On April 14, 1861, Fort Sumter surrendered after Confederate forces bombarded it.
All of the following servant states remained in the Union EXCEPT Arkansas.
At the start of the Civil War, the North had a much more significant economy.
The 1862 Morrill Land Grant Act was designed to help
Which of the following federally-chartered corporations did the Union create to build the transcontinental railroad?
Union Pacific and Central Pacific
Taxes enacted by the United States Congress to help finance the Civil War
included a new income tax.
During the Civil War, “greenbacks” issued by the federal government
fluctuated in value depending on the fortunes of the Northern armies.
At the start of the Civil War, the armed forces of the United States
saw many of its soldiers stationed in the West.
In 1861, President Abraham Lincoln realized that volunteer state militias
would have to do the bulk of fighting for the Union.
The Union’s national draft law
resulted in murderous attacks in New York City against free blacks.
In his capacity as commander in chief, President Abraham Lincoln
increased the size of the army without the approval of Congress.
sometimes arrested on the order of President Lincoln.
In the election of 1864, President Abraham Lincoln
faced a Democratic opponent who was a former Union general.
All of the following were “Radical Republicans” EXCEPT
The Confiscation Act of 1861
declared that slaves used by Confederate states in the war effort were free.
In the Emancipation Proclamation, President Abraham Lincoln declared freedom for slaves
in the parts of the Confederacy still in rebellion.
African American soldiers in the Union
experienced a higher mortality rate than white soldiers.
The United States Sanitary Commission
helped turn nursing into a female-dominated profession.
Politically, the Confederate constitution
was almost identical in many respects to the Constitution of the United States.
Prior to becoming president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis had
been regarded as a moderate on secession.
Which of the following is true of Jefferson Davis’s leadership?
Davis attempted to strategize, make, and control all military decisions personally.
In the Confederacy during the Civil War,
many Southerners resisted efforts by the Davis government to exert its authority.
The Confederacy financed its war effort primarily through
Between 1861 and 1864, the cost of goods in the Confederacy rose by
In the Confederacy, a military draft
aroused opposition from poorer whites for its expensive substitute policy.
The wartime South saw
a significant decline in the production of goods.
In the South in 1865, as a result of the Civil War,
there were more women than men in some states.
The most important Union military commander was
President Abraham Lincoln believed the main objective of the Union armies was to
destroy Confederate armies.
General Ulysses S. Grant
thought the main Union effort should target enemy armies and resources.
Which of the following statements about George B. McClellan is FALSE?
He originally served as commander of the Army of Northern Virginia.
The Union’s Committee on the Conduct of the War
greatly interfered with the military chain of command and the conduct of the war.
As president, Jefferson Davis
made clear to General Lee that he wanted to make all the basic war decisions.
In the Civil War, at lower levels of military command,
amateur officers played important roles in both the Union and Confederate armies.
In naval warfare during the Civil War,
both the Union and Confederate militaries developed ironclads.
As a supporter of land operations, the Union naval presence was particularly important on the
In the course of the Civil War,
popular support for the Union was strong in England.
In 1861, the so-called Trent affair
created an international diplomatic crisis for Abraham Lincoln.
In the Civil War, the number of deaths for every 100,000 of the population was
During the Civil War, as a result of new technology in weapons,
organized infantry did not fight in formation.
Which of the following technologies was used, but did not play a major part in, the Civil War?
During the Civil War, railroad transportation
in some ways acted to limit the mobility of armies.
The U.S. Military Telegraph Corps was headed by Thomas Scott and what future tycoon?
In 1861, the First Battle of Manassas
was a victory for the Confederates.
The state admitted to the Union during the Civil War was
A major federal victory occurred in April 1862 when Union troops captured the city of
By the end of 1862, Union forces
All these answers are correct.
The Peninsular campaign in 1862
was an example of General McClellan’s conservative approach to battle.
The Battle of Antietam in 1862
led President Abraham Lincoln to remove George McClellan from command.
The prominent commander who was wounded in the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863 and subsequently died from pneumonia was
The Battle of Vicksburg in 1863
allowed the North to split the Confederacy in two.
As the Battle of Vicksburg was ending, another major battle was taking place in
The Battle of Gettysburg
represented the last time Confederate forces seriously threatened Union territory.
In the Battle of Gettysburg, in order to reach dug-in Union forces, General George Pickett’s division had to cross
General Grant’s Union forces attacked General Lee’s Confederate forces in the month-long
In 1864, General William T. Sherman’s “March to the Sea”
was designed in part to demoralize Southerners.
Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House after
Lee recognized the futility of continued fighting.
The seceding Southern states immediately seized federal property within their boundaries.
President Buchanan did not believe that a state had the legal right to secede from the Union.
The Crittenden Compromise was essentially acceptable to Lincoln and the Republicans.
No additional states seceded from the Union once the war had begun.
The material advantages of the South were obvious right from the start of the war.
The South was for the most part fighting a defensive war.
The North financed the Civil War primarily by borrowing money.
To build up the Union army, Lincoln originally relied much more on volunteers in state militias than he did an increase in the regular army.
Lincoln dared to fight the Civil War without a formal declaration of war, but he did not dare suspend habeas corpus.
Despite being a Democrat, Andrew Johnson was selected to run with Lincoln in 1864.
Charles Sumner was a “Radical Republican.”
The Emancipation Proclamation was made into law by Congress.
The Emancipation Proclamation did not apply to all of the slave states.
African American mortality rates in the war were higher than that of whites.
Black fighting men captured by the Confederates were treated the same as white prisoners of war.
The United States Sanitary Commission, an organization of civilian volunteers, was led by Horace Greeley.
The Civil War helped transform nursing into a female profession, but these nurses encountered considerable resistance from male doctors.
The National Woman’s Loyal League worked simultaneously for the abolition of slavery and for the vote for women.
The Confederate constitution was almost identical to the Constitution of the United States.
The Confederate constitution explicitly acknowledged the sovereignty of individual states and the right of secession.
The Confederacy financed the Civil War primarily by printing paper money.
Feelings of states’ rights were so strong in the South that it was impossible for the Confederate government to take any steps toward centralization.
In both the North and the South, draftees could avoid military service if they hired substitutes.
George McClellan was the most important military commander in the Union.
Lincoln understood that the proper objective of his armies was the occupation of Confederate territory.
As commander in chief, Lincoln was given a fairly free hand by Congress in conducting the war as he saw fit.
Jefferson Davis, unlike Lincoln, was a trained professional soldier.
The North had such an overwhelming advantage in naval power that its blockade of the South was completely effective from the start.
In the early part of the Civil War, the sympathies of the ruling classes in France and England lay with the Confederacy.
“Cotton diplomacy” worked to the extent that England extended diplomatic recognition to the Confederacy.
Torpedoes and submarines were used, to little effect, during the Civil War.
By the end of the Civil War, telegraph communication was used by both the North and South.
Military campaigns during the Civil War came to be organized around railroad lines.
The First Battle of Bull Run dealt a severe blow to Union morale and dispelled the illusion that the war would be a short one.
In the early part of the war, Ulysses S. Grant campaigned in the western theater.
Both Antietam and Shiloh could be described as Union victories.
General McClellan was a great trainer of soldiers, but his excessive caution often exasperated Lincoln.
After the Battle of Gettysburg, the weakened Confederate armies were never again able to seriously threaten Northern territory.
Ulysses S. Grant believed in using the North’s great advantage in troops and material resources to overwhelm the South.
General Sherman’s “March to the Sea” faced bitter opposition through Georgia and South Carolina from Confederate forces.
Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis both agreed that the Confederacy must surrender at the Appomattox Court House.