There are hundreds of plants worldwide that are known for its medicinal agents used in both traditional and modern medicine for many purposes that include bacterial and fungal infections (Obafemi Akinpelu Taiwoo Adeloye 2006). According to history, the use of plants in curing illnesses has been practiced since the human civilization began, and has deep roots within traditions and cultures. Ethnopharmacological practices had been recorded prominent among Nigerian people. Nowadays, they continually play a role in primary health practices. Over the years there have been alarming reports of multiple drug resistance in medically important strains of bacteria and fungi (Ozumba, 2003; Aibinu et al.
The persistent increase in antibiotic resistant strains of organismshave led to the development of more potent antibiotics such as 3rdand 4thgeneration of Cephalosporin by pharma-ceutical companies (Odugbemi, 2006). Many published reports have shown the effectiveness of traditional herbs against microorganisms. Over the years, plants became one of the bedrock medicinal sources for modern medicines to attain new principles in curing different types of illnesses (Evans 2002).
The Calabash (Crescentia cujete Linn) is a smooth, much-branched tree growing to a height of 4 to 5 meters. The tree’s branches are arching with close-set clusters of leaves.
the nodes, oblanceolate and measures 5 to 17 centimeters long, glossy at the upper surface, blunt at the tip and narrowed at the base. Their flowers develop from the buds that grow from the main trunk, yellowish and sometimes veined with purple, with a slightly foetid odor, occurring singly or in pairs at the leaf axils, stalked and about 6 centimeters long, and open in the evening.
The calyx is about 2 centimeters long, and split into two lobes. The fruit is short-stemmed, rounded, oval or oblong, green or purplish that measures about 15 to 20 centimeters in diameter. This study aims to extract antimicrobial substances from Crescentia cujete Linn leaves through Phytochemical Screening. Objectives of the Study
This study aims to:
a.) Identify the antimicrobial properties of Calabash leaves undergoing Phytochemical process.
b.) To be able to identify the present Phytochemicals in Calabash leaves. Hypothesis of the Study
A. Null Hypothesis
There are no antimicrobial properties present in Calabash leaves. B. Alternative Hypothesis
Antimicrobial properties are present in Calabash leaves.
3 Significance of the Study
This study aims to identify the antimicrobial properties of Calabash leaf extracts. This study will contribute to the knowledge of people about the antimicrobial properties present in Calabash leaves in which might be a contribution in the latest innovations in the medical industry. This study will be a help to fellow students, neighbors, medical practitioners and fellow researchers. Scope and Limitations
This study is all about the antimicrobial screening of Calabash leaves extract and this study concerns only all the areas of the phytochemical and antimicrobial assay. This study should not exceed in curing illnesses, diseases etc. and thus shall only focus on the main objectives of this study. Locale of Study
The preliminary phytochemical analysis will be done in Alabel National Science High School campus and Rotory Evaporation will be done in Notre Dame of Dadiangas University Laboratory. Phytochemical analysis will be done in Alabel National Science High School Chemistry Laboratory and the antimicrobial assay will be done in the Environmental Conservation and Protection Center located at the Sarangani Provincial Capitol, Sarangani Province. Definition of terms: