Paper type: Essay Pages: 7 (1615 words)
Anxiety and Self esteem among undergraduate studentsAbstract:Objective: The aim of this study to assess the level of anxiety and self esteem among under graduate students. Method: Single subject design used to accumulate data was used to choose the sample through purposive sampling method. A under graduate student aged 20 years old was sample of the existing study. Instruments: Instruments used in the following study consist of Anxiety scale and self esteem scale. Results: The findings designate that considerably high level of anxiety and low level of self-esteem present in undergraduate students.
Conclusions: The cognitive behavioral therapy can improve anxiety and self-esteem with undergraduate students.Key Words: Anxiety, Self-esteemIntroduction:One of the most largely skilled feeling is anxiety. Skilled emotions defined as a offensive feeling of tenseness, nervousness, uneasiness, fear, concern or worry (Barlow, 2002; Karatas, Alci & Aydin, 2013; Lenka & Kant, 2012). In the reasonable anxiety be able to encourage public to handle their difficulty and live a victory in their existence (Abolghasemi, Mehrabizadeh-Honarmand, Najarian, & Shokrkon, 2004).
Nevertheless; anxiety might as well go up in disorders, which are the majority frequent class of psychosomatic disorders. The disorder of anxiety are nearby every cultures(Demyttenaere, 2004) and estimates shows that18% of adults each year and 32% persons face anxiety throughout the life. (Kessler, 2005). The anxiousness rank interfere among daily performance like studies and social life among students. Anxiety is a main analyst of academic performance (McCraty, 2007; McCraty, Dana, Mike, Pam & Stephen, 2000) and a variety of studies have verified that it has a unfavorable result (Heather & April, 2008; McCraty, 2007). Students with upper intensity of nervousness will achieve a inferior educational performance (McCraty, 2007; Heather & April, 2008) and superior nervousness is connected with lower educational achievement difficulty with recollection, concentration and reasoning (Luigi, Francesca, Maria, Eleonora, Valentina & Benedetto, 2007).The relation self-esteem and anxiety has only infrequently been studied (Roberts, 2006). Self-esteem might serve as a defensive factor, as a moderator, mediator or simply a result of emotional well-being or difficulties (Lackovic-Grgin, 2000; Lee & Hankin, 2009; Restifo, Akse, Valle Guzman, Benjamin & Dick, 2009,Tambelli, Laghi, Odorisio, & Notari, 2012, Laghi, Pallini, D’Alessio, & Baiocco, 2011). Low self-esteem has been related with anxiety symptoms and somatic complaints while high self-esteem has been considered as an important bumper in opposition to anxiety (Millings et al.,2012; Morley & Moran, 2011; O’Brien, Bartoletti, & Leitzel, 2006).In general, the obtainable investigate suggests that high self-esteem may have positive consequences for the welfare and success of the individual and that low self esteem may be a danger factor for negative outcomes (Sowislo & Orth, 2013).Method:Sample:The client was young girl. She was 20year old. She was the student of B.S(physics). She was studying in government college women university Faisalabad. Her schooling record was greatly good. She all the time got good grades at all rank of education. The client was introverted. The client belongs to middle class family and client’s family had no history of psychopathology.Client sometime feel headache that is higher in intensity and she not used the prescribed or non prescribed medicines but she drinking tea excessively to reduce headache. She was suspicious thoughts and sometimes loss of association. She feel a lot of pain during menstruation period. Client also faced the difficulty of restless sleep insomnia condition .client had afraid thought concerning future that something wrong with him in future related to his profession and outcome.Instruments of the study:Two instruments were used for data gathering for this study based on wide interview of the client. These instruments were Self-esteem scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI).Self Esteem Scale (SES):Self esteem scale of 29 items. It has four sub scales. It measures the level of Self-esteem with its four extents. Five likert scale options are given at the end of each statement. The response of self-esteem scale ranges of Rifai. Self-esteem is from really true to really false as a five likert scale (Rifai, 1999) extent of the self-esteem are in which Self-acceptance the 11 items are included. Self-competence includes 6 items that are item number. These items are stated positively. The 5 items are integrated in which academic self-competence . Only one item which require to aversive scoring, others is positively stated. Scores on Self Esteem Scale are calculating as follows: Extremely true = 0. Somewhat true = 1, Neither true nor false = 2, Somewhat false =3 and Extremely false = 4.The reliability and validity of the scale was resolute in pilot testing on sample 50 university students .The alpha reliability of the scale was .82 and split half reliability was .80.Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI):The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) consists of 21 items among a Likert scale ranging from 0 to 3 and raw scores ranging from 0 to 63. BAI was developed in 1988 and a revised manual was published in 1993 with some changes in scoring. The BAI scores are classified as (minimal anxiety ranging 0 to 7), (mild anxiety ranging 8 to 15), (moderate anxiety ranging16 to 25), and (severe anxiety ranging 30 to 63). The BAI correlates highly with the BDI-II on behalf of that even if the BAI may provide useful clinical information, it is not exact and can’t be used diagnostically. The understanding rank is even lower than the BDI-II standard Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level 2.3. Because the instructions for the BAI are written at an 8.3 grade level, oral guidelines should be given to persons with lower reading skills. Internal consistency for the BAI is (Cronbach’s a=0.92) Test-retest reliability (1 week) for the BAI is 0.75 (Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988). Validity of the BAI was moderately correlated with the revised Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (.51), and mildly correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (.25) (Beck et al., 1988).Result:The client had high score 42 on Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) .which indicates that client had too much anxiety. Client had low score74 on self-esteem questionnaire. The low score in self-esteem indicates that the client had less power of self esteem which means client is more anxious about things like exams and about career.Recommendations:Result express that client had high level of anxiety and low self-esteem. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for both anxiety and low self-esteem for the reduction of anxiety and increase self-esteem level. To increase self esteem focus on positive aspects of life celebrate success and accept complains and draw a list what you like or what not. Take care own self.References:Abolghasemi, A., Mehrabizadeh-Honarmand, M., Najarian, B., & Shokrkon, H. (2004). The effectiveness of therapeutic methodology of stress immunization guidance and methodical desensitization in test anxiety students. Journal of Psychology, 8(29), 3-21.Barlow, D. H. (2002). Unraveling the mysteries of anxiety and its disorders from the viewpoint of emotion theory. American Psychologist, 55, 1247-1263.Beck, A.T, Epstein, N., Brown, G, & Steer, R.A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 893-897. Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, J.P., et al. (2004). Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization world mental health surveys. JAMA.Vol. 291, issue 21:2581 90. [1538″3598 :( Electronic)]Heather, L. V., & April, L. C. (2008). The Relationship between Test Anxiety and Academic Performance. [Online] Available: (January 10, 2008)Karatas, H. ; Alci, B. & Aydin, H. (2013) Correlation among high school senior students’ test anxiety, academic performance and points of university entrance exam. Educational Research and Reviews Vol. 8(13), pp. 919-926,Kessler, R., Chiu, W., Demler, O., & Walters, E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6):617″27.Lackovic-Grgin, K. (2000). Stres u djece i adolescenata. Jastrebarsko, Naklada Slap.Laghi, F., Pallini, S., D’Alessio, M., & Baiocco, R. (2011). Development and validation of the efficacious self-presentation scale. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 172, 209″219.Lee, A., & Hankin, B. L. (2009). Insecure attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, and low self-esteem predicting prospective symptoms of depression and anxiety during adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38,219 “231.Lenka, S. K., & Kant, R. (2012). A study of academic anxiety of special need’s children in special reference to hearing impaired and learning disabled. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol.2 (2), 64-72.Luigi, M., Francesca, D., Maria, D.S., Eleonora, P., Valentina, G.D., & Benedetto, V. (2007). The Role of Anxiety Symptoms in School Performance in a Community Sample of Children and Adolescents. BMC Public Health. 2007; 7: 347. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-347.McCraty, R., Dana, T., Mike, A., Pam, A., & Stephen, J. (2000). Improving Test-Taking Skills and Academic Performance in High School Students Using Heart Math Learning Enhancement Tools. Institute of Heart Math.McCraty, R. (2007). When Anxiety Causes Your Brain to Jam Use Your Heart. Institute of Heart Math.Millings, A.,Buck, R., Montgomery,A., Spears, M, & Stallard, P. (2012). School connectedness, peer connection, and self-esteem as predictors of young person depression. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 1061-1067.O’Brien, E. J., Bartoletti, M., & Leitzel, J. D. (2006). Self-esteem, psychopathology and psychotherapy. In M. Kernis, Self-esteem issues and answers: A source book of current perspectives. New York: Psychology Press.Restifo, K., Akse, J., Valle Guzman, N., Benjamin. C., & Dick, K. (2009). A pilot study of self-esteem as a mediator between family factors and depressive symptoms in young adult university students. J Nerv Men Dis 2009; 197:166″71.Roberts, J. E. (2006). Self-esteem from a clinical point of view. In M. H. Kernis (Ed.), Self-esteem issues and answers: A sourcebook of current perspectives (pp. 298 “305). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Sowislo, J, & Orth, U. (2013). Does low self-esteem forecast depression and anxiety? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 213-240.Tambelli, R., Laghi, Odorisio , & Notari.(2012). 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