Essay, Pages 7 (1634 words)
Geographic Information System ( GIS ) is a computer-based system designed to manage the information question, use, analysis and infinite visual image of spacial informations. Clapp et Al. ( 1997 ) described that geographic information systems ( GIS ) as a powerful tool to shop and pull strings big sums of information on spacial relationships. Information depicted includes in writing and attribute information ( Taher Buyong, 1990 ) . Development of computing machine engineering presents already solves many jobs which are chiefly in procedure of hive awaying informations, analyse and present geographically information.
2.1.1 GIS Definition and Concept
Geographic Information System ( GIS ) was an information system designed that related with referenced informations either spacial or geographical co-ordinates ( Ruslan & A ; Noresah, 1998 ) . It besides is a system that is efficient in the information direction field that involves a combination of spacial and attributes informations stored in a individual database. GIS can besides assist in doing determinations based on the consequences of the analysis generated by the system. Harmonizing to Li et Al. ( 2003 ) in Heng et Al.
( 2005 ) , GIS can utilize to manage both spacial and non-spatial informations at the same time where its consequence will demo in its specific functions in information direction and integrating, informations question and analysis, and informations visual image.
However, Maguire ( 1991 ) stated that it was hard to specify GIS because there were many ways to specify and sort the object and capable. Heng et Al. ( 2005 ) defined GIS is a system that combines spacial and non-spatial informations to construct a thematic map which depicting a assortment of demographic information associating to population, lodging and economic activities in order aid to work out location jobs and show the consequences in envisioned signifier.
Harmonizing to Clarke ( 1986 ) , GIS was computing machine assisted systems for the gaining control, storage, retrieval, analysis and show of spacial informations. While, from Burrough ( 1986 ) definition, GIS was a powerful set of tools to roll up, shop, retrieve at will, altering or transforming and exposing spacial informations from the existent universe. Then, GIS was a database direction system with a spacial mention where it can supply research workers with first-class control over spacial relationships as described by Clapp et Al. ( 1997 ) .
Based on the given definitions, it is clear that GIS is focused on processing and analytical capablenesss in bring forthing new utile information in understanding the relationship of infinite ( Ruslan & A ; Noresah, 1998 ) . By and large, GIS is a direction aggregation of computing machine hardware, package, geographic informations and the establishments had been expeditiously designed to roll up, shop, update, manipulate, analyze and expose all signifiers of information referred to geographical location ( Aronoff, 1989 ) . In order to accomplish effectivity and better stimulation, assorted GIS application had been designed to run into and carry through usersaa‚¬a„? demands and limitless demands. Besides that, informations presented would be more effectual, efficient and attractive with the conceptualisation of ocular and show.
2.1.2 GIS Components
Harmonizing to Abd. Majid et Al. ( 2000 ) , there are six chief constituents for Geographic Information System ( GIS ) as follows: –
I. ) Data
Data is the inputs enter into the system either spacial or non-spatial informations. Data entry proficient can be done via the keyboard, scanning, digitisation and picture taking. The quality of the information produced will be more precise, accurate and update.
two. ) Software
Lumley ( 1984 ) stated that, package is a plan that enables computing machine to show or execute a specific undertaking through a set of instructions that has enrolled as a computing machine plan. These instructions allow the operation or computation performed by the computing machine. Example of the operating system package such as Microsoft Windows 2007, database direction systems such as Microsoft Access 2007 and ArcGIS as an illustration for package.
three. ) Hardware
Hardware is required in GIS for informations entry, informations processing, informations storing and exposing the information information stored indoors.
four. ) Application
In general, GIS application can be categorized into three groups which are societal, economic and military. This survey is categorized under economic.
v. ) Peoples
Peoples are an indispensable constituent in using GIS. This is because human as directors and applied scientists to guarantee that GIS is used in the activity.
six. ) Procedure
The processs used in GIS are informations entry, informations storage, informations processing, presentation, direction and care system. These processs are done in making an effectual information system.
Therefore, these constituents will be coordinated so that allows the system to work swimmingly. These constituents will do the GIS a system which helps in bring forthing consequences faster and more accurate if applied in the existent estate development.
2.2 GIS Application in Real Estate Development
Zhao & A ; Zhang ( 2009, pg1 ) indicated that, aa‚¬A“In recent old ages, relevant administrative Fieldss of existent estate have been developed into a batch of subdivision industries related to existent estate due to the existent estate developing quickly. Directly, it has been strengthened the trouble of the existent estate Fieldss because the related administrative content and concern process have been changed with it. Therefore, a engineering so called GIS was set up to assist to run convenient and heighten the administrative strength of existent estate, and besides better the on the job efficiency. The constitution of GIS has realistic significance for normative pull offing existent estate and advancing the development of existent estateaa‚¬A? .
Geographic Information System ( GIS ) engineering integrates common database operations such as question and statistical analysis with the alone visual image and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps. These abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems and do it valuable to a broad scope of public and private companies for explicating events, foretelling results, and be aftering schemes ( www.gisdevelopment.net ) . Real estate industry is acquiring more ambitious twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours due to the rapid development today. Particularly in the existent estate development, it needs the advanced engineering helps to do the right determination so that can minimise or avoid the hazard of failure for a undertaking development might faced by existent estate developers.
As we know, GIS is a computing machine based system which is used to digitally reproduce and analyze the characteristics present on the Earth surface and the events that take topographic point on it. In the visible radiation of the fact, about 70 % of the information has geographical mention as its denominator. It becomes imperative to underscore the importance of a system which can stand for the given informations geographically ( www.gisdevelopment.net ) .
Harmonizing to Zheng & A ; Zhou ( 2001 ) , GIS is specially designed to manage spacial informations and capableness to execute these tasks.GIS developed as a generic tool with capablenesss to cover with uncertainnesss where it can be applied to many Fieldss which involve optimum spacial determination devising. G.i. can be used practically to put to death solution for best possible spacial determination devising in the existent estate industry. In the interim, it is shown that existent estate developers need GIS as a database direction tool to help them in making the determination devising. The constitution of determination doing support system has many advantages due to it can be used to beef up and better existent estate control and to advance the development of the market ( Yang & A ; Qiao,2009 ) .
2.2.1 GIS Application in Site Selection
GIS is a powerful computer-based tool to incorporate and analyse spacial informations from assorted beginnings. GIS allows geographically referenced information to be stored, edited, manipulated and analyzed to bring forth interpretative map and related statistic relevant for determination devising. GIS can supply an effectual platform for customized spacial modeling ( Barnett and Okowura 1993 ; Conway and Lathrop 2005 ; Goodchild 2005 ; Li and others 2005 ; Longley and Batty 2003 ; Tu and others 2007 ; Sorrentino et al.,2008, pg 4 ) . Barnett & A ; Okoruwa ( 1993 ) indicated that there were few surveies applied GIS in be aftering land usage and presented how GIS could be applied in existent estate market analysis. They demonstrated the application of GIS in market analysis where specifically in site choice and location analysis for residential development every bit good as in highest and best usage analysis. In the finding of site choice, the siteaa‚¬a„?s specific physical and geographic features must able to fulfill the functional aims of a peculiar land usage.
Heng et Al. ( 2005 ) defined that site choice was important portion when planning for a existent estate undertaking development where it was the nucleus component of the preplanning stage so the undertaking life rhythm will be Begins. Largely, developers have to prioritise or choose sites for development is based on the figure of sites on manus which are available for a undertaking development due to the limited resources. Besides, they may look for and choose the best new site from possible locations for development.
Site choice normally involves finding a suited site for a debatable development. Therefore, several standards should be studied and researched to obtain the accurate consequences. Among the cardinal facets to be studied in a choice operation through the sheathing technique is the facet of land usage, incline, geology, handiness, installations, population denseness and others. All facets of the informations are analyzed to find and place possible countries and absent for a development.
2.2.2 GIS Application in Determine Property Selling Price
Harmonizing to Zhao & A ; Zhang ( 2009 ) , GIS can be used to pull off the basic information of existent estate and at the same clip produced the statistical study where selling belongings section can mention to it as a mention determination when find the monetary value for belongings and carry on to sell it.