P5: Describe how anti-discriminatory practice is promoted in health and social care settings. M3: Discuss the difficulties that may arise when implementing anti-discriminatory practice in health and social care settings. D2: Justify ways of overcoming difficulties that may arise when implementing anti-discriminatory practices in health and social care settings.
I am going to be explaining how anti-discriminatory practices are promoted in a care home (P5 – black text). I am then going to discuss the difficulties that may arise when implementing anti-discriminatory practice in the day care centre (The Kempston Centre) which is my health and social care setting (M3 – purple text). Finally I will suggest ways in which the barriers can be overcome (D2 – red text).
There are 4 key ethical principles that should be taken into account in the health and social care sector. These 4 principles are; Justice – Individuals must be treated fairly no matter what their background is. Autonomy – An individual’s choices must be respected.
Beneficence – This involves risks and costs; the way that benefits the patients. Non-maleficence – Any harm caused by a treatment or intervention should not outweigh the benefits of that treatment. For example; a care worker at the Kempston Centre will encourage justice for individuals with a learning disability by finding or acting as a promoter for people who are unable to make their own decisions. Ethical consideration should be taken into account by care workers, if it is not a service user could start to feel pushed aside and have low self-esteem as they feel like they are being treated differently from other individuals in the care home just because of their ethical upbringing (influences on culture). This could also lead to them feeling worthless.
A care worker at the Kempston Centre should be aware of how they word their sentences as the wrong wording can make the service user anxious, for that reason if it is taken into consideration the service user will not feel worthless. This can be overcome by making sure that all of the service users have equal opportunities and are all treated as equals. For example; the day care centre have people from the local Catholic Church come in once a week to read from the bible. The care workers should make sure that people from different religions can partake in these sessions; this gives every service user the opportunity to participate no matter what their ethnicity is.
Putting the patient/service user at the heart of service provision To put the individual at the heart of service provision, the health and social care sector needs to; Provide active support consistent with the beliefs, culture and preferences of the individual. Support individuals in expressing their needs and preferences.
Promote individuals’ rights, choices and well-being. For example; The care workers at the Kempston Centre will show all of the bullet points above in order to make sure that the people with learning difficulties are supported in every aspect of their lives, can fully express their needs and preferences, can empower individuals to make sure that their needs and preferences are met, that they feel valued and that their health and well-being is up to a good level. Putting the patient or service user at the heart of service provision should be crucial for care workers at the Kempston centre as the people using the services are the most important part of the care homes due to the fact they are living within them daily.
If the people living there feel as if they are not being supported properly they may begin to feel incapable and could become depressed as they struggle to do things themselves and are not being supported properly. The care workers should empower all residents and make sure they remain healthy as this can be harmful to the residents. Carers need to be considerate when with people who have disabilities as they are not able to function properly or have restricted movement which makes it harder for them to do day to day activities. If these people are not supported they may feel worthless and less important to other residents within the care home.
This can be overcome by making sure that all service users are treated equally and are provided the appropriate care that is needed for them. For example someone with dementia would not require the same treatment as someone with Down syndrome as these two disabilities or illnesses require different levels of care. The carer workers need to ensure they know the difference in treatments as well as the equality in the way that these people are treated; this allows all service users to be seen as equal regardless of their disability or illness.
Providing active support consistent with the beliefs, culture and preferences of the individual Active support means helping the individual as much as possible and taking their beliefs, culture and preferences into account when making decisions in health and social care settings. The main forms of support are; Advice and guidance – rights
Medical and care planning information
For example; if an individual at the Kempston centre is a Muslim the care workers will need to make sure that halal meat is available on the menu and that they can have an area where they can pray. Providing active support consistent with beliefs, culture and preferences needs to be taken into consideration so that the service user is not taken away from the normal believes or activities when at home.it also allows them to continue living a normal life whilst under the care of the car workers. Not providing the Muslim residents with the correct meat or time or place to pray could make these people feel withdrawn from their beliefs as well as them not being respected through their beliefs. A care worker should be aware of all beliefs within the care home to ensure all residents are entitled to the food, time or areas to perform religious activities. This can be overcome by ensuring that all religious beliefs, cultures and preferences are respected and understood.
For example with religious food such as halal, the food is to be processed differently to normal food. This should be respected by the care home by ensuring they are provided with the appropriate equipment, space and time to act on their religious beliefs. Allowing people to express their beliefs, religion, cultures and preferences allows these people to feel respected and treated equally to other people who follow the same lifestyle or beliefs. Supporting individuals to express their needs and preferences Communication such as British Sign Language, note-takers, lip speakers, interpreter etc. may be needed in order to help people who may be deaf or a person may not be able to make their own choices. For example; If a patient does not speak the language of which country they are in, interpreters or translators may be needed in order to help communicate with people from the local area. These are important to keep the person informed about what is happening and what is going to happen.
Supporting individuals to express their needs and preferences should be considered as they need to be able to communicate with all residents to let them know what’s happening and when it’s happening. The care workers need to ensure they provide the correct support with the residents needs and preferences as it can result in residents feeling isolated and misunderstood as well as feeling left out of the things happening with themselves and the care home. Care workers need to make sure they have a communicator of some sort to support residents as they may become depressed and lose self-worth as a result of being unheard.
This can be overcome by ensuring that the people who require extra communication support are provided with it immediately as this can help with their time spent in the care home. For example someone who suffers from a speech impediment should be supplied with someone who can aid there communication as this will make it easier for them to work with all people whilst in the care home. This need for help with communication should not result in these people being treated differently, they should still be treated equally whilst being respected for their difficulties. This allows these people to feel equal and supported at the same time in the care home and when speaking to different people.
An individual can be empowered if everything that needs to be done for their care is explained to them, and they are asked if they understand what they need. This gives them control of the service and empowers them in the decisions being made, so that no one takes over on their behalf; even supposedly in their best interests. For example; In a health and social care setting the service users will need to make choices and even if they do not make the choice you want them to, the care worker will still have to respect their decision. Empowering the individuals is crucial as it enables them to feel like a normal person regardless of their physical conditions. If a person was to not be empowered they may feel less of people and may feel like there being humiliated and patronised due to the choices they have made.
Confusion and unimportance are also feelings that could form through not being empowered as they believe there choices are beneficial and effective for themselves and their own lives. To overcome this the care workers should ensure they provide empowerment for all residents so that they feel valued, there choices feel valued and their decisions are respected. This is crucial as they may be making life threatening decisions which will mean they need a large amount of support and care from the workers whilst the decisions are made. For example if a person suffering with Alzheimer’s was considering a change in medication they would need support, this could relate to the decision and whether or not they should do it or even the results after changing the medication. They should make this person feel valued even if they do not agree with their decisions.
Promoting individuals’ rights, choices and wellbeing
Individual rights can be encouraged in many ways. When translation is needed for literature, ensure that a qualified translator is engaged in the process. Otherwise, there is a risk that the wrong information will be given out. For example; Carers can help and be offered to help those who are unable to communicate properly due to any kinds of illness and disabilities. A range of information is available in English, braille, pictures and leaflets in other languages. This is needed to ensure that the people are understood by third parties and get the help and support they need whether it is in the care home or not. The Kempston Centre should ensure their care staff are offered to help the less able people to stop them from feeling withdrawn and isolated due to communication boundaries.
Helping these people will allow them to get there points across without them being patronised or segregated because of it. To overcome this the care workers can provide the individuals with the right support or networks to help these people with the different things that may be causing issues for the individual struggling with communication, this may also result in choices being made that are not fully understood by the resident. The care workers need to make sure these people are empowered effectively as well as supported emotionally as well as physically with the right communication throughout the whole time.
Balancing individual rights with the rights of others
Balancing an individual’s rights with the rights of others may seem scary but with very good organisational, negotiating and communication skills it is possible. The support of a network of services will also be required, with everyone working towards a solution for individual rights. For example; A person at a care home who is disabled should be told of their rights, and have access to this information whenever they need it. Promoters should be brought in to make sure that the person who is disabled is aware of the situation and then make the right choice based on what they think is best. Balancing individual rights with the rights of others is needed to ensure that all residents are aware of what they are going through, the support that is available to them and where they can go or who they can see to receive this support.
If these people are not provided with the support they may feel alone and may feel isolated, also having a lack of knowledge on their conditions and rights may distress the residents which can result in the illnesses developing or progressing through anxiety and stress. To overcome this the care workers could ensure that all residents are aware of their rights and also how they can use these rights in the terms of their condition, for example a person with Alzheimer’s will be made of their own rights and also what they are entitled to as a person who suffers from this illness. Their families are also made aware of their rights and what opportunities and treatments are available for them to provide the most effective support they can. This gives the people a sense of control over their life as well as understanding for their problems.
Dealing with conflicts
Dealing with conflicts is important in health and social care. Individuals can become aggressive and tensions may build-up if the care that they are receiving doesn’t seem to be helping with their problems. Conflicts can also happen between staff when several different services are needs to care for an individual. Health and social care professionals should be trained on how to deal with conflicts while being professional and positive. The range of skills that are required are;
Seeing both sides of the argument
Being good at concise and quick thinking
Not sulking and letting things fester
Not taking sides
Being willing to listen
Identifying and challenging discrimination
In this unit I have discussed a wide range of discriminatory behaviour and how this can affect health and social care staff and the service users. If any discrimination is identified it has to be challenged immediately. The possible ways in which this can be achieved are; Staff training and development; awareness training and events in continuous professional development Implementation of government policies and guidelines at every local event by manager and employees Telling a higher person for when the rules are broken
Challenging work colleagues who demonstrate discriminatory behaviour
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 25 September 2016
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