Applied Linguistics Essay
Learner: * We see learning in different ways (Behavior –habit formation-; Innatism –response to behaviorism- ). “If we learn through habits, what about children? * Chomsky’s LAD theory: * Universal Grammar * We’re programmed to learn at least one language! Interactionism * Snow: Interaction is a vital factor, not LAD * Evidence: Accommodation of Language: * Language is modified by the kind of subject you’re talking to. * Modifying the way we’re using a language. * When we talk to children, we do it in a different way. * Subconscious act * Between Children and caretakers.
* Between Natives and non-natives * The idea is to use a comprehensible input (Krashen) * The only way to learn English is to modify the way we speak – comprehensible input * Communication as a goal * Focus is on problem solving or accomplishing tasks Key concepts (cont. ) Intersecting angles: * Teaching methods and language assessment (Common European Framework of Reference) * Different Benchmarks for competence * International exams and certifications * Relationship between language and teaching * Teaching materials informed by linguistic corpora.
* British national corpus * Language and language * Learner’s age * Kids and young people * Critical period * Content based language teaching – more flexible * Older people * It is more complicated to acquire a language when you’re getting old * Different focus of instruction, different reasons e. g. occupational, academic, etc. * You can teach different things in a certain age * Context * Physical locale (classroom or outside? ) * Immersion programmes * Teachers are putted into a context to teach to the target required * Problems: fluent, but no accurate.
* Political pressures in some parts of the world e. g. Iraq, Japan, * Multilingualism in American classrooms – is not a priority right now * National language policies * What does it mean to learn a language? Money? Fun? * Tajikistan’s case: change from Russian to English * Future trajectory * Learn other subjects in an L2? How? * Is it possible that Chile would be a bilingual country? * Teaching in a language target * Endangered languages * People stop using a certain language * Reflection of a certain culture.
* “The end of a language is also the end of a culture” * Linguistics Imperialism * We’re acquiring the English/American culture – English language is fixed by the culture: e. g. African English * English as a Lingua Franca * Universal language * Clusters: issues as non-native speakers – in fact, beach, special * Native speakers vs Non-native speakers “norms” * Technology * Computer-mediated contact with other languages and cultures * Internet-delivered language instruction * Use of corpora to access to the information.
An introduction to Applied Linguistics * Language as a powerful tool * It gives access to information * Convincing (ads, politics) * Definition: * Is NOT the application of linguistics * Means many things for many people (Cook, 2006) * A group of semi-autonomous disciplines (Spolsky, 2005) * “…AL (is now) a cover term for a sizeable group of semi-autonomous disciplines, each dividing its parentage and allegiances between the formal study of language3 and other relevant fields, and each working to develop its own methodologies and principles” * Cook, 2003.
* “the task of applied linguistics is to mediate between linguistics and language use” * The academic discipline concerned with the relation of knowledge about language to decision making in the real world * The scope of applied linguistics remains rather vague, but attempts to delimit its main areas of concern as consisting of language and education; language, work and law; and language information and effect. * Two interpretations * The source of applied linguistics. What applied linguistics draws on: * Narrow interpretation * (Linguistics) – Language teaching.
* Usage of linguistic elements – semantics, phonology, pragmatics * Broad interpretation * (everything to do with language) * There are the different connotations of language * The target of AL * What applied linguistics equips you to do (SLA) * Language Acquisition (L1 and L2) * Psycho and Neurolinguistics * Sociolinguistics * Humor Studies * Pragmatics * Discourse Analysis and Rhetorics * Text/Processing/translation * Computational Linguistic * Corpus Linguistics * Dialectology BBC Documentary Horizon: Why do we talk? * Humans have a unique feature: we have a different language like animals * We have requests.
* Complex process to pronunciate a word when child (“wa der” to “water”) * Language is exclusively human * Not much evidence about origins of language * Why chimps can make similar sounds like humans? * There are some parts of the brain involved in creation of words * Roots of language reception: Test on newborn babies * How much a baby is attending to a particular sound * We can recognize sounds from our beginnings * Chomsky’s theory: An innate ability to learn a language * Ability to talk is composed by words, meaning and sounds. It also INNATE * We’re BUILT ON SPEECH.
* The KA family: communication in other ways are perfect, neither the speech * A DNA failure to create words * There’s no fossil evidences of speech communication * It is supposed that language was a practical way to defining rules * No one designed any language * Combination of words that can be easily remembered * Make sound to build a meaning * Dominant Theory of learning psychology: Behaviorism * Positive reinforcement * Habits are automatic and difficult to eradicate * If L1 differs to L2, L1 will interfere with formation of L2 habits e. g. use of articles (a/an, the) * Interference manifests itself in error (undesirable).
* Learners need to overcome L1 features and replace them Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis (CAH) * Analysis of L1 and L2 features (grammar and phonology) to determine similarities and differences between languages * Comparisons * CAH prediction * L2 features which are similar to L1: easy features to learn * Present simple, present perfect * L2 features which are different to L2: errors in L2 * People is are * Role of L2 instruction: teachers should focus on features which could be potential errors. Teaching via imitation, practice and error correction. * Mistakes are very dangerous here! – Immediate correction * E. g.
“repeat after me! ” Problems with CAH * Researchers trying ti apply CAH in analyzing L2 errors, soon found that: * Many errors could not be explained only by reference to L1 e. g. I goed * Many predicted errors were not made in L2 * Learners from different L1 made similar errors L2 * New weays of loking at L2’s errors Error Analysis * Corder (1967) * Learner language is a system in its own right * Errors are an important reflection of the state of L2 knowledge (system) and processing strategies. * Errors were a good thing; there is a reflection about thinking of new things * Developing rules – trial and fail * Processing:
* Learners form hypothesis about L2 on the basis of their exposure to the L2 * These hypothesis are tested receptively and productively * If hypotheses disconfirmed, this leads to the formation and testing of new hypothesis Interlanguage (IL) * Concept created by Selinker (1972) * Coined the term Interlanguage to describe a learner’s language * Is the whole process of learning a language * No competence Native-like competence * Interlanguage is rule governed (systematic) and dynamic (in flux) * U shape performance: * High performance is developed in Beginner’s level and the Advance one * Explaining learner’s errors.
* Main processes which can explain errors in L2 * L1 transfer * L1 rules interfering with L2 * Overgeneralization of L2 rules e. g. goed (use regular past tense with all verbs) * It happens a lot with children * Transfer of training errors due to the way L2 was taught e. g. overuse of “he” because teaching materials contain mainly reference to males * Formal language in formal contexts * Simplification e. g. omission of referent elements (articles, prepositions) * Elision / wanna talk to me? – instead of “do you wanna talk to me? ” Problems with IL and errors analysis.
* Focus on errors rather than entire learner language output (i. e. what a learner can do * Oriented to L2 norms – norms are often difficult to define (e. g. variety of acceptable pronunctiations of some words) * Attribution of errors to processes not always clear cut * Doesn’t consider variability Morpheme studies * Morpheme: the smallest unit of meaning in English e. g. plural “s” (bound morpheme), article (unbound morpheme) * Influential study: Brown (1973) on First Language Acquisition (FLA) * Order of acquisition determined on basis of accuracy i. e. * Most accurate: acquired earliest.
* The most developed item is the one which was developed earlier * Findings: although rate of acquisition may differ, order of acquisition same for all children. Acquisition order in FLA RANK| MORPHEME| EXAMPLE| 1| Present progressive| Boy singing| 2| Preposition| Dolly in car| 3| Plural| Sweeties| 4| Past Irregular| Broke| 5| Possesive| Baby’s toy| 6| Articles| A car| 7| Past regular| Wanted| 8| Third person singular| He eats| 9| Auxiliary “be”| He’s running| * Dulay and Burt (1973-1975) * Suppliance of a set of morphemes in obligatory context * Developmental Secquences.
* Longitudinal research on acquisition of grammatical structures (e. g. negation, question formation word order) found: * Learners follow a set of order of stages of acquisition * L1 may affect how long a learner stays at any one stage * Learners cannot skip a stage, regardless of L2 instruction * Instruction can only affect speed of acquisition and whether learners reach final stage. Index readings – Test 1 – Monday 8th!! * Key concepts in language learning and language education * History and definitions * Introduction to SLA * Development of learner language.
Developmental sequences Longitudinal research on acquisition of grammatical structures (eg negation, question formation word order) found: * Learners follow a set order of stages of acquisition * L1 may affect how long a learner stays at any one stage * Learners cannot skip a stage, regardless of L2 instruction * Instruction can only affect speed of acquisition and whether learners reach final stage * Naturalistic statement: the most important thing will be communication – people won’t correct anyone Variability in learner language.
If IL is systenmatic, we should go thourg different stages. How can we account for variability in a learner’s interlanguage? * Need to distinguish between free vatiation and systematic variation: * Free variation may be due to: * Random errors * Performance factors, e. g. anxiety * Anxiety affects production * Early stage of IL: experimentation * People is is not a taboo * Systemic variation may be due to * Linguistic environment: e. g. omission of final ‘s’ may vary according to what sounds come before or after the letter ‘s’s * Situational context: e.
g. the person the learner is speaking to (interlocutor) or setting may affect the perceived level of formality and thus how much attention Is given to accuracy * Fluency is affected by focus on accuracy * Psycholinguistic context: e. g. amount of planning time given before being asked to perform the task Input & Interaction * Input:anything that a learner is exposed to in the environment. Anything that is perceived. * Intake:processing. When you’re receiving language, you realize a certain structure subconsciously.
* Uptake: when you do something observable with your input, if you make a mistake and then you have the correct version * Output: production of language – errors and mistakes are included * Comprehensible input:refers to modify the language and make it comprehensible * Negotiation of meaning: looking for answers for what you want to say – negotiatate what someone say: what? Could you repeat that? You said (…) or you said (…)? * Positive evidence vs. Negative evidence:
* NE: corrections. Could be related to grammar * PE: Discrete parts of the language. It’s just language * Implicit vs. explicit feedback * Implicit feedback: we don’t really saying what the mistake is directly, but you’re uttering what you say. * Explicit feedback: correction – looking a language as an object * Recast: implicit feedback – fixing what you’re trying to say. When you’re emphasizing, it turns to explicit feedback. It’s supposed to be implicit.
* Range of perspectives (theories) which explain how language (L1 and L2) is processed and ultimately acquired * All theories agree that learners need exposure to language (input – from a behaviorism focus, is important), but the kind of input and how that input is processed in order to become acquired vary * Today’s seminar focuses on the interaction hypothesis, a very influential theory in the field of SLA INPUT * Input is everything that you can get into the language * Language learner is exposed to (available for processing). * Two types of input:
* Positive evidence: authentic or modified language – * Negative evidence: corrections Behaviorist perspective – Lado and Lee * From a behaviorist approach, Learners need positive and negative evidence (both) * Positive evidence: models that learners imitate and repeat (thus forming habits) * Negative evidence: given to prevent formation of “incorrect habits” * Language learning: process of imitation & habit formation Universal Grammar Perspective * Proponents: Chomsky (L1) White and Schwartz & Sprouse * Learners need ONLY exposure to positive evidence.
* Positive evidence triggers processing in an innate language acquisition device * LAD contains principles (general rules about all human languages – e. g. Parts of speech) and parameters (rules which are language specific – e. g. “no voy” instead of I cannot) * Pro-dropped language * Dummy subjects * Second language acquisition: resetting parameters based on L2 evidence * Some debate in SLA: Is UG fully, partially on not at all available for adult L2 learners? * Is very unlike that is available. Is mostly partially available Krashen.
Main argument: learners need only exposure to appropriate input (positive evidence) * Appropiate input: comprehensible input at a level slightly above the learner’s current level (i+1) input + something a bit higher * Comprehensible input will activate LAD: subconscious process * Comprehensible input: acquired knowledge (implicit knowledge used to produce language) * Is comes out, it flows * Conscious learning: learnt knowledge (explicit knowledge used to monitor language production) * If you’re giving negative evidence, they will acquire language * Difference between learning and acquiring language
* Explicit knowledge does not become implicit knowledge (the non-interface position) * When you learn, you will not be able to acquire language Long’s interaction hypothesis * Built on Krashen’s notion of the importance of copmprehensible input for SLA * However difference in what makes input comprehensible * Krashen: emphasis on learner’s individual processing i. e. learner uses contextual clues, world knowledge to comprehend i+1 * Long (1983): interactions (negotiation of meaning) make input comprehensible * Findings:
* “Speech modifications alone are rarely sufficient. Native speakers also make a lot of adjustments to the interactional structure of conversations, and it is conversational modifications of the latter sort that are greater, more consistently observed, and probably more important for providing comprehensible input” * Conversational modifications: * Repetitions * Confirmation checks (is that what you mean? ), often involve repetition uttered with a rising intonation * Clarification requests (what do you mean? ) e. g. Sorry? What?
* Comprehension checks (do you follow me? ) e. g. OK? I+1: our current level of english Positive evidence: language Negative evidence: corrections Long’s interactional hypothesis Original version (1983): * deductive argument * Conversational modifications make negotiation input (negotiations of meaning) make inupt comprehensible e. g. Having conversations with native speakers will improve development of language THEN * Comprehensible input promotes acquisition (krashen) THEN * Negotiations of meaning -> promote SLA Research based on Long’s interaction hypothesis.
* Variables that affect the quantity and type of conversational modifications (negotiation * moves) * Task type e. g. Doughty & Pica, 1986 * Learner variables (L1, proficiency in L2, gender) e. g. Pica et al. , 1991; Polio & Gas, 1998 * Extent to which negotiations facilitate comprehension e. g. Ellis et al. , 1994 * Extent to which negotiations lead to acquisition: results mixed e. g. Iwashita, 2003; Mackey, 1999 * Family will promote more negotiation Criticism of research and interaction hypothesis * Number of assumptions questions e. g. the more negotiations moves the better?
* A social nature of research: ignores context and learner’s goals (ie is there always a clear one-to-one mapping of interaction moves and speaker’s intented meaning? * Deductive nature of argument: no mechanism to explain acquisition * Lack of robust evidence for L2 learning * Is anybody learning a language, or acquiring it? Negotiation of languge: Chance to process more the input and do something with that Swain’s outpout hypothesis * Research: language proficiency of students in Canadian immersion program, found that learners fluent but not accurate * Main argument:
* Comprehensible input alone insufficient for learners to develop grammatical accuracy * Comprehension requires learners only to process language for meaning, not for syntax * Learners need to be pushed to produce accurate and appropriate language (output) * Students were fluent, but not accurate * Push them to produce more and more INPUT * Grammatical processing: basic to improve accuracy * Long * Role of input * Output provides learners with opportunities to: * Move from semantics, open-ended processing of language prevalent in comprehension to grammatical processing needed for accurate production. * Notice “gaps” in their interlanguage.
* Test hypotheses abput language + receive feedback abput hypotheses * Reflect abput their language use + develop automaticity through practice (Gass, 2004) * Note: focus shifted from focus on positive evidence to negative evidence (corrective feedback) ->negative evidence * Negative feedback may be facilitative of L2 development * MEDIATED BY SELECTIVE ATTENTION: Focus on learner’s internal factors, drawing on work of Schmift’s (1999, 1993) on attention and noticing nypothesis * DEVELOPING L2 PROCESSING CAPACITY: draws on studies on developmental sequences & pieneman’s work on learnability to explain mixedfindings on negotiations and acquisition *
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK OBTAINED DURING NEGOTIATION WORK: shift in focus from interactions providing comprehensible input to conversations providing opportunities for negative feedback * MAY BE FACILITATIVE… ESSENTIAL FOR LEARNING CERTAIN SPECIFIABLE L1-L2 CONTRASTS: prediction abput which language structures are most likely to need negative feedback (L1-L2 contrats, e. g. dative alteration, adverb placement) * If the verb comes from latinate origin, is not possible to have dative alternation. If Germanic, it is. Why Long was unwilling to unchanged his hypothesis?
* Previous hypothesis: * Krashen’s monitor hypothesis! * IS a contradiction: Monitor check contents to learn, but it doen’t help to ACQUIRE * Closest to BEHAVIORISM * Current Hypothesis: * New ways of correcting * KEY: GIVING FEEDBACK Cognitive accounts of SLA * SLA: acquiring a new knowledge system. Learning new information * Based on cognitive psychology, which models the human mind similar to a computer (up to a point) * Learning& ability for use:
* NOTICE NEW INFORMATION, e. g. a vocabulary item (an interesting word such as “nuts”) or a feature of syntax like 3rd person singular –s * INTEGRATING NEW INFORMATION and comparing with the old one, e. g.relating the vocabulary item to similar ones or 3rd person-s to indicative present tense verb use * PROCEDURALIZING OR AUTOMATIZING, e. g. accessing the vocabulary itam / applying the 3rd person –s rule Areas of interest * A great deal of work in SLA has focused on noticing and attention because it is central to learning (Schmidt)
* There is also some work on the interaction of new language information in long-term memory (Bialystok) * The type of knowledge (explicit/implicit) has also been studied, which is related to proceduralization / automatization The human cognitive system Outside world -> sensory register -> working memory -> long-term memory.