In the final days of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln
insisted that the Confederacy had no legal right to exist.
At the end of the Civil War, the number of slaves that emerged from bondage was
almost 4 million.
In 1865, Southern blacks defined “freedom” as
an end to slavery and the acquisition of legal rights and opportunities that would allow them to live as did whites.
In 1865, Southern whites defined “freedom” as
controlling their future without Northern interference.
The Freedmen’s Bureau
distributed food to millions of Southern blacks.
As Republicans planned for Reconstruction,
Radicals sought a range of punishments for white Southerners.
President Abraham Lincoln’s “10 percent” plan for the South referred to the
number of white voters required to take loyalty oaths before setting up a state government.
The Wade-Davis Bill
sought to bring about the disenfranchisement of leading Confederates.
The assassination of President Abraham Lincoln
involved a larger conspiracy to kill other members of the administration.
As president, Andrew Johnson
offered amnesty to Southerners who pledged their loyalty to the United States.
In the 1860s, Black Codes were
designed to give whites control over freedmen.
The Fourteenth Amendment
gave citizenship rights to all people born in the United States.
In 1867, congressional plans for Reconstruction
required new state governments in the South to give voting rights to black males.
The Fifteenth Amendment dealt with the issue of
The Tenure of Office Act
was designed to limit President Andrew Johnson’s authority.
As a result of the Supreme Court’s ruling in Ex parte Milligan, some Radical Republicans
proposed abolishing the Court.
In 1868, President Andrew Johnson was impeached because he
All these answers are correct.
At the conclusion of President Andrew Johnson’s impeachment trial,
Johnson was acquitted by a margin of one vote.
During Reconstruction, the term “scalawags” referred to
Southern white Republicans.
During Reconstruction, most “carpetbaggers” were
Northern white veterans who moved to the South.
During Reconstruction, Southern African American officeholders
underrepresented the total number of blacks living in the South.
During Reconstruction, there was a dramatic improvement in Southern
During Reconstruction, the Southern school system
reached 40 percent of all black children by 1876.
During Reconstruction, regarding land ownership in the South,
ownership by whites declined, while ownership by blacks increased.
was a very common occupation of former slaves.
During Reconstruction, per capita income for Southerners
rose for blacks and declined for whites.
During Reconstruction, the black labor force worked
significantly fewer hours than had been the case during slavery.
After the Civil War, most poor rural Southerners relied on credit from
In the South, the crop-lien system along with the burdensome credit system
encouraged the planting of cash crops.
By the end of Reconstruction,
roughly half of all black women were working for wages.
In 1868, Ulysses S. Grant
entered the White House with no political experience.
Schuyler Colfax, Grant’s vice president,
was involved in a stock-fixing scandal.
The Panic of 1873
was the nation’s worst economic depression to that time.
During the Johnson administration, the United States acquired
The Alabama claims
involved complaints by the United States against England.
The “redeemed” governments of the South
were so named when Democrats took back control of the government.
Congressional passage of the Enforcement Acts in 1870-1871
was aimed at reducing white repression of blacks in the South.
Northern commitment to Reconstruction waned as a result of
All these answers are correct.
The elections of 1876 saw
the candidate with the most popular votes fail to get elected.
As president, Rutherford B. Hayes
promised to serve only one term.
Which of the following statements about the end of Reconstruction is accurate?
Many white Southern leaders sympathized with Republican economic policies in the South but could not publicly support them.
After Reconstruction, political power under southern “Redeemers”
was very often restricted and conservative.
Advocates of the “New South”
promoted southern industry and railroad development.
In the South during the last twenty years of the nineteenth century,
textile manufacturing increased ninefold.
During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, southern agriculture
saw the great majority of farmers live under the tenant system.
Among other ideas, Booker T. Washington
favored industrial over classical education.
In his 1895 “Atlanta Compromise” speech, Booker T. Washington
called for tacit acceptance of the emerging system of racial segregation.
The Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that
racial segregation was legal if whites and blacks had equal “accommodations.”
Grandfather laws established that
men who could not meet the literacy and property qualifications could vote if their ancestors had voted before Reconstruction began.
Jim Crow laws
imposed a system of state-supported segregation.
By the 1890s, voting percentages in the South had
decreased for both whites and blacks.
In the 1890s, the black journalist Ida B. Wells devoted her writing to attacking
the crime of lynching.
General Oliver O. Howard ran the ________, an agency that established schools and helped provide basic services for former slaves following the Civil War.
Lincoln wanted ex-Confederate states admitted to the Union when ________ percent of a state’s white voters took a loyalty oath.
State laws designed to restore slavery in all but name in the post-Civil War South were called the ________.
The Fourteenth Amendment offered the first constitutional definition of ________.
The Tenure of Office Act was designed to protect the job of Secretary of War ________.
Many of the so-called scalawags were former Southern ________.
The most numerous Republicans in the South were the ________.
After the Civil War, most black agricultural workers toiled as tenants of white landowners and were known as ________.
Enemies of President Grant and “Grantism” were called ________ Republicans.
The Panic of 1873 began with the failure of a leading investment banking firm, ________.
Jay Cooke and Company
The Treaty of Washington provided for ________ with Britain over “Alabama claims.”
“Seward’s Folly” refers to the American purchase of ________.
An end to Reconstruction was achieved by the ________ of 1877.
The last ________ were withdrawn from the South by President Hayes.
Democrats restored to power in the South were known variously as the “________” or the “Bourbons.”
Booker T. Washington outlined his basic philosophy in an 1895 speech that has come to be called the ________ Compromise.
In 1896 the Supreme Court declared that “separate but equal” in matters of race relations was constitutional, in the case of ________.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Ida B. Wells was a black journalist who was most concerned about stopping the practice of ________ in the late nineteenth-century South.