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Annie Carro22019EDCD 601001Annotated BibliographyBest N A Jun A

Categories: BibliographyInjustice

Annie Carro


EDCD 601.001

Annotated Bibliography

Best, N. A., & Jun, A. (2017). “Jagged Edges”: Victim Blaming, Student Care, and Legally Defensible Sexual Assault Investigations. Christian Higher Education, 16(3), 126-141. doi:10.1080/15363759.2016.1275885

The researchers of this study wanted to determine whether religious beliefs affected levels of victim blaming and if this idea could be applied to college administrators. To do so, they interviewed 8 Title IX administrators at a Small Christian College (SCC). Based on the interviews, the researchers could not confirm the existence of victim blaming among the administrators.

This study was helpful in determining whether college administrators at the SCC engaged in victim blaming. However, the scope of the study was limited and the sample size was small. Broadening the scope of the study to include administrators at non faith-based institutions and increasing the sample size of administrators would have led to more complete results and a broader picture of victim blaming or lack thereof among college administrators. A strength of the study was its focus on the importance of intentional language when responding to sexual assault cases, which can help put a stop to rape culture.

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Word count: 157

Greeson, M. R., Campbell, R., & Fehler-Cabral, G. (2015). “Nobody Deserves This”: Adolescent Sexual Assault Victims’ Perceptions Of Disbelief And Victim Blame From Police. Journal of Community Psychology, 44(1), 90-110. doi:10.1002/jcop.21744

The purpose of this study was to determine the reactions of police officers to adolescent sexual assault survivors, specifically whether they believed the survivors or engaged in victim blaming. 20 adolescent survivors between the ages of 14-17 in two counties in a Midwestern state were interviewed and asked to describe their feelings towards their interactions with police officers when reporting the assault.

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The study found that the majority of survivors’ experiences with officers varied. Survivors who described negative experiences said the officers were critical and disapproving, while those who described positive ones felt that they were believed by the officers.

This study provided insight into the interactions police officers have with adolescent survivors of sexual assault. The study itself was sound; however the sample size was limited. In addition, the study focused on the survivors’ perceptions of their interactions with the officers, but it did not address the perceptions of the officers. This could have given more insight into the interactions. Word count: 161

Hackman, C. L., Pember, S. E., Wilkerson, A. H., Burton, W., & Usdan, S. L. (2017). Slut shaming and victim-blaming: A qualitative investigation of undergraduate students’ perceptions of sexual violence. Sex Education,17(6), 697-711. doi:10.1080/14681811.2017.1362332

The purpose of this investigation was to determine undergraduate students’ attitudes towards sexual violence. 15 undergraduate students at the University of Alabama participated in the study. 12 female and 3 male students were interviewed individually and in groups divided by gender. The study found eight common topics among the interviews. It noted that students’ thoughts on campus climate should be taken into consideration when addressing sexual violence.

There were several issues with this study. Firstly, the sample size was limited, with only 15 students being interviewed. Additionally, there was a lack of diversity among students interviewed. Of the 15 total students, 8 identified as white and there were only 3 male participants. The scope of the study was also limited. The students interviewed all attended the same university in Alabama. However, attitudes on the issue of sexual violence may vary greatly depending on the size, population, gender distribution, and location of the university. There were also no set definitions for ambiguous terms such as “hooking up.” Word count: 166

Sleath, E., & Bull, R. (2012). Comparing Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming in a Police Officer Sample. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39(5), 646-665. doi:10.1177/0093854811434696

To study the differences between victim blaming and perpetrator blaming in cases of rape, the responses of police officers who had received special training in dealing with rape victims and those who had not were compared. 123 police officers were randomly assigned scenarios describing either stranger or acquaintance rape with different levels of stereotypes related to victims’ appearance and behavior i.e. rape myths. The officers’ responses to questionnaires revealed that rape myth acceptance was closely related to victim blaming, but it did not affect perpetrator blaming. The special training or lack thereof had no impact on levels of victim blaming.

The participants in the study were diverse in terms of age and gender. Since the scenarios depicted low or high levels of rape myths, the results may have been skewed to impact victim blaming. The type and duration of the special training could have also impacted results. Additionally, the scope of the study was limited, as only 2 police forces in the UK were examined. Word count: 165

Stotzer, R. L., & Maccartney, D. (2016). The Role of Institutional Factors on On-Campus Reported Rape Prevalence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(16), 2687-2707. doi:10.1177/0886260515580367

This study examined the role of institutional features on reports of on-campus rape. The study applied the routine activities theory (RAT), which describes the circumstances under which a crime occurs, to sexual assault on campus. Three factors of the RAT: available victims, motivated offenders, and guardianship were taken into account when applying it to sexual assault. Data from 524 colleges in the United States was examined. Competitiveness of athletic programs, residentiality, and leniency of alcohol policies led to increased instances of reported sexual assault.

There are some limitations to this study. Firstly, it does not account for on-campus rapes that go unreported. As such, this study cannot account for total prevalence on campuses. Additionally, the study does not examine other factors that can lead to the reporting or lack thereof of on-campus rape, such as students’ perceptions on the issue and how cases are handled. Although the abovementioned factors resulted in increased reports of sexual assault, they cannot be used as sole indicators in such a complex issue. Word count: 168

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Annie Carro22019EDCD 601001Annotated BibliographyBest N A Jun A. (2019, Nov 28). Retrieved from

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