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Application Questions

1. The first stage is Bodily Self. In this stage, infants become aware of their own existence and distinguish their own bodies from objects in the environment (Schultz & Schultz 2009). Monica has a sense of humor. She often feels frustrated as she takes care of her children and loses her temper. She is able to joke about her fatigue later. The next stage is Self-identity. Children realize that their identity remains intact despite the many changes that are taking place. Monica is 38 years old stay at home mother of four children.

The third stage is Self-esteem. Children learn to take pride in their accomplishments (Schultz & Schultz 2009). Monica is insecure about not having attended college. She doesn’t think of herself as unintelligent, but sees herself as uneducated and defers to others with a better education.

The fourth stage is Extension of self. In this stage, children come to recognize the object and people that are part of their own world. Monica is a good mother and a mother of fourth.

She takes care of her children’s physical and emotional needs. The fifth stage is Self-image. Children develop actual and idealized images of themselves and their behavior and become aware of satisfying parental expectations (Schultz & Schultz 2009). Monica is aware of the fact that she looks intimidating and angry. She is self-conscious of her frown lines.

The sixth stage is Self as rational coper. Children begin to apply reason and logic to the solution of everyday problems (Schultz & Schultz 2009). Clutter and messiness bothers her.

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She cleans the two bathrooms every day, vacuums, dusts, picks up toys, and so forth. The final stage is Propriate striving. In this stage young people begin to formulate long-range goals and plans (Schultz & Schultz 2009). Monica is considering going back to school to earn an associate’s degree in Legal Business Studies and becoming a legal assistant.

2. Cardinal traits are the most perverse and powerful human trait (Schultz & Schultz 2009). These traits dominate a person’s behavior and ruling passion. Central traits are the handful of outstanding traits that describe a person’s behavior (Schultz & Schultz 2009). These traits describe our behavior. The secondary traits are the least important traits which a person may display inconspicuously and inconsistently (Schultz & Schultz 2009). Only a close friend may recognize these traits. Monica’s has a large amount of central traits. Her friends describe her as being fiercely loyal, supportive, and talkative. She is also a perfectionist and neurotic about cleaning.

3. The functional autonomy propose that the motive of a mature, emotionally health adults are not functionally connected to the prior experiences in which they initially appeared (Schultz & Schultz 2009). An addictive behavior that Monica has is that she tries to keep her house spotless. She cleans the two bathrooms every day, vacuums, dusts, picks up toys, and so forth. She is neurotic about cleaning.

4. Prorim is a term for the ego or self (Schultz & Schultz 2009). It seems as if Monica understands who she is as a unique individual. Monica’s cleaning, need for order, and ability to laugh at herself helps aid in her individuality.

5. Propriate striving is when young people begin to formulate long-range goals and plans (Schultz & Schultz 2009).Her goals is to go back to school to get an associate’s degree in Legal Business Studies and become a legal assistant after all her children are in middle school. She is also able to accept her feelings of frustration as she takes care of her kids and her forgetfulness.

Theory Comparison Questions

1. Allport criteria for mental health, is that he believed that mature adults have a unifying philosophy or a set of values. These values help give a purpose to their life. They apply propriate self-extension to their friends, family, hobbies, and work. A healthy personality is made up of compassionate and loving relationships. The compassionate and loving relationship has to be free of possessiveness and jealousy. Emotional security and self acceptance is another criteria. Mature individuals can sustain all the frustrations of life that can’t be avoided without losing their position and giving into to self-pity. Mature individuals have a realistic orientation towards themselves and others. They can economic survive without becoming defensive. The final thing is that they have developed an accurate self insight their desirable and disagreeable qualities.

2. Allport’s propriate striving is believed to be the core problem for adolescents. The adolescent selects goals that they want to obtain for an occupation or any other life goal. They realize that their future must entail them following a plan and they lose their childhood. Jung believed that self-realization is the balance between various opposing forces of personality. It is list of opposites such as introverted and extraverted, rational and irrational, conscious and unconscious , and past events and future expectations. Maslow self-actualization is the fullest development of the self (Schultz & Schultz 2009).

A person is able to able to grow towards achieving their highest needs in life. Self-actualization depends on the maximum realization and fulfillment of our potentials, talents, and abilities. If the person is not self-actualizing, he or she will be restless frustrated, and discontent (Schultz & Schultz 2009). Rogers believe that individuals can accomplish their goals, wishes and desires. If this is done this is self realization. Rogers wanted to integrate the real self and the ideal self. When these two combine, the fully functioning person emerges.

3. The proprium is a term developed for the self or ego. This includes the aspects of the personality that are distinctive and thus appropriate to our emotional state. Before he proprium begins to emerge, the infant experiences no self consciousness, and no awareness of self. The proprium will develop gradually and steadily, and the child will achieve positive psychological growth. Rogers believe that the self develops through interaction with others. Rogers believes that the concept of self is present when the child is born.


Ashcraft, D. M. (2012). Personality theories workbook (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Schultz, D. P., & Schultz, S. E. (2009).

Theories of personality (9th ed.). Belmont, CA:Wadsworth.

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