Annotated bibliography Essay
The violence portrayed in the media tends to make the public more aggressive and susceptible to violence by the simple factor of imitation. Moreover, due to the amount of violence exposure, the public ends up having a falsified idea of the world in which they live. Media violence has always been an emerging topic. We live in a world in which media is present in our everyday lives; whether we are watching the news, or watching a film, listening to a song, or even playing a video game. Many studies have showed a clear correlation between the amount of violence exposure and the aggressive and violent behaviour reflected in a certain individual. Moreover, after being constantly exposed to violent contents, the public ends up believing the world is a cruel and unsecure place. This topic is therefore very interesting to pursue and study in order to have a better understanding of it. The research I will follow will help show whether the media is in fact affecting the users’ minds and behaviors.
Before taking on the topic I picked, I decided to go to the library to find relevant sources discussing violence in the media. I was sure to find credible and accurate sources from the AUD database, as all the articles are peer-reviewed. Moreover, as I am a media student in the school of communications and information studies, I am currently reading a book available at the library, entitled “Media, Culture and Society” by author Paul Hodkinson. It was interesting to find a section discussing television violence. There was also an interesting experiment led by Albert Bandura in order to study the behavioral effect that media violence has on the population. These sources would be extremely beneficial and useful to my research paper. Moreover, I was impressed by the great number of journal articles discussing this specific topic, and they were easy to find on the AUD database entitled Expanded Academic ASAP.
I also managed to find many online sources on search engines such as Google. However, it was hard to evaluate the reliability and credibility of the sources as some important information were missing, such as the author’s name, and the date the article was published. Therefore, I chose to include only a few specific electronic sources, the ones that seemed most accurate to me. Finally, I thought it would be interesting to do a short survey consisting of questions such as the amount of TV consumed daily, the video games played, the most violent movie ever watched, if they were ever in a fight. However, my survey cannot be part of my paper as the people I targeted were classmates, and were in majority highly educated and media literate; therefore, the media they consumed is not believed to make them more aggressive.
Callahan, Sidney. “What We See, We Do: Violence and the Media.” Commonweal 123.1 (1996): 6+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Describes how people learn violent behaviour by seeing it enacted. States that even children who are not directly affected by aggression learn the behavior and remember how it’s done. They end up having a tendency of imitating the act of violence. Claims “people psychologically accept and become what they see through the media”. This article would be interesting for my paper as it highlights the power of media and the power of imitation.
Diorio, Geri. “The Mean World Syndrome: Media Violence & the Cultivation of Fear.” School Library Journal Dec. 2010: 61. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. This documentary portrays media scholar George Gerbner who explains his theory concerning the effects of being exposed to high levels of media violence. Gerbner believes that the public is in constant thought that the world is a cruel place; the public therefore always feels insecure. The documentary discusses a study showing some statistics on crimes rates and people’s beliefs on the number of crimes occurring every year. It would be interesting to discuss this study in my paper.
Gentile, Douglas A., and David A. Walsh. “A Validity Test of Movie, Television, and Video-Game Ratings.” Pediatrics June 2001: 1302. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Discusses movie, television and video-game ratings. Indicates that parent ratings and industry ratings differ regarding the amount of violent content and portrayals of violence. Proposes that industry ratings systems should be revised with the help of professional communities to improve their reliability. Based on secondary sources. This article would be interesting for my paper as it shows that the ratings are not fully credible, and many people manage to trespass them.
Hodkinson, Paul. Media, Culture and Society: An Introduction. London: SAGE, 2011. Print. A section in the book, entitled “Bobo Dolls and short-term behavioural effects” undertakes an experiment led by Albert Bandura who is influenced by the social learning theory, “which focuses on the capacity of individuals to learn behaviours by observing others”. This experiment is therefore useful and interesting for my paper as it takes on a valid study.
Lemish, Dafna. “‘Will This Happen to Me?’ Children’s Exposure to Disaster, Violence in the News.” Gateway Journalism Review (2013): 10+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Examines children’s exposure to violence in the news. States that children and young people are audiences too and are frequently exposed to news voluntarily or accidently. They end up having a very negative image of the world the live in. The author discusses her point of view and gives accurate examples that would be useful for my paper.
Markey, Patrick M., and Kelly Scherer. “An Examination of Psychoticism and Motion Capture Controls As Moderators of the Effects of Violent Video Games.” Computers in Human Behavior 25.2 (2009): 407+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Examines the potential moderating effects of motion capture technology and participants’ own level of psychoticism on their hostility and aggressive thoughts after playing violent video games. Shows that participants with elevated levels of psychoticism are much more affected by violent video games than other participants. Provides factual information based on formal studies.
“Media Violence.” Pediatrics June 1995: 949+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Describes the role of pediatricians in the entertainment industry and the media. Proposes that pediatricians collaborate with TV stations and networks to limit children’s exposure to violent content and counsel parents to monitor their children’s TV viewing habits by limiting them to a few hours. Based on secondary sources and provides information from formal studies. Nikkelen, Sanne W. C., et al. “Media Violence and Children’s ADHD-Related Behaviors: A Genetic Susceptibility
Perspective.” Journal of Communication 64.1 (2014): 42+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Provides insight into the role of genetic factors in media effects. Examines the relationship between media violence exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and states genetic disposition as a possible cause of individual differences in children’s use of and susceptibility to media violence. It would be interesting to mention in my paper how genetics can also be a factor in media effects. Swani, Kunal, Marc G. Weinberger, and Charles S. Gulas. “The Impact of Violent Humor on Advertising Success: A Gender Perspective.” Journal of Advertising Oct.-Dec. 2013: 308+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Examines this convergence of humor and physical violence in advertising. Provides two studies of the responses of men and women to violence in humorous advertising.
The results suggest there may be risk in the use of aggression with female audiences and that such gender effects can be explained by differences in men’s and women’s perceptions of humor and violations of social norms. Accurate examples and statistics are given based on multiple studies. Tompkins, Aimee. “The Psychological Effects of Violent Media on Children.” The Psychological Effects of Violent Media on Children. AllPsych Journal, 14 Dec. 2003. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. Examines the correlation between aggressive behaviour and exposure to media violence. States that violent video games have a greater impact than television as the participant is acting out the violence instead of simply watching it, he/she ends up identifying with it and performing it r egardless of the consequences. . Gives specific news coverage examples on violent acts such as crimes, which would be extremely useful for my paper.