APUSH- CH. 34 & 35

Cordell Hull
FDR’s Secretary of State who believed in reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers, as well as a low tariff; led to the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934; supported the Good Neighbor policy

Joseph Stalin
Communist leader of Russia; on of the 3 big powers during WWII along with Roosevelt and Churchill; usually was asking for a western front to be established to relieve the USSR

Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy; sought to create a new empire; became allies with Hitler against the Allies of WWII; was overthrown and beheaded in 1943 after the fall of Sicily during the war

Adolf Hitler
German dictator who used the disillusioned and depressed German population to advance his ideas; led the nation after the Treaty of Versailles; manipulated and feared dictator who hated the Jewish Nation

Francisco Franco
overthrew the Loyalist regime in Spain and with the help from Hitler and Mussolini, became the dictator during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939

Winston Churchill
prime minster of England during WWII; great inspiration over the radio for his citizens during the air-bombings; favored the Eight-point Atlatic Charter and was involved in the 1st conference; was one of the big 3

Charles Lindbergh
1st person to fly solo across the Atlantic ocean; became an ambassador of goodwill for the US; crazed isolationist who led the America First Committee

Wendell Wilkie
Republican candidate in the election of 1940 against FDR and lost

totalitarianism
govn’t where it has complete control with powerless people

isolationism
opposition to a country’s involvement in international afffairs; US policy in the 1920’s; sentiment of the public during WWII

appeasement
Western Europe used this tactic by giving Hitler Sudetenland in hopes he would not take over other countries

London Economic Conference
66 nations attended this in the summer of 1933; revealed Roosevelt’s closeness between his foreign policy and domestic economic policies were; the attendees organized a coordinated international attack on the global depression

Good Neighbor Policy
established by Herbert Hoover to create good relations with Latin America; reduced American military influence there

Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act
passed in 1934 to raise American exports for relief and recovery; led by Cordell Hull and helped reverse high tariff policy

Nazi party
established in Germany by Fascist belief; believed the state should be a strong central govn’t with absolute power; Hitler added racism to these beliefs; believed in a supreme Aryan Race

Rome-Berlin axis
a 1936 alliance between Hitler and Mussolini and bother were allied with Japan to fight the allies in WWII

invasion of Ethiopia
Mussolini invaded Ethiopia to pursue glory and an empire in Africa; the US and League of Nations did nothing to stop him or assist the helpless civilians

merchants of death
nickname used to condemn the munitions manufacturers in critical books and articles

neutrality Acts
an effort by Congress in 1935,36, and 37 to try to legislate the nation out of war; stated when the president proclaimed foreign war, restrictions would be put in place against that foreign nation

Spanish Civil War
occurred in 1936-1939 and was considered a “dress rehearsal” for WWII;rebels led by Franco, overthrew the loyalist govn’t

Quarantine Speech
given by Roosevelt in Chicago in the fall of 1937; called upon positive action to cut down aggression by Italy and Japan especially by economic embargoes; isolationists protested

Hitler-Stalin nonaggression pact
signed on Aug. 23rd, 1939 between Hitler and Stalin claiming Hitler could invade Poland without fear of a Russian attack; helped spawn WWII

cash and carry
policy for Europe to buy US materials in WWII; they would have to transport the munitions in their own ships after a cash payment for the goods

phony war
when Hitler pulled out of Poland, the rest of Europe was in shock, which Hitler used this weakness when he attacked Norway and Denmark

Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
most potent supporter group to aid GB; had two sides of arguments supporting them: interventionists cried GB was fighting the war for the US and the isolationists said the US should supply all short of war

America First Committee
organized by isolationists before WWII; wanted to spare American lives and protect the country instead of going to war; Charles Lindbergh was their most effective speaker

destroyers for bases deal
a deal in which the US gave GB 50 destroyers in exchange for 8 valuable defensive base sites

lend lease
passed in 1941 and stated the US would borrow weapons to overseas countries and victims of aggression9 who would in turn finish the war- keep the US from joining

China incident
conflict between China and Japan from 1937- the attack on Pearl Harbor; Japan’s aggression in Manchuria and China sparked outrage and demand for the re-establishment of the Open Door Policy in China

Henry Stimson
Secretary of War who strongly believed war industry and production would be the boost to get the sunken economy out of the depression era

A. Philip Randolph
black lead of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; demanded equal opportunities in war jobs and armed forces during WWII

Douglas MacArthur
put in charge for putting Japan back together and later was the supreme allied commander during the Cold War in 1945 but was fired by Truman for insubordination

Chester Nimitz
Admiral in the Battle of Midway in 1942; commanded the Pacific Ocean American fleet and decoded Japan’s radio messages, giving him a victorious advantage over Japan

Dwight Eisenhower
US general who lead the N. African attack in 1942; master organizer of the D-day invasion; ran as the republican nominee in both 1952 & 1956 and won both times

Jiang Jieshi
Chinese general who the US was sending supplies while he fought the Japanese invasion

Thomas Dewey
governor of Ny and republican candidate in 1944 but lost to FDR; he also ran against Truman in 1949 and even the public thought he had won, but was swept by Truman in the overnight tallies

Harry Truman
took over presidency during WWII after FDR’s death; was called an average man and didn’t have a college education; veteran artillery officer in WWI and was later responsible for dropping the atomic bomb on Japan

Albert Einstein
German-born scientist who encourage FDR and America to build the first atomic bomb

War Production Board
halted the manufacture of nonessential items to set priority on transportation and raw materials; led to rationing of gasoline and rubber and led to massive production of those goods

Office of Price Administration
created by FDR to prevent inflation in the WWI economy

WAACs
women organization for those serving a noncombat duty in the army

Rosie the Riveter
the face of the mothers who went off to take over men’s jobs left when the US went to war

braceros
Mexican agricultural workers who were sent to the US to work to make up the worker shortages; became permanent in some Western ag economies years after the end of WWII

Fair Employment Practices Commission
FDR established this initially to give fair employment to blacks; purpose now to protect and serve all races, sexes, ages, and ethnicities involving employment

Casablanca Conference
a historic meeting between FDR and Churchill in Morocco in January 1943; during the conference, the agreed to step up Pacific aggression,. put pressure on Italy, invade Sicily, and insist on an “unconditional surrender”

second front
formed by an invasion of Western Europe by the US, GB, France in 1944; meant to take the pressure off of the Russians and divide the Germans; established D-day

Teheran Conference
meeting between Stalin, Churchill, and FDR in late 1943; a Soviet attack on Germany from the East with an allies attack from the West was their biggest agreement

D-day
first day of the Normandy landings which started the invasion of Western Europe and liberated France from Germany

Battle of the Bulge
Hitler’s last attempt to save his campaign; he attacked the outnumbered Allies at their main supply station at Antwerp; although it weakened the Allied line on the ground. the airbourne mission fought off the Germans

Potsdam Conference
held in Berlin in 1945 with Truman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee who issued an ultimatium to Japan to surrender or be destoyed; where Truman learned about the atomic bomb

Manhattan Project
the nearly $2 billion project that developed and perfected the atomic bomb

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APUSH- CH. 34 & 35. (2018, Jan 23). Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/apush-ch-34-35-essay

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