Anthropology Chapter 1-4

physical anthropology
the scientific study of humans from a biological perspective

paleoanthropology
asking questions about the emergence of of humans and how humans evolved up to the present time

primatology
the study of the evolutionary fossil record of our nearest living relatives (ie apes, monkeys, and prosimians) and the behavior of living populations in their natural habitats

human variation
deals with how and why the physical traits of contemporary human populations vary throughout the world

race
defined as a group of people who share a greater statistical frequency of genes and physical traits with one another than they do with people outside the group

archaeology
study the lifeways of people from the past by excavating and analyzing the material culture they left behind

artifacts
objects that have been made or modified by humans and that can be removed from the site and taken to the laboratory for further analysis

features
made or modified by people, but cannot be readily carried away from the dig site

ecofacts
objects found in the natural environment that were not made or altered by humans but were used by them

cultural resource management
these people ensure that the laws are properly followed, that high quality research is conducted, and that the data from archaeological sites are not destroyed by federally funded building projects

anthropology linguistics
branch of anthropology that studies human speech and language

historical linguistics
deals with the emergence of language in general and how specific languages have diverged over time

descriptive linguistics
the study of sounds systems, grammatical systems, and the meanings attached to words of specific languages

ethnolinguistics or cultural linguistics
the branch of anthropological linguistics that examines the relationship between language and culture

sociolinguistics
examines relationship between language and social relations

cultural anthropology
branch of anthropology that deals with the study of specific contemporary cultures and the general underlying patterns of human culture derived through cultural comparisons

ethnography
study of specific contemporary cultures

ethnology
more general underlying patterns of human culture derived though cultural comparisons

medical anthropology
a more biological focus and tending to concentrate on interests such as the role of disease in human evolution, nutrition, growth and development

paleoanthropology
analysis of disease in ancient populations

urban anthropology
study of more complex urban social systems and the effects of cities near small towns (rural to urban)

development anthropology
study on how development will effect people groups near and around

psychological anthropology
examine how culture may affect personality, cognition, attitudes, and emotions

holism
approach is comprehensive and involves looking at both biological and sociocultural aspects of humanity, from the past to present and from all over the world. Looks at as many aspects of culture as possible

ethnocentrism
the belief that one’s own culture is superior to all others

cultural relativism
anthropologists achieving a level of detachment

broad perspective
this skill involves seeing the big picture and the inter relatedness of the parts

symbol
something that stands for or represents something else

culture shock
a form of psychological distress that can result in depression, overeating, and irritability

subculture
subsets of the wider culture (ie Amish is to America)

enculturation
process of acquiring culture after we are born

monochronic cultures
view time in a linear fashion, prefer to do one thing at a time, place a high value on punctuality, and keep to precise schedules

polychronic
prefer to do many things at the same time and see no particular value in punctuality for its own sake

cultural universals
all cultures of the world share a number of common features (ie economic systems, systems of marriage and family, educational systems, social control systems, system of supernatural beliefs, systems of communications etc)

adaptive nature of culture
enormous in our flexibility to survive and thrive in a wide variety of natural environments (relies on evolution of culture vs biological evolution)

organic analogy
analogy used to compare the human body to the study of people; describing the various parts of the culture, show how they function, and explain how they are interconnected

invention
a new combination of existing cultural features

innovation
a recombination of existing cultural items

cultural diffusion
the spreading of a thing, an idea, or a behavior pattern from one culture to another

linked changes
a change in one part of the culture would be likely to bring about changes in other parts

acculturation
a special type of diffusion that takes place as a result of sustained contact between two societies, one of which is subordinate to the other

ethnic group
biological and non genetic traits, in which members share beliefs, values, customs and language, religion, humor, clothing, history, national origin and kinship

applied anthropology
apply findings to the solution of human problems, characterized by problem-oriented reseach

emic view
seeing perspective of the local people and the orientation of cultural relativism

theory
a statement that suggest a relationship among phenomena and explains that relationship

evolutionism
premise that all societies pass though a series of distinct evolutionary stages, and we find differences in cultures because they are at different evolutionary stages of development (Edward Tylor- UK & Lewis Henry Morhan- USA)

american historicism
Began under the leadership of Franz Boas (USA), he was tired of people speculating and decided to take a very scientific route when approaching anthropology

functionalism
assumed that cultures provided various means for satisfying both societal and specifically individual needs (Bronislaw Malinowski- UK)

structural functionalism
emphasis on social rather than individual functions, focuses on the well-being of a society (Radcliffe-Brown- UK)

Margaret Mead
student of Boas, fascinated by with the general topic of the emotional disruption that seems to accompany adolescence in the USA

neoevolutionism
culture evolves when people are able to increase the amount of energy under their control (Leslie White- USA)

multilinear evolution
focused on the evolution of specific culture without assuming that all cultures follow the same evolutionary process (Julian Steward)

cultural ecology
approach to describe how a society or cultural group interacts with its environment, obtains food and other natural resources and makes a living (Steward)

french structuralism
identify the mental structures that undergird social behavior (Levi-Stauss- Europe)

binary oppositions
states that the brain is programmed to think in opposites, male-female, hot-cold, up-down etc (Levi-Strauss- Europe)

Ethnoscience
attempted to understand culture from the point of view of the people themselves (Ward Goodenough and William Sturtevant- USA)

feminist anthropology
systematic reanalysis of the role women play in a social structure (Louise Lamphere)

positivism
a philosophical system based on observable scientific facts and their relationship to one another

cultural materialism
the theoretical position based on the concept that material conditions of modes of production determine human thoughts and behavior (Marvin Harris, etic perspective- sometimes theoretical reasons also have practical underlying principles ie, holy cows in India)

postmodernism
the thought that anthropologists are arrogant to think they can understand, describe, interpret and give meaning to the lives of people outside their own culture

interpretive anthropology
examine how the people of a specific culture interpret their own values and behaviors, instead of searching for universal laws, anthropologists should strive for evocative description! (Clifford Geertz)

participant observation
observing and learning in the field while participating in an activity

ethnography
an in-depth account of peoples culture studied bu the anthropologists who conducted the one site fieldwork

participatory action research
involving members of the cultural group they were studying with project design, data collection, and data analysis, involving local people in applied research

qualitative data
gathered from personal interviews, oral histories, and interaction with community members

quantitative data
numerical data such as population trends, numbers of births and marriages etc, any data that can be counted

research design
the overall strategy for conducting the research

collecting data
selecting proper data-gathering techniques

interpreting data
involves explaining the findings

attitudinal data
what people think or feel

behavioral data
what people do

unstructured interviews
when the interviewer asks open-ended questions on general topics and allows participants to respond at their own pace using their own words

structured interviews
interviewer asks all participants exactly the same set of questions, the the same sequence, and preferably under the same set of conditions

ethnographic mapping
attempts to locate people, material culture and environmental features in space

document analysis
engage to supplement the information they collect through interviews and observations

event analysis
documentation about who participates in significant events

proxemic analysis
the study of how people in other cultures distance themselves from one another in normal interactions