APEH Final Exam, Chapter 22-31 & Hub Dates

Categories: Free Essays
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of Quadruple Alliance–Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain–to create a plan following defeat of Napoleon’s France; balance of power approach to European politics.

Dual Revolution
Historian Eric Hobswawn’s term describing the fusion and reinforcement of European economic and political changes after 1915.

Carlsbad Decrees
Issued by Metternich, required 39 independent German states, including Prussia and Austria, to root out subversive ideas leading to censorship. Also, established permanent committee with spies to punish any liberal or radical organization.

Holy Alliance
Coalition of Russia, Austria, and Prussia created at Vienna in 1815. Purpose: instill the Christian values of charity and peace in European political life. Effects: Monarchs used this to prevent revolutionary influence (French Revolution) from entering these nations and to oppose democracy, revolution, and secularism.

Prince Klemens von Metternich
Definition: German politician and one of the most important diplomats of his era, serving as the Foreign Minister of the Holy Roman Empire and its successor state, the Austrian Empire, from 1809 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.


Significance: He brought the idea of a balance of power amongst the five strongest European states- Great Britain, France, Prussia, Austria, and Russia. Also, the idea that the European nations had to help each other out so that things would remain status quo. This led to a failure of most revolutions in the 19th Century , and about 100 years “peace” in Europe.

Liberalism
is the belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights. _____ espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally liberals support ideas such as, free speech, free and fair elections, human rights, capitalism, and freedom of religion.

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Laissez faire
Idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. The classic exposition of _____-faire principles is Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776), aka economic liberalism.

Nationalism
Political ideology that stresses people’s membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, ________ was a force for unity in western Europe.

Karl Marx “The Communist Manifesto”
German socialists Karl ______ and Friedrich Engels opposed the ideas of “utopian” socialists who emphasized harmony and cooperation. Instead, they embraced industrialization, believing it would lead to conflict between the middle and the working classes, and that such conflict would eventually lead to the proletarian revolution—the overthrow of the middle class—and the abolishment of private property and classist exploitation. They explained their theories in The ________ Manifesto, which rapidly became the touchstone of communist revolution all over the world.

Socialism
Political movement with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man.

bourgeoisie
Marx’s term for the middle class. A social class characterized by their ownership of capital and their related culture. They derive social and economic power from employment, education, and wealth, as opposed to the inherited power of aristocratic family of titled land owners granted feudal privileges.

proletariat
class of people without access to producing property; usually manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agriculture, or urban poor; product of the economic changes of the 16th and 17th centuries.
This is the name Marx used for the working class; also known as the “have nots” or the “oppressed”

romanticism
designated a variety of literary + artistic movements throughout Europe between the late 18th to mid-19th century; rebelled against the confinement of classical forms and refused to accept the supremacy of reason over emotions; rooted artistic vision in spontaneity; endorsed a concept of creativity based on the supremacy of human freedom; artist was valued as a genius who created great art through insight + intuition; embraced subjective knowledge; conveyed a new way of understanding the world; validation of the individual.

William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge “Lyrical Ballads”
They invented a new style of poetry – in which the flowery poetic conventions of the day were abandoned in favor of ordinary speech, but somehow retained a lofty majesty.
• ________’s Rime of the Ancient Mariner – a poor sailor who casually kills an albatross then brings destruction to his fellow sailors because of the wanton deed. He now must repent by wandering the earth with the albatross around his neck and relate the sad tale of his folly
o They explored the linkage between the supernatural and the ordinary

Amandine Aurore Lucie Dupin aka George Sands
After 8 years of unhappy marriage, she moves to Paris and writes over 80 romantic and social themed novels. Her flamboyant preference for men’s clothing and notorious affairs; writes semi-autobiographical “Leila” describing a tortuous quest for sexual & personal freedom

Germaine de Stael
a Franco-Swiss writer living in exile, urged the French to throw away their worn-out classical models. On Germany: extolled the spontaneity and enthusiasm of German writers and thinkers. She was extremely critical of Napoleon; leading to the very short existence of her famous salons; advocated equal rights for women

Victor Hugo
Author who wrote The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Les Miserables.
equated freedom in literature with liberty in politics and society

Eugene Delacroix
French romantic painter, master of dramatic colorful scenes that stirred the emotions. One of the greatest romantic painters. Fascinated with remote and exotic subjects. Masterpiece: Liberty Leading the people & Massacre at Chios.

Joseph M. W. Turner
An English Romantic landscape painter and watercolorist, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism.
fascinated by nature

John Constable
most notable romantic painter–fascinated by nature–gentle Wordsworthian landscapes in which human beings were at one with their environment, the comforting countryside of unspoiled rural England; key work: The Hay Wain

Corn Laws
Revised in 1815 these British laws didn’t allow for importing of cheap grain, this gave way to great anger towards the landed aristocracy who imposed them for their own good, i.e., profiteering. Their repeal signified the end of dominance by the landed nobility

Battle of Peterloo
(1819) This battle, occurred in Manchester, England. It was more of a massacre than a battle; people had gathered to discuss political reform and spread new ideas, and were killed by government troops.

Reform Bill of 1832
A major British political reform that increased the number of male voters by about 50 percent and gave political representation to new industrial areas.

Great Famine
Beginning in 1845, a severe blight struck the European potato crop, in Ireland, the results were devastating and millions died, with even more immigrating to Canada and the United States. The event is also called the Potato Famine.

Louis XVIII of France
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revolution. He accepted Napoleon’s Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
Only 100, 000 wealthiest males could vote for deputies out of 30 million

Louis Philippe
Orleanist king of France, 1830-48. “Citizen king” of July Monarchy (less regally dressed and carried an umbrella) who did not side with liberals vs. radicals but instead opposed both and resisted all change. He might have succeeded in keeping some degree of power if he had sided with liberals in developing a more constitutional monarchy. Increasingly out of touch with reality and resisted all reform efforts to extend the franchise. In the February Revolution of 1848 in which riots took place, he abdicated and left for England.

Alexis de Tocqueville
He came France to America in 1831 observing democracy in government and society. His book “Democracy in America” discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority’s unlimited power. Raises topic of American practicality over theory, aka “rugged individualism”, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.

Hungarian Revolution 1848
The revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary grew into a war for independence from the Austrian Empire, ruled by the Habsburg monarchy; Austria has to get help from Russia to stop the Hungarians (Russia is so conservative though that they offer troops to any country who needs help stopping revolutions); in the middle of March, riots break out in Vienna and the Hungarians demand autonomy (one’s own self-governance); in September, Austria, with the help of Russia, invades Hungary and Kossuth flees; Austria abolishes the Diet of Hungary and now takes over EVERYTHING in Hungary and they abolish serfdom (which hurts the nearly feudal Hungary)

Francis Joseph of Austria
1848-1918, head of Austria. Emperor of Austria who attempted to establish an imperial parliament with a nominated upper house and an elected lower house of representatives. emperor of Austria (1848-1916) and king of Hungary (1867-1916), who divided his empire into the Dual Monarchy, in which Austria and Hungary coexisted as equal partners. In 1879 he formed an alliance with Prussian-led Germany, and in 1914 his ultimatum to Serbia led Austria and Germany into World War I.

King Frederick William of Prussia
He loathed the French and he didn’t approve of wasteful spending. He rules as an absolutist and believes in pure mercantilism. He had a compulsory primary education which required every person to receive an education. He really likes army but was capable of staying out of the war for most of his reign. He was known as the ‘Drill-Sergeant King’. He created the canton system which divided Prussia into districts which had a military man who led and had to receive military training. Also the militarization of culture. There was a higher proportion of men with higher power who were in the army. He was going to continue most of his father’s policies and he had the third largest army in all of Europe.

utilitarianism
the theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people

Edwin Chadwick
reformer-one of the most famous-one of the commissioners charged with the administration of relief to paupers under Britain’s revised Poor Law of 1834-convinced that disease and death caused poverty-believed that disease could be prevented by cleaning up the urban environment-publicized hard facts about filth of cities and living environments-report became basis for Britain’s first public health law

Germ Theory
idea that disease was caused by the spread of living organisms that could be controlled.

Joseph Lister
English surgeon who discovered how antiseptics prevented infection, insisted that surgeons sterilize their instruments and wash their hands before operating

Napoleon III
Nephew of Emperor Napoleon I. Used Napoleonic legend to win elections in 1848 to become France’s first president under universal suffrage for men. Seized power in 1851 via coup d’ état and became dictator of second French empire. Discards constitution, taking France back to 1791. Leads period of economic growth: rebuilt Paris, extends French power overseas (Crimean War, war for Italian unification (which got some territory for France–>Nice and Savoy), Constructed Suez Canal between Mediterranean and Red Sea. Losses thru involvement in Mexico and Franco-Prussian war. Went into exile.

Georges Haussmann
appointed by Napoleon III as the planner for Paris; razed buildings to have straight roads with tree boulevards through the center of the city as well as new quarters; demolished slums by putting in boulevards; small parks sporadically placed and two large ones for activities; improved sewers and aqueducts

Labor aristocracy
highly skilled workers who made up about 15 percent of the working classes at the turn of the twentieth century

sweated industries
poorly paid handicraft production, often by married women paid by the piece and working at home.

Franziska Tiburtius
(1843 – 1927) A German pioneering professional who became a medical doctor, was a woman, she started her medical career by caring for her brother who contracted Typhus.

Gustave Droz
Author of bestseller “Mr., Mrs., and Baby” went through 121 editions between 1866 and 1884; saw love within marriage as the key to human happiness. He condemned man who made marriage sound dull and practical, men who were exhausted by prostitutes and rheumatism and who wanted their young wives to be little angels. He urged women to follow their hearts and marry a man more nearly their own age.

Sigmund Freud
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that sex and sexual urges are at the heart of development and are universal and unconscious, id, ego, superego; unconscious motivations; psychoanalysis; famous writings Interpretation of Dreams, Theory of Sexuality, Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Civilization and its Discontents

Thermodynamics
a branch of physics built on Newton’s laws of mechanics that investigated the relationship between heat and mechanical energy

Second industrial revolution
The burst of industrial creativity and technological innovation that promoted strong economic growth toward the end of the 19th century.

Charles Lyell
a geologist that wrote the book Principles of Geology in 1830, which explained that the Earth must be very old because geologic processes are VERY slow (1797-1875)

Dmitri Mendeleev
Russian chemist who developed a periodic table of the chemical elements and predicted the discovery of several new elements (1834-1907)

Jean Baptiste Lamarck
French naturalist who proposed that evolution resulted from the inheritance of acquired characteristics (1744-1829)

Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)

Auguste Comte
author “System of Positive Philosophy”
French philosopher remembered as the founder of positivism; he saw human history as 3 stages: theological, metaphysical and scientific; founded “sociology”

Evolution
gradual change in a species through adaptations over time

Social Darwinists
a group of thinkers who applied the theory of biological evolution to human affairs and saw the human race as driven by an unending economic struggle that would determine the survival of the fittest

Realism
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be

Honore de Balzac
Realist writer who portrayed characters from all French society and showed harshness of human society; The Human Comedy (1799-1850)

Gustave Flaubert
Frenchman who perfected the Realist novel; author of “Madame Bovary” which depicts middle class as petty & hypocritical (1821-1880)

Emile Zola
He was famous for his views on the working class and their “animalistic” characteristics; his novel, Germinal, showed his sympathy for socialism (1840-1902)

Leo Tolstoy
Russian realist writer; combined realism in description and character development with an atypical moralizing; wrote “War and Peace” & “Anna Karenina” (1828-1910)

Theodore Dreiser
an American novelist and journalist. He pioneered the naturalist school and is known for portraying characters whose value lies not in their moral code, but in their persistence against all obstacles, and literary situations that more closely resemble studies of nature than tales of choice and agency; authored “Sister Carrie”

Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
in 1848 he was elected President of France; nephew of Napoleon; illegally dismissed the National Assembly & seized power in coup d’etat in 1851; declared himself Emperor Napoleon III

Pius IX
Once liberal pope (1846) who was forced out of Rome by Mazzini when he established the Roman Republic. He was restored by the intervention of the French army (Louis Napoleon trying to curry favor with Catholics). Pope subsequently becomes much more conservative and in 1864 wrote Syllabus of Errors.

Guisseppe Mazzini
Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872)

Victor Emmanuel
(1820-78) He was king of Sardinia from 1849 to 1861, when he became king of a united Italy until his death in 1878. His support of the unification movement was vital to its success.

Count Camillo Benso de Cavour
brilliant statesman of Sardinia from 1850-1861; wanted a liberal constitutional state between Sardinia & N. Italy; sided with Napoleon III against Austria

Guiseppe Garibaldi
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882).

Red Shirts
Guerrilla army of Guiseppe Girabaldi who invaded Sicily in 1860 in an attempt to “liberate” it and won the hearts of the Sicilian peasantry

Zollverein
A German customs union founded to increase trade and stimulate revenues of its members

William I
King of Prussia from 1861 to 1888 and emperor of Germany from 1871 to 1888; he chose Otto von Bismarck as Prussia’s prime minister, and together they unified Germany

Count Otto von Bismarck
the Prussian Prime Minister who orchestrated 3 wars, the last of which – the Franco-Prussian war – resulted in the unification of Germany (1815-1898)

Austro-Prussian War
the Prussian Prime Minister who orchestrated 3 wars, the last of which – the Franco-Prussian war – resulted in the unification of Germany (1815-1898)

Franco-Prussian War
A war between France and Prussia that ended the Second Empire in France and led to the founding of modern Germany (1870-1871); France loses territory of Alsace & Lorraine

modernization
The changes that enable a country to compete effectively with the leading countries at a given time

Tsar Alexander II
(r. 1855-1881) Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.

“Great Reforms” in Russia
1861-1876- Series of Russian reforms that included emancipation (freeing) of the serfs, lessening of censorship, and reform of the military and judicial systems.

Bloody Sunday
A massacre of peaceful protesters at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg in 1905 that triggered a revolution that overturned absolute tsarist rule and made Russia into a conservative constitutional monarchy.

October Manifesto
The result of a great general strike in October 1905, it granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected Duma (parliament) with real legislative power.

Duma
The Russian parliament that opened in 1906, elected indirectly by universal male suffrage but controlled after 1907 by the tsar and the conservative classes; largely ignored

Crimean War
(1853-1856) Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea; intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose; Russians realize need to industrialize.

Alexander III
(1845-1894) son of Alex II; Politically reactionary tsar who promoted economic modernization of Russia.

Sergei Witte
(1849-1915) Finance minister under whom Russia industrialized and began a program of economic modernization; founder of the Trans-Siberian Railroad.

Tanzimat
A set of reforms designed to remake the Ottoman Empire on a western European model.

Young Turks
Fervent patriots who seized power in the revolution of 1908 in the Ottoman Empire, forcing the conservative sultan to implement reforms.

Muhammad Ali
an Albanian soldier who had fought against the French, who became governor of Egypt in 1805.

Sultan Abdulhamid
(r.1876-1909) last Ottoman sultan to exercise autocratic, unrestrained power

Emmeline Pankhurst
Founded the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903; led British suffragists using increasingly bold tactics, such as heckling government officials, to advance their cause

Reichstag
After 1871, popularly elected lower legislative house of the new German Empire

Kulturkampf
Bismarck’s attack on the Catholic Church within Germany from 1870 to 1878, backlash resulting from Pius IX’s declaration of papal infallibility.

William II
(1888-1918) new kaiser of Germany; helped Germany become the strongest military and industrial power in Europe; fired Bismark

Adolphe Thiers
a French politician and historian. He was a prime minister under King Louis-Philippe of France. Following the overthrow of the Second Empire he again came to prominence as the French leader who suppressed the revolutionary Paris Commune of 1871. From 1871 to 1873 he served initially as Head of State (effectively a provisional President of France), then provisional President

Leon Gambetta
Leader of the French Opportunists–moderate Republican famous for declaring a republic when Napoleon III was captured by Prussian forces. Helped lead defense of Paris in the Siege of Paris famously escaping in a hot air balloon. Prime Minister for just a few months because tried to amend constitution to create more power for executive; frightened opponents dub him a would be “Caesar.”

David Lloyd George
(1916-22 British Prime Minister) Member of the Liberal party in Great Britain who helped raise taxes on the rich, and reform in general; He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919; he assisted France’s push for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles against the Germans

People’s Budget
A bill proposed after the Liberal Party came to power in England in 1906, it was designed to increase spending on social welfare services, but was initially vetoed in the House of Lords.

Benjamin Disraeli
British statesman who as Prime Minister bought controlling interest in the Suez Canal and made Queen Victoria the empress of India; Led the Conservative party of Britain (1804-1881)

Third Reform Bill of 1884
British bill that granted virtually full male suffrage

Ulsterites
Irish Protestants of the Northern counties of _____ and opposed home rule; by December 1913 they had raised 100,000 armed volunteers and were supported by much of the English public.

Dreyfus Affair
A divisive case in which Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army was falsely accused and convicted of treason. The Catholic Church sided with the anti-Semites against Dreyfus; because of this, the French government severed all ties between the state and church.

Zionism
a movement toward Jewish political nationhood started by Theodor Herzl

Theodor Herzl
Jewish founder of Zionist Movement (1897) to rebuild homeland in Palestine

Revisionism
An effort by moderate socialists to update Marxian doctrines to reflect the realities of the time

Eduard Bernstein
Led revisionism in Germany; Social Democrat Party member; Wrote “Evolutionary Socialism”; Believed that capitalism can change to help workers through democracy.

Adelheid Popp
She was an Austrian feminist and socialist who worked as a journalist and politician; In 1893, she organized the first strike of women garment workers in Vienna’s history; After this she came to the attention of the secret police and was arrested several times and imprisoned; In 1902 she created The Association of Social-Democratic Women and Girls . 1918 she was elected into the party executive committee.

Jean Jaures
French supporter of a gradual transformation of capitalism as opposed to violent revolution

Third World
a term that refers to the non-industrialized nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America as a single unit

opium trade
the sale of opium – grown legally in British-occupied India – by British merchants in China, where the drug was illegal; it became a destructive and ensnaring vice of the Chinese

Lin Zexu
Distinguished Chinese official charged with stamping out opium trade in southern China; ordered blockade of European trading areas in Canton and confiscation of opium; sent into exile following the Opium War

Treaty of Nanking
1842 agreement ending the Opium War between China and England and giving the English control of Hong Kong and regional ports, as well as awarding the British citizens extraterritoriality rights.

Ismail
Ismail grandson of Muhammad Ali; khedive (prince) of Egypt; was a Westernizing autocrat, who dreamed of using European technology to modernize Egypt; put country into deep debt to foreign investors

Colonel Ahmed Arabi
Due to issues in Egypt, he formed the Egyptian Nationalist party against European powers; he also forced Ismail to abdicate in favor of his weak son, Tewfiq; Arabi led revolt against Brits but lost

gunboat diplomacy
the use or threat of military force to coerce a government into economic or political agreements

great migration
the mass movement of people from Europe in the 19th c.; one reason that the West’s impact on the world was so powerful and many-sided

great white walls
Laws designed by Americans and Australians in the 1880s to keep Asians from settling in their countries

“New” imperialism
the late 19th century drive by European countries to create vast political empires abroad

Afrikaners
the descendants of the Dutch in the Cape Colony in southern Africa; aka Boers

Great Trek
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.

Cecil Rhodes
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory Rhodesia, now known as Zimbabwe

Leopold II
(r. 1865-1909) King of Belgium who employed Henry Morton Stanley to help develop commercial ventures and establish a colony called the Congo Free State in the basin of the Congo River

Berlin Conference
a meeting of European leaders held in 1884 and 1885 in order to lay down some basic rules for imperialist competition in sub-Saharan Africa; led by Bismarck & Jules Ferry (France)

Maxim machine gun
the first automatic machine gun; invention that allowed conquest of the interior of Africa

Joseph Conrad
wrote Heart of Darkness which criticized selfishness of Europeans “civilizing” Africa; its main character was a liberal turned to a brute by power in Africa (1857-1924)

Rudyard Kipling
British poet born in India, fan of imperialism. wrote “White Man’s Burden” (1865-1936)

white man’s burden
The idea that Europeans could and should civilize more primitive nonwhite peoples and that imperialism would eventually provide nonwhites with modern achievements and higher standards of living.

J.A. Hobson
wrote Imperialism in 1902 after South African war; contended that imperialism was caused by economic needs of unregulated capitalism and to divert popular attention away from domestic reform and need to reduce gap between rich and poor; influenced Lenin

Horatio H. Kitchener
The British general who moved cautiously up the Nile River, building a railroad as he went; met in conflict with Muslim tribesmen at Omdurman, but used machine guns to decisively slaughter them; at Fashoda, however, his troops faced conflict with France; later a commander in India

Great Rebellion aka Sepoy Rebellion
the 1857 and 1858 insurrection by Muslim and Hindu mercenaries in the British army which spread throughout northern and central India before finally being crushed, primarily by loyal native troops from southern India. Britain thereafter ruled India directly. caused by greased animal cartridges

Hindu Indian National Congress
Established in 1885 it consisted of the educated elite of the Indian people who called for more equality

Commodore Matthew Perry
the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854; gave gifts to emperor

Meiji Restoration
The restoration of the Japanese emperor ______ to power in 1867, leading to the subsequent modernization of Japan

Yamagata Aritomo
Leader of the Meiji Restoration; twice the prime minister of Japan and a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army; one of the architects of the foundations of early modern Japan; father of Japanese Militarism

Qing Dynasty
China’s last Dynasty, which ruled from 1644 to 1912

Empress Dowager Tzu Hsi
She was a powerful and charismatic woman who unofficially but effectively controlled the Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years; crushed the Tai Ping rebellion

Sun Yatzen
Doctor served for a brief time in 1911, as president of the new republic of China; helped to start Kuomintang (Nationalist Party).

Hundred Days of Reform
A series of Western-style reforms launched in 1898 by the Chinese government in an attempt to meet the foreign challenge; led by Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to turn China into a modern industrial power.

Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the “foreign devils”; 200 foreign ministers & several thousands of Chinese Christians killed; the rebellion was ended by British troops; severe financial penalties placed on China

Sino-Japanese War
(1894-95) War fought between China and Japan. After Korea was opened to Japanese trade in 1876, it rapidly became an arena for rivalry between the expanding Japanese state and neighboring China,

Panama Canal
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)

quinine
a drug used for fighting malaria and other fevers

Suez Canal
Ship canal dug across the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 .

Triple Alliance
The alliance of Austria, Germany, and Italy. Italy left the alliance when war broke out in 1914 on the grounds that Austria had launched a war of aggression, aka Central Powers.

Triple Entente
The alliance of Great Britain, France, and Russia in the First World War, aka Allies.

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
On June 28, 1914, Archduke of Austria and his wife Sophie were shot in Sarajevo, Bosnia by Gavrilo Princip; this was the final event that led to the start of WWI.

Schlieffen Plan
Failed German plan calling for a lightning attack through neutral Belgium and a quick defeat of France before turning on Russia; purpose avoid a 2-front war

Total War
A war in which distinction between the soldiers on the battlefield and civilians at home are blurred, and where the government plans and control economic social life in order to supply the armies at the front with supplies and weapons; e.g., All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque

trench warfare
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.

Armenian Genocide
Assault carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against local population in Anatolia in 1915; 1.5 million _________ perished and thousands fled to Russia and the Middle East.

Sinking of the Lusitania
When German submarines sunk an unarmed British ship killing 128 Americans, one of the reasons America entered the war

Georges Clemenceau
He was France’s representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering Wilson’s 14 points.

Vera Brittain
British volunteer nurse who wrote the famous anti-war autobiography “Testament of Youth”

Tsar Nicolas II
leader of Russia (Nikolay Alexandrovich Romanov) was the last Emperor of Russia, ruled from 1894 until his forced abdication in 1917. Nicholas proved unable to manage a country in political turmoil and command its army in World War I. His rule ended with the Russian Revolution of 1917, after which he and his entire family were shot by Bolsheviks.

Rasputin
Cleric gained trust of Tsarina Alexandra by healing her hemophiliac son Alexei; essentially ran country despite his scandalous reputation; assassinated Dec 1916 by 3 aristocrats=poisoned, shot, & drowned; seen as responsible for alienation of Russian people and downfall of Romanov dynasty

February Revolution
Unplanned uprisings accompanied by violent street demonstrations that led to the abdication of tsar and establishment of a provisional government.

Petrograd Soviet
A huge fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers and socialist intellectuals modeled on the revolutionary soviets of 1905

Alexander Kerensky
Headed the provisional government, and decided to carry on the war to preserve Russia’s honor. This decision to remain in World War I was a major blunder.

Vladimir Ilych Lenin
founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)

Bolsheviks
Lenin’s radical revolutionary arm of the Russian party of Marxian socialism, which successfully installed a dictatorial socialist regime in Soviet Union

Leon Trotsky
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army; following Lenin’s death he was ousted from Communist Party by Stalin and eventually assassinated in Mexico (1879-1940)

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Peace treaty signed in March 1918 between the Central Powers and Russia that ceded Russian territories containing a third of the Russian empire’s population to the Central Powers.

War communism
The application of centralized state control during the Russian civil war, in which the Bolsheviks seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work.

Spartacist Uprising
attempted to bring about a proletarian revolution in Germany with the aid of Russian Bolsheviks. Crushed by the Social Democrats government, aided by demobilized army officers and volunteers. Leaders were arrested and shot. Led to a wider gap between the Social Democrats and Communists

Fourteen Points
Wilson’s 1918 peace proposal calling for open diplomacy, a reduction in armaments, freedom of commerce and trade, the establishment of the League of Nations, and national self determination.

League of Nations
A permanent international organization, established during the 1919 Paris peace conference, designed to protect member states from aggression and avert future wars; fails because U.S. Senate fails to ratify treaty

national self-determination
the notion that people should be able to live free from outside interference in nations with clearly defined borders, and should be able to choose their own national governments through democratic majority-rule elections

Treaty of Versailles
The 1919 peace settlement that ended war between Germany and allied powers.

War guilt clause
an article in the Treaty of Versailles that declared that Germany (with Austria) was solely responsible for the war and had to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by the fighting.

Balfour Declaration
A 1917 British statement that declared British support for creation of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine

Mustafa Kemal
Turkish statesman who abolished the caliphate and founded Turkey as a modern secular state (1881-1938)

Treaty of Lausanne
The 1923 treaty that ended the Turkish War and recognized the territorial integrity of a truly independent Turkey

World War I casualty rates
8.5 million soldiers killed, 21 million soldiers wounded; countless civilian deaths due to starvation, disease, and slaughter

Paul Valery
French poet and critic, expressed state of uncertainty during 1920s, crisis of the mind, “saw cruelly injured mind” besieged by doubts and anxiety

Friedrich Nietzsche
German writer and philosopher who attacked Western society, social reform, nationalism, and Christianity. Absolutes do not exist. Said that most people are sheep who want to follow others…the ubermensch are those who rise above the masses, because they “aspire and do”; inspires Nazis

Logical positivism
A philosophy that sees meaning in only those beliefs that can be empirically proven, and that therefore rejects most of the concerns of traditional philosophy, from the existence of God to the meaning of happiness, as nonsense.

Existentialism
The idea that human beings simply exist, have no higher purpose, and must exist and choose their actions for themselves. This idea mainly influenced by Nietzsche and sustains popularity in Germany with Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers who appealed to university students.

Jean-Paul Sartre
(1905-1980) was a modern existentialist, believed that human beings just turn up on the scene, and once they “turn up” they seek to define themselves. He also believed that honest human beings were very lonely because they have no G-d to help them. he epitomized the modern existentialist, because the belief in G-d, reason, and progress became shattered.

Soren Kierkegard
A Christian philosopher that wrote in reactions against the Danish society and Lutheran Church; his life was focused on love and romance; he prioritized being a prophet, celibacy, marriage, and sex.

Marie and Pierre Currie
Marie (1867-1934) a polish born physicist, and her husband Pierre discovered that radium constantly emits subatomic particles, which means it doesn’t have a constant weight.

Max Planck
German physicist whose explanation of blackbody radiation in the context of quantized energy emissions initiated quantum theory (1858-1947)

Theory of Special Relativity
Albert Einstein’s theory that time and space are relative to the observer and that only the speed of light remains constant

Werner Heisenberg
(1901-1976) German physicist who created the “principle of uncertainty”. The theory said that because it is impossible to know the speed and position of an electron, it is not possible to predict its behavior. Therefore, there is only tendency and probability.

Id, ego, and superego
According to Freud, the three interrelated parts that make up the mind. The id consists of basic inborn drives that are the source of instinctive psychic energy. The ego is the realistic aspect of the mind that balances the forces of the id and the superego. The superego has two components (the conscience and the ego-ideal) and represents the internalized demands of society.

Marcel Proust
(1871-1922) An esteemed French writer who sought to integrate psychological elements, especially regarding suppressed memories, into literature. His most famous work is the multi-volume Remembrance of Things Past (Volumes from 1913-1927).

Stream-of-consciousness technique
A narrative technique that places the reader in the mind and thought process of the narrator, no matter how random and spontaneous that may be.

James Joyce
An Irish novelist who wrote Ulysses, a stream of consciousness book that mirrored Homer’s book

T.S. Eliot
wrote “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” “The Waste Land” and “The Hollow Men;” British WWI poet, playwright, and literary critic.

Franz Kafka
Czech novelist who wrote in German about a nightmarish world of isolated and troubled individuals (1883-1924)

Modernism
A cultural movement embracing human empowerment and rejecting traditionalism as outdated. Rationality, industry, and technology were cornerstones of progress and human achievement.

Functionalism
A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.

Bauhaus
A German school of applied arts of the early twentieth-century. It’s aim was to bring people working in architecture, modern technology, and the decorative arts together to learn from one another. The school developed a style that was spare, functional, and geometric. Designs for buildings, chairs, teapots, and many other objects are highly prized today, but when the school was active it was generally unpopular. It was closed by the Nazis, but its members, including Walter Gropius, spread its teachings throughout the world.

Impressionism
A style of painting started in France in the 1860’s. This style of art emphasized the effect of sunlight on objects and used small dabs of paints that are blended in the viewers eyes to imitate reflected light. Noted artists include: Edgar Degas, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Mary Cassatt and Claude Monet.

Claude Monet
1840-1926, Impressionism artist, Impression: Sunrise, illustrates immediacy of impressionism, Paris, world of nature into fragmented daubs of broken color, fascinated by light; we don’t see clearly because things are always moving, water lily pond- 1904

Edgar Degas
1834-1917, born into a family of bankers, he believed he was a living camera. He painted “The Absinthe Drinker” in 1876, “Musicians in the Orchestra” in 1872, “Little Dancer of Fourteen years” in 1881 (multi-media sculpture) and “The Tub” in 1886

Vincent Van Gogh
(1853-1890) Dutch post-impressionist painter noted for his use of color. Experimented with sharp brush lines and bright colors. Spent most of his life in France, he painted Crows in the Wheat fields, Self Portrait. Noted for cutting off his own ear.

Pablo Picasso
(1881-1973) A Spaniard in Paris who formed a movement in 1907 called Cubism. Cubism concentrated on a complex geometry of zigzagging lines and sharply angled, overlapping plane. One of the artistic giants of the twentieth century. His painting Guernica is one of the most powerful anti-war expressions of the modern era.

Dadaism
A movement in Europe during and just after the First World War, which ignored logical relationship between idea and statement… It was founded in Zurich in 1916 by Tristan Tzara with the ostensibly destructive intent of demolishing art and philosophy, intending to replace them with conscious madness as protest against the insanity of the war.

Salvador Dali
(1904-1989); A Spanish surrealist artist and one of the most important painters of the 20th century. He was a skilled craftsman, best known for the striking, bizarre, and beautiful images in his surrealist work. His painting skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. Artist of “Clock Explosion”, “Persistence of Memory”, “The Elephants”, and “The Meditative Rose.”

New woman
A woman of the turn of the 20th century often from the middle class who dressed practically, moved about freely, lived apart from her family, and supported herself.

Leni Riefenstahl
The award winning filmmaker as the director of “Triumph of the Will” and a documentary of the 1936 Olympics. As Hitler’s primary filmmaker, she produced movies that effectively promoted Germany and was labeled a promoter of Hitler’s propaganda. After serving a time in prison she became an award winning still photographer. She died at the age of 101 in 2003.

Gugliemo Marconi
Italian inventor credited with the invention of the radio.

John Maynard Keynes
(1883-1946) English economist. He is most famous for The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936), which judged most of classical economic analysis to be a special case (hence “General Theory”) and argued that the best way to deal with prolonged recessions was deficit spending.

Dawes Plan
1924 strategy created by Charles _______, a banker-A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success until the stock market crash of 1929.

Kellog-Briand Pact
A 1928 pledge by 15 nations to never threaten war in international relations, effectively outlawing war in general. This pact was enacted to keep Europe and the U.S. safe by announcing to never declare war on each other, which was effective in theory, but never had provisions in case of a violation, and by 1941, many of these countries had violated it.

Adolf Hitler
Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich (1933-1945). His fascist philosophy, embodied in “Mein Kampf” (1925-1927), attracted widespread support, and after 1934 he ruled as an absolute dictator. His pursuit of aggressive nationalist policies resulted in the invasion of Poland (1939) and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. He committed suicide when the collapse of the Third Reich was imminent (1945).

Great Depression
(1929-1939) The dramatic decline in the world’s economy due to the United State’s stock market crash of 1929, the overproduction of goods from World War I, and decline in the need for raw materials from non industrialized nations. Results in millions of people losing their jobs as banks and businesses closed around the world. Many people were reduced to homelessness, and had to rely on government sponsored soup kitchens to eat. World trade also declined as many countries imposed protective tariffs in an attempt to restore their economies.

Buying on margin
Purchasing stock with a little money down with the promise of paying the balance at sometime in the future.

New Deal
(1) FDR’s programs that sought relief & recovery (first one) and later reform (second one) during the Depression; (2) FDR had no specific plan, but he used many trial-and-error methods to increase faith in the economy, avoid radicalism or riots, and apply Keynesian principles (of using government deficit spending to jumpstart the private sector).

Popular Front
An alliance between the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals formed for the May 1936 French elections. It was largely successful, increasing the Communists in parliament from 10 to 72, and the Socialists to 146, making them the largest party in France.

Totalitarianism
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Fascism
A governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.

Eugenics
Coined by Frances Galton. Aimed at improving the genetic composition of a population. Embraced views of Social Darwinism and manipulated the human population in order to better it. Think of things like the Nazi’s, where the argument was made that in order to purify the human race some parts of it had to be removed or changed. Positive eugenics focused on encouraging the reproduction of Anglo-Saxons (ex. healthcare, health food). While, negative eugenics aimed toward genocide and extermination, sterilization, and euthanasia (intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain) thought to be doing society a favor in prohibiting the reproduction of the unfit.

Joseph Stalin
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and used terror to crush opposition

Five-year plan
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.

New Economic Policy
Established in Russia in 1921 by Lenin, this new policy was intended to alleviate economic stress. It promised considerable freedom of action for small business owners and peasant landowners, while the government still controlled all banking and industry. It was a stopgap measure in recognition of the real-life barriers to immediate construction of communism. Really a capitalist policy with incentives.

Collectivization of agriculture
As an extension of the his Five Year Plan (initiated in 1928), Stalin pursued a policy of destroying the culture of the peasant village and replacing it with one organized around huge collective farms. The peasants resisted and were killed, starved, or driven into Siberia in numbers that can only be estimated but which may have been as high as eight million.

Kulak
A class of wealthy Russian peasants who resisted Stalin’s collective farms, most were either killed or sent to Siberia.

Great Purges
Also called the Terror of the late 1930s these killings were a massive attempt to cleanse the Soviet Union of supposed “enemies of the people”; nearly a million people were executed between 1936 and 1941, and 4 million or 5 million more were sentenced to forced labor in the Gulag.

Benito Mussolini
(1883-1945) Italian leader nicknamed ‘Il Duce,’ founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.

Black Shirts
A private army under Mussolini who destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of Northern Italy.

Lateran Agreement
A 1929 agreement that recognized the Vatican as a tiny independent state, with Mussolini agreeing to give the church heavy financial support. In turn, the Pope expressed his satisfaction and urged Italians to support Mussolini’s government.

Nazism
The doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-Communism, and the all-powerful role of the State. The National Socialist German Workers Party, otherwise known as the _____ Party was advocated by Adolf Hitler in Germany.

Enabling Act
1933: government can ignore constitution for four years to repair Germany. Allowed Hitler to craft his anti-Semitic Germany with Nuremberg laws and Kristallnacht.

Nuremberg Laws
1935 German laws placing severe restrictions on Jews, including prohibiting: marrying non-Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine, or publishing books; modeled on Jim Crow laws in the U.S.

Kristallnacht
“Night of Broken Glass”; November 9-10, 1938; Day Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish businesses, homes, and synagogues across Germany killing and injuring hundreds of Jews and arresting around 30,000

Appeasement
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain’s policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.

Neville Chamberlain
(1869-1940) gullible British Prime Minister; at the Munich Conference he declared he had secured “peace for our time” He declared that Britain and France would fight if Hitler attacked Poland. Forced to resign in 1940 after the German invasion of France.

Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
Stalin, who advocated a popular front against fascism, surprisingly signed a deal with Nazi Germany on August 1939 agreeing not to make war on each other and secretly divided up Poland (in a planned attack on Sept. 1) between the USSR and Germany. German motivation: avoid 2-front war. Soviet motivation: distrust of West after aid given to Whites during the Russian Civil War in opposition to the Bolsheviks or Reds and Stalin’s paranoia.

Blitzkrieg
“Lightning war”; Germany’s newest military strategy including initial strikes by Luftwaffe followed by invasion of fast tanks and infantry in order to quickly destroy another nation.

Battle of Britain
aka “The Blitz”- Hitler planned an invasion of Great Britain. He called it Operation Sea Lion. First wanted to knock out Royal Air Force (RAF), then to land 250,000 soldiers on Great Britain’s shores. Luftwaffe, Germany’s air force, began bombing U.K. RAF outnumbered by Luftwaffe. First, Germany targeted British airfields and aircraft factories. Then bombed London, British fought back valiantly. British advantage: RAF had radar and Enigma (a code breaking machine). Germany conducted night bombing. Hitler called off attacks due to British resistance and turns to Operation Barbarossa.

New Order
Hitler’s program based on racial imperialism that gave preferential treatment to the Nordic peoples who were related to Germans; Latin people (French) were middle and then Slavs considered subhuman; in Hitler’s vision the east would be enslaved and forced to die out while Germanic peasants would resettle these lands

Holocaust
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German racial supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.

Europe first strategy
Prioritizing the defeat of the Axis powers (principally Germany and Italy) in North Africa and Europe before mounting an all-out effort to defeat the Japanese in the Pacific and Asia.

Grand Alliance
Alliance between the Great Britain, United States, and the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany during World War II

Hiroshima and Nagasaki
United states dropped atomic bombs on Japan on 8/6/1945 and 8/9/1945. Mass bombing of cities and civilians, one of the terrible new practices of WWII had ended in the final nightmare, unprecedented human destruction in a single blinding flash. Japanese announced their surrender on August 15, 1945.

Displaced persons
Refers to post-Second World War refugees from Eastern Europe. Some had lost their homes through border changes. For example, the eastern part of Germany had been given to Poland. Many had fled to Western Europe to escape the Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe. Many of these people came to Canada as immigrants.

Nuremberg trials
Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.

Yalta Conference
Conference of Russia, Great Britain and US in Feb.1945 with leaders FDR, Stalin, and Churchill in Crimea. The result was statement of Soviet intent on entering the Pacific War two to three months after the end of the European war, Churchill and FDR promise for Soviet concessions in Manchurian and return of lost territories. Stalin recognized Chiang Kai-Shek as China’s ruler, agreed to drop demands for reparations from Germany, approved plans for a UN Conference and promised free elections in Poland.

Truman Doctrine
1947, President’s policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey

Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
(COME-CON)-An economic alliance, founded in 1949, to coordinate the economic affairs of the Soviet Union and its satellite countries.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.

Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary

Big Science
1945-1965. The results of research in World War II. A meeting between theoretical work and sophisticated engineering. Led predominantly by the US but experienced in Europe and Japan as well.

Christian Democrats
Powerful center to center-right political parties that evolved in the late 1940’s in Europe from former Catholic parties of the pre-WWII period. Christian parties gained increasing support in the postwar era, winning elections in part because of their participation in wartime resistance. A vital component of postwar politics, these groups shifted from their decades-old emphasis on advocating church interests to welcoming non-Catholics among their ranks and focusing on democracy, anti-communism, and social reform.

Common Market
Popular name for the European Economic Community established in 1951 to encourage greater economic cooperation between the countries of Western Europe and to lower tariffs on trade between its members.

De-Stalinization
Khrushchev’s policy of purging the Soviet Union of Stalin’s memory; monuments of Stalin were destroyed; Stalin’s body was moved outside the Kremlin Wall; Khrushchev did this because he disliked Stalin for jailing and killing loyal Soviet citizens

Nonalignment
The policy of some developing nations to refrain from aligning with either the United States or the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Author of “A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich”, Soviet writer and political dissident whose novels exposed the brutality of Soviet labor camps (born in 1918). He wrote the accounts from experience, having been imprisoned for writings critical of Stalin. Famous Russian writer who was imprisoned in the Soviet Union for exposing the cruelties of Communism, was exiled to the west.

Nikita Khrushchev
Stalin’s successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with _______, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.

Decolonization
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.

Mohandas Gandhi
(1869-1948) nicknamed “Mahatma” (meaning Great Soul), India’s famous leader who fought British imperialism through nonviolent civil resistance, led the Salt March, Cotton boycott, & Satyagraha (truth force), to encourage India to find strength & courage and to gain international support for Indian independence, which occurs in 1947; assassinated by a Hindu extremist.

Mao Zedong (also spelled Tse-Tsung)
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi (also spelled Chaing Kai-Shek) and the Nationalists. Established China as the People’s Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.

Suez Crisis
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power

Mau Mau rebellion
The massacre of 1,700 Africans and about 10 European settlers and missionaries by native Kenyan tribes, especially the Kikuyu, who resented British intrusion

Guest workers programs
Workers who fill the labor shortages in industrialized western Europe and the U.S due to the war and declining population after WWII through labor agreements established between the governments of the sending and receiving countries.

Postcolonial migration
The postwar (WWII) movement of people from former colonies and the developing world into Europe.

Youth Culture
The youth of the 1950s had more money and free time than any previous generation which allowed a distinct ______ ______ to emerge. A market emerged for products and activities that were specifically for young people such as transistor radios, rock records, Seventeen magazine, and Pat Boone movies. Creates a GENERATION GAP!

Detente
A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget. The public did not approve.

Berlin Wall
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.

Counterculture
A mode of life opposed to the conventional or dominant, that rejects established social values and practices, especially among the young.

New Left
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights, and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.

Brehznev Doctrine
A USSR foreign policy which stated that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in the international affairs of any satellite nation if the communist government was threatened. It was mainly justification for the events of the Prague Spring and invasion of Hungary. Compare to Truman Doctrine.

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
An economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations.

Stagflation
During the 1960’s and 1970’s, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.

Postindustrial society
Society in which knowledge, the control of information, and service industries are more important elements of the economy than agriculture or manufacturing and production

Neoliberalism
A strategy for economic development that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy.

Francois Mitterand
a Socialist, he was elected president of France in 1981, and enacted many liberal measures to reduce inflation and aid workers but could not correct France’s economic problems and lost power in 1993

Simon de Beauvoir
(1908-1986) Feminist, relationship with Jean-Paul Sartre (existentialist) led to politics, ‘The Second Sex’ argued against male-dominated society in France.

National Organization for Women
Founded in 1966, NOW called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.

Green Party
A minor party dedicated to the environment, social justice, nonviolence, and the foreign policy of nonintervention. Ralph Nader ran as the ______ party’s nominee in 2000.

Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA)
paramilitary organization in N. Ireland; violent opposition to British forces that “occupied” the district

Really existing socialism
A term used by communist leaders to describe the socialist accomplishments of their societies. Nationalized industry, collective agriculture (example Poland), less polarization of wealth, welfare.

Solidarity
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe. Lech Walesa leader of movement.

Perestroika
(1985) This was the political movement in the Soviet Union led by the general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev meant to “restructure” (_______ in Russian means “restructuring) the Soviet government. _______ is often associated with Glasnot (meaning “openness”) as it was the other major policy introduced by Gorbachev. The plans gave more freedom to Soviet people (consumers) through market reforms and the allowance of more independent actions. ________ and Glasnot are often credited for the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the revolutions in the Eastern Bloc, and the end of the Cold War altogether.

Glasnost
A term meaning “political openness” and referred to Gorbachev’s reforms in the Communist system and allowing more policies comparable to free enterprise and freer and more citizen-based government, as well as better relations with non-Communist governments.

Shock therapy
A variant of market reform that involves the state simultaneously imposing a wide range of radical economic changes, with the purpose of “shocking” the economy into a new mode of operation. ______ therapy can be contrasted with a more gradual approach to market reform.

Velvet Revolution
Mass protests in Czechoslovakia, led by playwright Vaclev Havel, that culminated in the bloodless fall of communism in that country in November 1989.

Helmut Kohl
German Chancellor 1982-1998 – worked with Mitterand on European Union – like Thatcher and Reagan – wanted to lower taxes, encourage initiative – conservative

Disintegration of the Soviet Union
1991 break Up of the Soviet Union

Vladimir Putin
elected president of Russia in 2000, launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track.

Chechnya invasion and conflict
This area is a region within the state of the Russian Federation which has been fighting for independence since the dissolution of the USSR. Ethnic tensions within the area, along with two wars with Russia within the past twenty years, have kept ______ in a near constant state of conflict. The Russian Federation refuses to grant ______ its independence because it would incite other regions to ask for independence, and because ______ is a major part of the oil infrastructure in Russia and it would cause massive economic problems if it left.

Ostalgie
German term referring to nostalgia for the lifestyles and culture of the vanished East Bloc

Ethnic cleansing
Effort to eradicate a people and its culture by means of mass killing and the destruction of historical buildings and cultural materials. ______ ______ was used by both sides in the conflicts that accompanied the disintegration of Yugoslavia, including Bosnia.

Kosovo Liberation Army
The Albanian Muslims of ______ wanted self rule from Serbia, so they formed this group and began to fight for independence, which led to more repression by Serbs, and the eventual bombing of Serbia by NATO.

Globalization
________________ involves the broadening and deepening of interdependence among peoples and states. [Broadening refers to the extension of geographic linkages to encompass virtually all major societies and states, so that policies and events in one part of the world can have a significant impact on distant locations.] [Deepening refers to the greater frequency and intensity of state and societal interactions.]

European Union
A transnational government composed of most European nations that coordinates monetary, trade, immigration, and labor policies, making its members one economic unit. An example of regional organization.

Maastricht Treaty
A treaty created in 1991 that set strict financial criteria for joining the proposed European monetary union, with it single currency and set 1999 as the start date for its establishment.

International Monetary Fund
An international organization of 183 countries, established in 1947 with the goal of promoting cooperation and exchange between nations, and to aid the growth of international trade.

World Trade Organization
Administers the rules governing trade between its 144 members. Helps producers, importers, and exporters conduct their business and ensure that trade flows smoothly.

Nongovernmental organizations
A nonprofit group or association organized outside of institutionalized political structures to realize particular social objectives, such as environmental protection, or serve particular constituencies, such as indigenous peoples.

Diaspora
A Greek word meaning ‘dispersal,’ used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland. Jews, for example, spread from Israel to western Asia and Mediterranean lands in antiquity and today can be found in other places, including Israel and the U.S.

Multiculturalism
A term often used instead of “melting pot” to denote a pluralistic society in which the original cultural heritages of its citizens are recognized and respected.

September 11, 2001 (HUB DATE)
On this date, which is a common shorthand for the terrorist attacks that occurred on ________, in which 19 militant Islamist men hijacked and crashed 4 commercial aircraft. Two planes hit the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, causing them to collapse. One plane crashed into the Pentagon in Washington, D. C., and the fourth, overtaken by passengers, crashed into a field in rural Pennsylvania. Nearly 3,000 people were killed in the worst case of domestic terrorism in American history.

War on Terror
Initiated by President George W. Bush after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the broadly defined ____ on _____ aimed to weed out terrorist operatives and their supporters throughout the world. Led to the US invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan.

Global Warming
Gradual rise in the temperature of the earth and its atmosphere that may be caused in part by pollution and an increase in the greenhouse effect.

1445 (HUB DATE)
In this year, Gutenberg invents the printing press

1487 (HUB DATE)
In this year, Dias rounds the Cape of Good Hope; allows for travel from Europe to Asia without the silk road

1517 (HUB DATE)
In this year, Luther’s 95 Theses on Indulgences published criticizing Catholic church

1648 (HUB DATE)
In this year, Peace of Westphalia=ends 30 Years War and extends freedom of worship to Calvinists

1688 (HUB DATE)
In this year, Glorious Revolution exiled James I in England, noteworthy for the lack of bloodshed and coronation of William and Mary

1689 (HUB DATE)
In this year, Principia Mathematica published stating Newton’s Laws including the law of universal gravitation that an object in motion tends to stay in motion unless there is an intervening force.

1765 (HUB DATE)
In this year, the Spinning Jenny was created by James Hargreaves allowing for greater production of cloth and contributes to the Industrial Revolution.

1789 (HUB DATE)
In this year, the French Revolution began which led to the beheading by guillotine of Louis XVI, end of the old order, and the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte

1815 (HUB DATE)
In this year, European countries formed the Congress of Vienna to create a balance of power in Europe and there are no major wars until WWI, 1914.

1848 (HUB DATE)
In this year, many European countries have failed revolutions attempting to overthrow nationalism, but eventually leads to nationalism and establishment of Italy and Germany as nations in the late 19th century.

1871 (HUB DATE)
In this year, German unification occurred which led to the Franco-Prussian and Austro-Prussian Wars; Later, a united Germany is at the heart of both World War I and World War II.

1919 (HUB DATE)
In this year, the Treaty of Versailles was signed ending WWI, but because of the harshness of the treaty towards Germany, especially the war guilt clause and the $35 billion in reparations, the treaty of Versailles will be a cause of World War II

1945 (HUB DATE)
In February of this year, the Big 3–Stalin, FDR, and Churchill–met to discuss a plan for Soviet entry into the war in the Pacific and Post WWII plans, the meeting was a precursor to future tensions in the Cold War between the Communist Soviets and the Capitalist countries in Western Europe and the U.S.

1989 (HUB DATE)
In this year, the Berlin Wall falls symbolizing the decline of communism and the end of the Cold War

1991 (HUB DATE)
In this year, the Treaty of Maastricht was signed identifying a few conditions for the economic union of European, aka European Union, including a common currency known as a “Euro”

Cite this page

APEH Final Exam, Chapter 22-31 & Hub Dates. (2018, Jan 05). Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/apeh-final-exam-chapter-22-31-hub-dates-essay

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