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Anthro: Human Studying Essay

1. How do physical anthropologists use the scientific method? Give an example. 2. Create an appropriate question, hypothesis and test for the following observation: The right scapula (shoulder blade) tends to be larger than the left in humans. 3. Explain the difference between a theory and a hypothesis. Please provide an example for each. 4. Describe the major subfields in anthropology? Describe each in terms of what they study. 5. Compare and contrast Darwin’s theory of natural selection and Lamarck’s theory of acquired characteristics. How are they similar and dissimilar? 6. Many people argue that evolution is “just a theory”. Define theory and then describe how evolution does or does not fit the definition. 7. How is natural selection related to environmental factors? How can selective pressures change? Give an example (HINT- think of the peppered moths) 8. How do RNA and DNA differ in structure and function (purpose)?

9. Describe the structure of the DNA molecule in as much detail as possible. 10. Describe the nucleus and ribosomes as they relate directly to the process of protein synthesis (HINT- you’ll need to briefly explain protein synthesis to fully answer this question). 11. Explain why it is important that the end result of meiosis is different than the end result for mitosis. 12. It is true that all organisms (humans, animals, etc) have the same structure of their DNA as humans. Please explain then why we all don’t look the same, if we all have the same A, T, C and G’s in our body. 13. Discuss some possible medical outcomes of the human genome project. 14. Explain Mendel’s Principle of segregation.

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15. Explain how two parents who do NOT express a particular trait in their phenotype can nevertheless produce children who express the trait. Please give a specific example where this could occur. 16. Describe how the trait Sickle Cell Anemia demonstrates DNA mutation, inheritance principles, and the stages of evolution. The stages of evolution can be remembered using this saying: Genes Mutate, Individuals are Selected, Populations Evolve. In your answer, please describe what initially caused Sickle Cell Anemia (NOT what it does in your body…but what originally brought it on- HINT- THINK DNA), how one can inherit it, and why we can’t get rid of the S allele.

17. Explain how founder’s effect can lead to a descendant population that differs greatly from its parent population over a relatively short period of time. 18. Is race a valid, biologically meaningful concept? Why or why not? 19. Discuss how adaptations to local environments have likely influences the evolution of skin color in different geographic regions of the world. 20. What is the difference between Allen and Bergmann’s rules? 21. What is the difference between an acclimatization and an adaptation? In your answer, please give an example for each. 22. How is lactose intolerance a good example of an adaptation? In your answer, please explain what lactose intolerance is, and why we see it only in certain population

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