Applying Theories and Principles for Planning

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 20 May 2016

Applying Theories and Principles for Planning

The Theories of Learning according to Reece Walker (2007) that states The five main areas are Behaviourism, Neo-behaviourism, Gestalt (Insight), Cognitive Development, and Humanists, as well as more recently theorised areas of lifelong learning, but Geoff Petty (2009) explains that Theories of Learning can be separated into three main schools of thought 1) The behaviourist school. 2) The cognitivist school. 3) The humanist school. Behaviourist school of thought is concerned completely with learned behaviour, and is interested in looking at behavior and observable changes, the learners react more to teaching rather than being actively involved in the process. Cognitivist is interested in looking at the thought processes behind the behavior, for example encoding information into short term and long term memory. Therefore cognitivist is the theory that humans generate knowledge and meaning through a sequence of development, such as the mental processes of recognition, recollection, analysis, reflection, application, creation, understanding, and evaluation. Humanist learner is able to adapt prior knowledge to new experience. The teachers role in humanistic learning is to encourage and enable the learner, by providing access to appropriate resources without obtrusive interference. The learning goal is high order learning of procedural knowledge, strategy, reasoning, abstract analysis, and development of expertise.

All three learning theories have some common ground with each other. They all agree that learners respond better with positive reinforcement and praise should be given when the learners have completed their task and achieved. They also consider that new learning must be built on existing learning. But Cognitivist and Humanist theory have the most common ground. In my teaching practice I have applied theories and principles of learning in the following four areas lesson planning, lesson structure, meeting learners needs and assessing learning. I always write constructive session plans to serve it as a guide for anyone to use it. I have applied teaching strategies that suit different group profile. I used learning theory cognitivist as a teacher being a facilitator and imparting the knowledge in a way it can be retained by the learners and applied. Based on implementing a democratic teaching style when the learning becomes a learner centered practice as they discover things themselves in group learning to increase knowledge, by memorising information acquiring facts, skills, and methods making sense or abstracting meaning interpreting and understanding things in a different way.

I also applied organisational policies and procedures in demonstrating the use of appropriate resources, strengths and limitations of specific resources, representation of cultural differences. To avoid stereotyping, and adapt resources to accommodate specific learning difficulties and disabilities, safety, learners wellbeing, self esteem, as Reece Walker (2007) referred to (Maslows hierarchy of needs). Principles of Learning to me are my beliefs about something. It is my feelings on a given subject. Geoff Petty (2004) states that, every teacher and every learner has a theory about learning. There are many different theories and principles which have been developed to help us understand how effective learning, communication and underpin and enable teachers to develop high quality inclusive practice, Reece Walker (2007) states that Theorists tend to separate learning into three groups or domains. These are the psychomotor, cognitive and affective domains. They are called Blooms Taxonomy. Geoff Petty (2009) States that We need to learn all Blooms bits. Blooms Taxonomy is a classification of learning objectives that provides a framework for discussing cognitive, affective, and psycho-motor learning. In improving my own practice I have applied theories and principles of inclusive learning to ensure that I differentiate learning methods to address different ability levels, and in my sessions plans I used the Blooms taxonomy to state the different outcomes.

Communication to me as a teacher it means sharing information through listening, interacting, responding, talking, writing and understanding. It also has to be relevant and respectful to the group of learners. Some theories of communication included According to Shannon and Weaver 1949 model of communication (Online Link) that is based on a process in which a message begins at an information source/ speaker/ information (encoder), transmits a message through a channel to a destination, where the message arrives via a signal towards the receiver (decoder). But before it reaches the receiver, the message must go through noise (sources of interference). Finally, the receiver must convey the message to its destination. I used this model in delivering teaching to convey information with no interaction or a way of measuring understanding in the learner, which is significant to higher education teaching. And Harold Lasswells Lasswells Formula in 1976 (Online Link as above) is also a transmission model, but it introduces the concept of the effect on the receiver or learner. In modern day teaching, communication is shifting further away from a teacher dictated methods of delivering education, to methods to ensure the learner is placed at the heart of teaching, and every individual within the classroom is considered and catered for.

Furthermore, I used the advanced technology communication methods to contribute and to broaden my teaching styles, but I used this through the need to differentiate teaching more effectively and to break down the barriers that exist between teacher and learner. Engaging every learner is a difficult task and learners may differ in terms of age, gender, ability level, communication skills, confidence, learning styles and many other factors. But my job as a teacher is to ensure these factors do not hinder individual learning and that success and achievement within the group is widespread and at a high level. Unit 405 Part B Taking a lesson plan you have written, comment on how I have used the barriers to equality approach stated by Reece Walker (2007). Those barriers could arise from family issues, bullying or abuse (emotionally, mentally or physically) that could occur at home or at work place, specific learning difficulties, e.g. Dyslexia, disability, social, emotional or behavioural needs, bereavement, etc. I have I usually put a plan in place at the beginning of learners course to identify and diagnose their barriers on a one to one basis.

By carrying out an individual learning plan (ILP), and initial assessment to know their literacy numeracy levels, prior learning skills, and then focused on what they can or cannot do (Problematic). I also used the inclusive learning approach stated by Gravells Simpson (2010), I have promoted ensured the inclusion in preparing my lesson plan, by adhering implementing the equality diversity Laws Legislations. That is based on acknowledging and respecting learners differences regardless of learners ethnic background, race, age, gender, sexuality, religion, disability, marital status or belief. I have eliminated discrimination and ensured that learners needs were met by making reasonable adjustments and created a positive environment. That is based on adapting no culture blame, and acknowledge learners strength, skills knowledge and background (Synthesis). I have used a fresh approach suggested by Peter Scales (2008) states Embedded teaching and learning combines the development of the literacy language (ESOL), and numeracy with vocational and other skills. in embedding minimum core of Functional Skills including Literacy, Numeracy ICT. By incorporating the practical skills of the topics assessments with Functional Skills delivered in the sessions.

For example in embedding literacy I applied communications skills using a range of TV programmes, media reports and Internet texts such as Webpages. For embedding Numeracy, I used application numbers, calculations. For embedding ICT, I used communication skills using computers to ensure that learners are aware of current and emerging technology and their impact on themselves and others, for example, incorporating navigation of the websites of several of national newspapers. They have downloaded articles on the same subject but from different newspaper. Then they have applied information, compared, analysed and evaluated to find out if the issues were logical or biased (Cognitive theories). Evaluating my lesson plan and the sessions delivered an area for improvement in my own application of theories and principles for planning and enabling of inclusive learning and teaching is using differentiation learning methods to address different ability levels in my sessions (Blooms taxonomy) to state the different outcomes.

For example I have applied the teaching strategies that suits my group profile, based on knowing how learners learning style, in order to get the best outcome of the sessions delivered. That is by implementing appropriate theories and principles of learning such as communications, cognitive, inclusive learning. The learners understood the subject content taught thoroughly, and they have enjoyed the benefits of multi resources, and methods to suit learners learning style individually.


Ian Reece, Stephen Walker, Teaching, Training Learning. Business Education Publisher Ltd, 6th Edition (2009). Geoff Petty, Teaching Today, 2nd Edition. Nelson Thornes Ltd (1998). Geoff Petty, Teaching Today, 3rd Edition. Nelson Thornes Ltd (2004). Geoff Petty, Teaching Today, 4th Edition. Nelson Thornes Ltd (2009). Peter Scales, Teaching in the Lifelong Learning Sector, Open University Press (2008). Ann Gravells Susan Simpson, Planning and Enabling Learning in the Lifelong Learning Sector, Learning Matters Ltd, 2nd Edition (2010). Below is the Link HYPERLINK http// http// Below is the Link regarding Shannon and Weaver 1949 Communication model HYPERLINK http//,5as_vis1 http//,5as_vis1 Below is the Link for the H.D.Lasswell/ Communication model HYPERLINK http// http// Y, dXiJ(x( I_TS 1EZBmU/xYy5g/GMGeD3Vqq8K)fw9 xrxwrTZaGy8IjbRcXI

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  • University/College: University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Date: 20 May 2016

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