AP Art History Gallery 6
Function: to celebrate the establishment of Roman rule in the provinces of Gual (France) and Hispania (Spain/Portugal). Triumphant of Augustus’s return to Rome
Content: imagery of Augustus’ family
Focus: allegorical/symbolic to establishment of peace and prosperity. In original setting, it would have aligned with a sundial and as (Egyptian) obelisk
1. West Side: Relief panels showing the first rulers of Rome: includes Romulus and Numa Pomplilius (successor)
2. Lower Register: fertility and plenty. Meander pattern- repeating pattern used to frame reliefs (typical of grace and Augustan style)
3. Inner Wall: Ox- symbolic of sacrifice and offerings. Garlands (flowers)- symbolic of ongoing peace. Motif of peace.
4. Procession: Suggests double line of marches. High and low relief extends narrative beyond frame (energy in scene). Figures= civic leaders, especially of Agrippa (functionaries), Livia (wife of UNSEEN Augustus), Tiberius (son), Antonia (niece), Drusus (Livia’s younger son/husband of Antonia). Remarkable for realism and charm of powerful/put together family
2. Shows goddess Pax as Mother Earth with women/children surrounding her (woman of land, woman of sea, animals and plants symbolic to the Mediterranean world)
Content: realism, wrinkles, folds in skin. Not perfect. Not a god
Focus: Experienced man (common portraiture subject) and showed Roman virtues: determination, wisdom, experience, loyalty to family/state
Focus: Marcus Tulius Cicero: greatest orators and politicians of Roman Republic with a ragged and old appearance= importance
Focus: circulated as coins/propaganda in Roman Republic
Content: Julius Caesar as dictator with piercing gaze, baldness, nose (similar to Cicero). Other face: Venus depicted with son Aeneas fated to rule the world.
Function/Focus: built to avenge murder of Caesar and wanted support of God of war (Mars). Underscores Octavians/Augustus connection to Caesar and therefore his god-like status to claim leadership
* Comparable to Maison Caree (“Square House”) in Nimes, France
1. (both elevated and accessed by the front with altar spaces and temples to worship. Freestanding columns with an enclosed cella)
2. Both used Corinthian order favored in the Augustus style (delicate/light/graceful/complicated)
3. Best preserved Roman temples
* See Temple of Mars
Content: concrete. Veneered with marble and carved marble reliefs.
Focus: on upper panel: “Senatus Populusque Romanus Divo Tito Vidi Vespasiani Filio Vespasiano Augusto” or “The Roman Senate and People to Deified Titus, Vespasian Augustus, son of Defiied Vespasian”
1. Composite order- Roman elaboration of the Corinthian order (volutes of the Ionic order)
2. Plinth- square/rectangular base for a column
Focus: tradition of built under thousands of animals and gladiators who died in amusement. Replaced Nero’s rule
Content: Oval bowl, tall, outer and inner walls, floor covered with wood or cages
Focus: Propaganda. Political message of Augusts as an armed general (idealistic/god like). Contropassto. Combo of Greek and Roman art
Connection: Doryphoros: stance, overall shape, ridges on form, layered hair
Atmospheric perspective (3-D to high relief illusion)
Focus on patters
Motifs: abstract ornamentation, figural compositions. Landscape. Mythological scenes.
unreleated elemtns. Viewpoints are nonsensical and confused images. Monochromatic panels. Illusion of work of art that is hung rather than part of wall
Focus: first depiction of a human event on a temple. Evidence of the Athenians’ high sense of self-worth
Content: frieze is distortional, compressed, has incongruities.
Function: to represent the citizens of Athenians livelihood (favorable by the gods)
Function: burial practice. Contains ashes of the emperor.
Focus: largest imperial forums in Rome. Narrative relief (going upward) of Trajan’s victory against the Dacians.
Content: shows detail of scene of Romans and northern foes. Centralized horseman (son of Emperor Trajan) stands out in the victorious battle scene
Connection: Greater Altar of Zeus
More rounded face, torso, limbs in comparison to Statue of Menkaure and Queen (Egyptian: perfection, strict)
Focus: heroic (from Archaic). Less triangular and more square with large too, limb,s and muscularity. First idealist perspective
Content: young woman/servant with jewelry box= everyday life/growing sense of realism
Focus: realistic v. ideal/ uplifting image of father (patriarchal)
Function: built for Mausoleum/wife, honor
Focus: commissioned it to be the largest in the world (wealth, power). Influence of Egyptian. Large scale, columns classic, symmetry proportional
Focus: less concerned with rep of body in 3D than the Greeks and excelled as landscape painters
Set: 530 BCE Fresco
* may have influenced later work in Greek colonies
* detail in Tomb of the Triclinium exemplifies the Greek influence in Etruscan tomb painting (narratives)
Content: upturned eyes/peaceful smile= peace/gratificatino of life
Focus: inclusion of women suggests Etruscans had a more egalitarian views of sexes than the Greeks. Etruscan adopted to Greek and created own lively/movement with body
Focus: idealized, well muscled. Archaic smile.
Naturalism in features/definition of muscles
Polykleitos to challenge proportions using system of “cross” to balance/oppose body (diagonal rep)
First real female nude
Reconstruction: parthenon, propylene, erechtheian, temple of athena nike
Source of religious conversions (Byzantine, Roman Catholic churches, Mosque)
Content: amphiprostyle plan- Greek temple with colonnade in the front and back but not on the sides. Decorated with friezes
Focus: paraphet- low dividing wall- surrounds the tempe
– awkward in graceful dress
– significance for unexplained/unexplored ways of the human figure
Set: 447-424 BCE. Marble. On south side of Parthenon in the Acropolis, Athens, Greece.
Focus: Lapiths v. Cenaurs. Metaphorical to fight of Greek victory over enemies
Content/Focus: marble, abstract, geometric form, lack of anatomic details
Function: use of paint, included in burial= Cycladic mourning rituals
Content: grid plan architecture, lack of temple= religion characterized by decentralized ritual activity v state-sponsored religion
Focus: well-lite brightly decorated, no walls/barrier for protection even with the heavy trade culture
Focus: culture represented/concered with defense and warfare
Content: warefare on vase
Transformation after the death of Alex the Great in 323 BCE
Started commemorating historical victory.
Content: Shows death of a trojan priest and his sons by serpents sent by the gods
Focus: twisted figures, muscularity, contorted, engaged. Diagonal components of composition
Content: Cella culturally similiar to Hindu architecture (contains Vishnu) (think Lakshana Temple)
Stoa- greek building with colonnade= theater/addressing of public
Content: Achilles and Ajax with dice; “calm before the storm”
Archaic and Classical period influence
* bilingual vases
White ground technique
Parton: Philozenos of Eretria
Focus: technique: tesserae- arranged to create a picture
Content: composition depicts Battle of Issues, where Alexander routed King Darius III of Persia
Focus: large scale bronze, one of the first major Etruscan artifacts of Renaissance
Content: wound in neck, muscles stretched in attack
* chimera= lion body, serpent tale, goats head out of body
Content: head lowered, ears alert. Greek gods in style.
Set: 500-480 BCE unearthed in Renaissance
Set: Byzantine/Medieval Europe
Content: sea god Neptune, wife Amphitrite on wall. Technique: tesserae to show illusion of depth. White highlights the degree of dimensionality and drapery and shadows from figures
Focus: mythological commemoration. figures in frieze dominant space/balances of 3D in nature. Narrative with emotional intensity and violence
“figures frozen in time”