Lincoln-Douglass debates leading up to the 1858 congressional elections. Spoke passionately about the wrongs of slavery. While he didn’t see whites and blacks as being equal, he did believe blacks should have rights. Was not necessarily an abolitionist. Nominated to run for the Republican party in 1860. He was a representative of the west, unlike Douglass. Obviously he won the election

Compromise of 1850
There were many components to this. With California, New Mexico, Oregon Territory, etc, being added to the US, there was debate whether or not they should be able to let their government decide whether or not slavery was allowed. Then there was the problem with making a new fugitive slave law and whether or not they should be returned to their owners. The biggest issue was that the free and slave states at the time were equal at the time (15 each). Henry Clay proposed a compromise that would address all of these problems but it spurred a debate that raged in Congress for a real long time. The debates were mostly among old men. Once the men either died or left or who knows what else, new younger men did the debating and realized that maybe the approach on how to solve this was wrong. So they split every issue up into smaller compromises that deal with a single issue. Both side claimed the got what they wanted but they actually didn’t.

Dred Scott Decision
Most controversial judicial case ever. In the case Dred Scott v Sandford, Dred Scott was a Missouri slave, taken to Illinois and Wisconsin. in 1846 his owner died, so he was pretty pumped. He sued his master’s widow for freedom because he was on free territory and his master was dead. His claims were fine according to Missouri law so he was declared free in 1850. But then John Sanford, the brother of Scott’s owner, claimed that Scott was now his property. He appealed to the state supreme court on the basis that Scott wasn’t even a citizen so he shouldn’t have any say. chief justic Roger Taney said that Scott couldn’t have brought the case to the court because he was property. He also said that the fifth amendment prohibited congress from taking property away without due process of law. Therefore, congress couldn’t pass any law depriving people of slaves.

“Forty-Niners”
name for people who went to California during the gold rush. Mostly men. abandoned farms, jobs, homes, and families to go to California

Free Soil Party
In the 1848 presidential campaigns, opponents of slavery were unsatisfied with their choices (Lewis Cass and Zachary Taylor) so the free soil party emerged. This party’s candidate was Van Buren. Elected 10 members into Congress. this shows the inability of existing parties to contain the political passions slavery was creating

Gadsden Purchase
There was a piece of land in Mexican territory that the southern railroad would have to pass through. James Gadsden was sent by Jefferson Davis in 1853 to buy the land for $10 million that is in current Arizona and New Mexico. this only strengthened the sectional rivalry

General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
imposed dictator in Mexico in the mid 1830’s. Increased to power of the national government, taking away from state government (aimed at Texas?). Eventually led an army into Texas and fought at the Alamo

Harpers Ferry
John Brown, antislavery (he had caused a crisis or two in Kansas), seized a mountain fortress in Virginia. In 1859, he seized control of a US arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Eventually hung for what he did.

James K. Polk
elected in 1844, definitely wanted to annex Oregon and Texas. Annexed Texas and compromised with Britain over Oregon

John Brown
he was the guy who raided Harpers Ferry and then was hung

Kansas-Nebraska Act
happened in 1854. Stephen A. Douglas wanted the transcontinental railroad to go through his hometown of Chicago. But he knew this wouldn’t fly with the southern Democrats. So he proposed along with the location of the railroad that the Louisiana Purchase would be able to decide whether or not they wanted slavery. This was not enough. So he made an additional clause that repealed the Missouri Compromise. He then proposed that the area would be split into two regions, Nebraska and Kansas. Kansas would be more likely to become a slave state. Passed with support of the southern dems and partial support of northern dems.

Manifest Destiny
term officially first used by John L. Sullivan. idea that america was destined by God and history to expand over a vast area. Not selfish, but an attempt to spread American liberty everywhere. But you only get liberty if you’re a white man, if you’re anything else you’re outta luck. Idea that promoted nationalism

Oregon Trail
2,000 mile trail leading to Oregon, major route west during this time.

Popular Sovereignty
basically the idea that people in a territory (like the ones added to the US before the Civil War) would decide what they wanted to do in regards to slavery

Sam Houston
led American troops in the Battle of San Jacinto. He defeated the Mexican army and took Santa Anna prisoner

Stephen A. Douglas
most important leader during the compromise of 1850. he was also basically the cause of the Nebraska-Kansas Act as well. He was a democratic senator from Illinois

Stephen F. Austin
established the first legal American settlement in Texas in 1822. Recruited other Americans into the area. Helped cause the creation of a government that rivaled that of the Mexican government

Tejanos
name for Mexicans living in Texas after it is not under Mexican control any longer

The Alamo
brutal battle fought in San Antonio with Mexican forces led by Santa Anna. Americans kind of lost and most fled back to America

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
negotiated by Nicholas Trist under Polk. In 1848, Mexico agreed to let us have California and New Mexico. It acknowledged the Rio Grande as the Texas border. Polk was pretty upset with Trist because he wanted to annex all of Mexico

Wilmot Proviso
Representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania, an antislavery Dem, introduced an amendment to the appropriation bill that prohibited any slavery in the territories acquired from Mexico. Passed in the House but not in the Senate

Winfield Scott
was a general. His army advanced 260 miles on the Mexican national Highway toward Mexico City. Seized the capitol, making Mexico decide to negotiate a treaty over their territory

“Young America”
movement led by Franklin Pierce in the democratic party. Tried to focus attention on expansion of American democracy in the world as a way to distract from the growing controversies over slavery

Zachary Taylor
in 1845 was a general who was sent to Texas to prevent it from a Mexican invassion

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