AP US History: Gilded Age

“waving the bloody shirt”
using Civil War memories to gain support for presidents

Tweed Ring
Boss Tweed, NY, stole about $200 million from the people, eventually found out and jailed until he died

Credit Mobilier scandal
This scandal occurred in the 1870s when a railroad construction company’s stockholders used funds that were supposed to be used to build the Union Pacific Railroad for railroad construction for their own personal use. To avoid being convicted, stockholders even used stock to bribe congressional members and the vice president.

panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant’s poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver)

Gilded Age
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain (sarcastically because of the corruption) to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.

patronage
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support

Compromise of 1877
The Compromise of 1877, also known as the Corrupt Bargain,[1] refers to a purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed 1876 U.S. Presidential election and ended Congressional (“Radical”) Reconstruction. Through it, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the White House over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden on the understanding that Hayes would remove the federal troops that were propping up Republican state governments in South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana.

Civil Rights Act of 1875
The Act guaranteed that everyone, regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in “public accommodations” (i.e. inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement). If found guilty, the lawbreaker could face a penalty anywhere from $500 to $1,000 and/or 30 days to 1 year in prison.

sharecropping
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops; usually virtually enslaved the workers because of debt

Jim Crow
barrier preventing blacks from participating in various activities with whites

Plessy v. Ferguson
sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal

Chinese Exclusion Act
Pased in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.

Pendleton Act
The Pendleton Act was an American act for the reformation of the American national civil service, introduced into the Senate by George Hunt Pendleton, of Ohio in 1880, but which did not become a law until January the 6th, 1883. It provided for open competitive examinations for admission to the public service.

Homestead Strike
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when “scab” labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.

grandfather clause
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.

Jay Gould
United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)

Horace Greeley
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America’s most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.

Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history

James A. Garfield
20th president, Republican, assassinated by Charles Julius Guiteau after a few months in office due to lack of patronage

Chester Arthur
Appointed customs collector for the port of New York – corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield’s running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.

Grover Cleveland
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes

Thomas B. Reed
Republican Speaker of the House in 1888, he gained a reputation for an iron grip over Congress and kept Democrats in line.

Tom Watson
elected to the U.S congress, became known as a champion of Georgia’s farmers, and he sponsored and pushed through a law providing for RFD-rural free delivery

William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)

J. P. Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the “Robber barons”

Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois
1886 – Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.

Interstate Commerce
commerce between two or more states which can be regulated by the federal government

vertical integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product’s manufacture from raw materials to distribution

horizontal integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level

trust
term generally used to describe any large scale business operation inspired by horizontal integration

interlocking directorates
the consolidation of rival enterprises, to ensure harmony officers of a banking syndicate were placed on boards of these rivals

Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.

Social Darwinists
Theorists who applied Darwin’s theory of natural selection to human society, arguing that poorer and weaker segments of society desrved their fate; survival of the fittest

Sherman Anti-Trust Act
requires the United States federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies, and organizations suspected of violating the Act. It was the first Federal statute to limit cartels and monopolies, and today still forms the basis for most antitrust litigation by the United States federal government. However, for the most part, politicians were unwilling to refer to the law until Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency (1901-1909).

National Labor Union
1866 – established by William Sylvis – wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor – attempt to unite all laborers

Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed; demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories

Haymarket Square
Labor disorders had broken out and on May 4 1886, the Chicago police advanced on a protest; alleged brutalities by the authorities. Suddenly a dynamite bomb was thrown that killed or injured dozens, including police. It is still unknown today who set off the bomb, but following the hysteria, eight anarchists (possibly innocent) were rounded up. Because they preached “incendiary doctrines,” they could be charged with conspiracy. Five were sentenced to death, one of which committed suicide; the other three were given stiff prison terms. Six years later, a newly elected Illinois governor recognized this gross injustice and pardoned the three survivors. Nevertheless, the Knights of Labor were toast: they became (incorrectly )associated with anarchy and all following strike efforts failed.

American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor

closed shop
a company that hires only union members

Cornelius Venderbilt
an American entrepreneur who built his wealth in shipping and railroads and was the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family.

Alexander Graham Bell
United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922); invented the telephone in 1876

Thomas Alva Edison
This scientist received more than 1,300 patents for a range of items including the automatic telegraph machine, the phonograph, improvements to the light bulb, a modernized telephone and motion picture equipment.

Andrew Carnegie
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the “Robber barons”

John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.

Samuel Gompers
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)

New Immigrants
Refers to the immigrants from southern and eastern Europe who came primarily during the age of Industrialization in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s.

settlement houses
a welfare agency for needy families, combated juvenile delinquency, and assisted recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. Jane Addams of the Hull House Settlement in Chicago

liberal Protestants
American Protestant Liberalism grows out of German scholarship of the late 1800s. German scholars came to deny Scripture’s power and they undercut the church’s effectiveness. Their thought permeates European culture much sooner than it does the American. Because of the Civil War many American scholars were unable to travel abroad for study. Liberal reflects attitudes in continuity with Enlightenment thought. It reflects an attempt to incorporate modern thinking and developments, especially in the sciences, into Christianity. Liberals tend to emphasize ethics over doctrine while stressing man’s freedom–humanism.

Tuskegee Institute
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper

land-grant colleges
Are institutions of higher education in the United States that have been designated by each state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890

pragmatism
(philosophy) the doctrine that practical consequences are the criteria of knowledge and meaning and value; a philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations.

yellow journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
militant suffragist organization founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony

Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
This organization, founded in 1874, worked alongside the Anti-Saloon League to push for prohibition. Notable activists included Susan B. Anthony and Frances Elizabeth Willard.

World’s Columbian Exposition
1893; World’s Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the New World

Jane Addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes

Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)

Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.

W. E. B. Du Bois
fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP

Joseph Pulitzer
United States newspaper publisher, born in Hungary, who established the Pulitzer prizes (1847-1911)

William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate “yellow (sensationalist) journalism.”

John Dewey
He was a philosopher who believed in “learning by doing” which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers’ goal should be “education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard.”

Horatio Alger
Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote “rags to riches” books praising the values of hard work

Mark Twain
(born Samuel Clemens) wrote several books that caught the spirit of the Gilded Age. His works combined real depth with a comic genius that exposed the pretentiousness and meanness of human beings.

Carrie Chapman Catt
Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter ., became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspiried speaker and abrilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.

reservation system
introduced in 1870, forced nations to live on barren land, it confined people so they could not support themselves in their accustomed way. It has left to the institutional of this enforced segregation.

Battle of the Little Bighorn
a battle in Montana near the Little Bighorn River between United States cavalry under Custer and several groups of Native Americans (1876); Custer was pursuing Sioux led by Sitting Bull; it was a disastrous defeat

Battle of Wounded Knee
The Wounded Knee Massacre, also known as The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek, was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States, subsequently described as a “massacre” by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes

mining industry
during the late 1800s, mining became a big industry needed to get raw materials

Homestead Act
Land given out by the government. Throughout the 19th century homesteads were sold for a cheap price, as well as given away by the homestead act of 1862. Many of these homesteads were also purchased by businesses and railroads using families to claim the land.

mechanization of agriculture
The development of engine-driven machines, like the combine, which helped to dramatically increase the productivity of land in the 1870s and 1880s. This process contributed to the consolidation of agricultural business that drove many family farms out of existence

Populists
followers of the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite

Pullman strike
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the “company town”, Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing

fourth party system
a system that required coalition building in the second round of the two-round, single0member district system. when there are four parties in politics at the time

Gold Standard Act
the monetary system that prevailed between about 1870 and 1914, in which countries tied their currencies to gold at a legally fixed price

Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.

Jacob S. Coxey
a wealthy Ohio quarry owner turn populist who led a protest group to Washington D.C. to demand that the federal government provide the unemployed with meaningful work (during the depression of 1893). The group was arrested and disbanded peacefully in D.C. movements like this struck fear into American’s hearts

William McKinley
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist

Marcus Alonzo Hanna
Used the money he made in the iron business to support William McKinley’s presidential campaign. He became a personification of big business in politics.

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