Anthropology 2010 Ch- 1-5

The moral and intellectual principle that one should withhold judgement about seemingly strange or exotic beliefs and practices is
cultural relativism

The thinker who developed the evolutionary theory or natural selection in the 19th century
Charles Darwin

Increasing, professional anthropologists are
all of the above

The 19th century British anthropologist who is credited with the development of the concept of culture through an evolutionary perspective where the most evolved societies resembled the British societies in which he lived was
E.B. Tylor

The primary ethical responsibility of anthropologists is to
the people or species they study

Diversity defined anthropologically
focuses on multiplicity and variety

A key element of the scientific method, which both explains things and guide research, is
theories

The comparative method
all of the above

Even though anthropologists use parts of the scientific method, some dont see what they do as science because
the complexity of social behavior prevents any completely objective analysis of human culture

There is rarely any guessing involved in the development of theories because they are tested repeatedly T/F
True

What prompted intellectuals to start systematically explaining the differences among people?
the Industrial Revolution

Western colonial powers understood the different customs and cultures of the people they colonized as
proof of their primitive nature

Which of the following is the most significant aspect of the salvage paradigm?
anthropologists need to collect information from societies before they die out

During fieldwork cultural anthropologists
all of the above

Linguistic anthropologists traditionally sttudy
all of the above

A realistic perspective on the meanings of Coca-cola in Tzotzil Maya communitites in Chiapas, Mexico, would emphasize
that they, the Tzotzil, are dominated by globalization

An ethical approach to anthropological research would emphasize
all of the above

Contemporary cultural anthropologists still rank societies along an evolutionary scale from “primitive” to “advanced” T/F
False

The main idea behind the holistic perspective is to study culture
through systematic connections of different parts

Because our values and beliefs are reflected in many elements of life such as clothes, food, and language means that culture is
intergrated

The most enduring and ritualized aspects of culture are refered to as
traditions

The application of a holistic perspective to understand changes in everyday practices, such as eating breakfast cereals, reveals
the processes of cultural appropriation

A cross-cultural perspective on eating insect larvae would reveal
all of the above

The defining feature of historical particularism is
individual societies develop particular cultural traits and undergo a unique process of change

A symbol
all of the above

The controversy between Native Americans and NCAA schools using mascots illustrates
the power of tradition

Who is responsible for the theory of social evolution
E.B. Tylor

The theory of culture that proposes that cultural practices, beliefs, and institutions fulfill the psychological and physical needs of society is call
functionalism

The idea that embraces dynamic cultural processes and the idea that the observer of cultural processes can never see culture completely objectively represent
post-structuralism

Cultural determinism is unproductive for cultural analysis because
all of the above

The process of learning culture from a very young age is called
encultration

How would a critical relativist explain Native American criticisms of cultural appropriation?
while it is importance to understand Native American claims from their point of view, it doesnt mean we should accept them as the only way to view the issue

The American anthropologist repsonsible for the concept of historical particularism was named
Franz Boaz

A social consequence of introducing coffee into the highlands of Papua New Guinea was that
all of the above

If you wanted to understand the norms of a society, you would be most likely to focus on
everyday interaction

Norms tend to be stable because
people learn them when they are young

The theorist most connected with post-structuralism is
Renato Rosaldo

The idea that Ongee ancestors make tidal waves and earthquakes would be understood by an interpretive anthropologist as
a way of explaining how the world works

Culture is
learned and shared

Ethnocentrism
all of the above

Examples of social institutions are
all of the above

The structuralist approach to culture theorizes what?
people make sense of the world through binary oppositions ie. raw/cooked

Anthropologist overcome ethnocentrism by
seeing matters from the point of view of another culture

When Kay Warren presented her anthropological research, a group of Maya intellectuals, activist, and political leaders
challenged her right to study the Maya culture as a foreign anthropologist

Anthropologist believe that our behavior is influenced by
both

A paradigm that emphasizes humans that are made up of complex biological, cultural, and psychological processes is
biocultural

The human mind is
all of the above

Ethnopsychology is largely concerned with
understanding how other societies make sense of selves, persons, and emotions

Anthropologist Kim Hopper believes
industrialized nations produce “surplus people”

Slight, unpredictable variation in the genetic code that occurs during reproduction is called
mutation

The movement of genes through interbreeding or intermarriage among humans from different population is
gene flow

This anthropologist rejected the idea that there are groups of people belonging to stable and unchanging races
Franz Boas

Nature and nurture are not opposed but intertwined T/F
True

Gene flow and gene drift work on human populations in opposite ways T/F
True

Neural plasticity is illustrated by
all of the above

An illustration of the bioculture of humans is
mental stress from losing a job causing insomnia

The affects and feelings we experience as humans
may not have an exact equivalent in another culture

Cultural models help us make sense of the world because
they provide a pattern for one’s own behavior and interpreting others’ actions

The limitation of culture and personality studies was that they assumed
all of the above

Intelligence is
not marked by a single fixed gene

The enhanced cognition of early modern humans allowed for
all of the above

According to Mauss and Durkheim, a key feature of the concept of personhood in many other culture is
defined socially

A cross-cultural perspective on manic depression would
all of the above

If an anthropologist who studies cultural models were to analyze the Ilongot concept of liget, she or he might emphasize
all of the above

Which of the following would most interest an anthropologist who studies geneticization
the search for breast cancer gene

A biological perspective on the evolution of our species would emphasize that
all of the above

Animal call systems
can only communicate in response to real-world stimuli

Koko, thegorilla, ans Washo, the chimp, were two ape primates who had learn
American sign language

_______ refers to the structure of speech sounds
phonology

How words fit together to make meaningful units is called
morphology

The study of grammatical categories, such as tense and word order, is called
morphology

When anthropologists study the way people use language in real settings rather than as a set of grammatical rules, they are focusing on
parole

A stoplight is a visual example of a
sign

Anthropologist Sherry Ortner distinguished three kinds of culturally powerful symbols that include all of the following except
narrative symbol

The study of how people classify things in the world is called
ethnoscience

A language of mixed origin that developed from a complex blending of two parent languages is called
creole

The set of sounds and movements that animals make to communicate is called a call system T/F
True

Most people are unaware of the structure of a language until someone speaking it makes a mistake T/F
True

Languages change very slowly, taking generations or even centuries T/F
False

American’s pattern of gender inequality is built into our linguistic practices T/F
True

In evolutionary terms humans are distinct from other primates with respect to their ability to use language because
we can speak using our larynx

For pastoral groups such as the Dinka and the Nuer, the cow acts as which of the following symbol?
elaborating symbol

Edward Spair, who had been
all of the above

Linguistics refer to mixed languages with a simplified grammar that people rarely learn as a mother tongue as
pidgin language

The US government’s prohibition of Native American children speaking their indigenous languages in Indian schools has contributed most profoundly to
language death

Although language is one of the most rule-bound aspect of human culture, it is also one of the least conscious T/F
True

Because of the widespread use of mass media today, sociologist have found increasing homogeneity in the use of language in the US T/F
False

If you were a linguistic anthropologist interested in language change in smaller American cities, building on William Labov’s studies, what method would you use?
record how younger people, middle aged, and senior citizens pronounces ordinary american words

The canadian government helps preserve the use of french
all of the above

If you studied speech patterns such as those analyzed in Robin Lakoffs study of genderized speech, you might find that talking like a lady
marginalize women voice in work context

If you were conducting a symbolic analysis of TV programs and wanted to identify a key scenario such as the Horatio Alger myth, which of the following would you focus on?
plots that are repeated in many of the programs that American viewers interpret as commonplace social experiment

Cultural anthropology is one of the most quantitative of the social sciences.
False (qualitative)

Cultural anthropologists do research by
building trusting relationships with people over a long period of time

“Going native” refers to a process whereby the anthropologist
loses the ability to be an engaged observer

Anthropologists believe that the “native point of view” is better than their own.
True

What is the type of information written in field notes?
all of the above

Anthropologists of the 1880s are referred to as “armchair anthropologists” because they never traveled abroad and they gathered data from other people’s reports.
True

Which method would be best when doing a study on the genetic propensity for cancer in a given population?
genealogical method

The people anthropologists gather data from are called
informants

If you wanted to have consistent responses, what kind of interview would you use?
survey interview

In which of the following locations would you find an anthropologist doing fieldwork?
all of the above

Edward Sapir, who had been a student of Franz Boas’s, saw himself as both a cultural anthropologist and a professionally trained linguist. He urged cultural anthropologists to pay close attention to language during field research because
all of the above

Words that came from the same ancestral language and originated from the same word are called
cognate words

If you were a linguistic anthropologist interested in language change in smaller American cities, building on William Labov’s studies from the 1980s, what method would you use?
record how younger people, middle-aged people, and senior citizens pronounce ordinary American words

Most mammals use some form of call system to communicate with others of their species. Dogs and chimpanzees share an additional linguistic characteristic because they can communicate simple combinations of ideas about things they are not currently seeing.
False

A cultural relativist would explain neural plasticity as
a reason people can adapt to different environments

A paradigm that emphasizes humans that are made up of complex biological, cultural, and psychological processes is
biocultural

The flexibility of the brain is called
neural plasticity

A biocultural analysis of carpal tunnel syndrome would emphasize the complex intersection of environmental, biological, and social causes of it.
true

A biological determinist would
would have a medical view of humans

A cross-cultural perspective on manic depression would
all of the above

Anthropologists believe that our behavior is influenced by
Both

If a single female immigrant brings a trait to a small, sparsely populated island and within many generations it is present in 50% of the population, it would be an example of
genetic drift

The theory of culture that proposes that cultural practices, beliefs, and institutions fulfill the psychological and physical needs of society is called
functionalism

The perspective that aims to identify and understand cultures in the entirety is called
holistic

Culture can be transmitted virtually through the Internet in addition to face-to-face interaction.
true

Examples of social institutions are
all of the above

“owning culture”
means controlling symbols that give meaning

the idea that embraces dynamic cultural processes and the idea that the observer of cultural processes can never see culture completely objectively represent
Question options:
post-structuralism

The application of a holistic perspective to understand changes in everyday practices, such as eating breakfast cereals, reveals
the interconnections between different domains of a society

People rarely hold conflicting values.
false

cultural relativism is important because it helps anthropologists understand and defend all the things that people in other cultures do.
false

The subfield of anthropology that studies language use is called
lingusitic anthropology

A key principle of the holistic perspective developed by Franz Boas is
a goal of synthesizing the entire context of human experience

The subfield of anthropology that studies human evolution, including human genetics and human nutrition, is called
biological anthropology

When did anthropology emerge as an academic discipline?
1800’s

The application of the comparative method in his research in Papua New Guinea led coauthor Robert Welsch to focus on
Question options:
all of the above

The subfield of anthropology that studies human diversity, beliefs, and practice is called
cultural

The subfield of anthropology that studies the material remains of past cultures, often focusing on the rise of cities, is called
anthroplogy

Anthropologists have always approached a problem by specializing in one of the four subfields.
true

Historical archaeologists excavate sites where written historical documentation exists that provides an accurate description of the way the people actually lived.
true

A qualitative approach to studying social life in your university would emphasize all of the following except
the construction of statistical models to explain activities in the community

A quantitative approach to studying the archaeological past would be most interested in
the organizing of images, recordings, field notes, and documents about a field site.

Anthropologists like E. E. Evans-Pritchard and Renato Rosaldo do not see cultural anthropology as a science.
True

Qualitative methods often use the researchers themselves as the research instrument.
True

Techniques that classify features of a phenomenon and count, measure, and construct statistical models are collecting and analyzing
quantitative data