Animal Sciences Investigatory projects Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 24 April 2016

Animal Sciences Investigatory projects

Anabas testudineus and its Preliminary Growth Adaptive Mechanism Through its Evolutinary Pathway To Brackish Water 4. Abstract: • This study had mainly focused on the testing of the lifespan of a nearly endangered fish species Anabas testudineus in different water treatments namely brackish water, fresh water and salt water. The researchers determined the effect of the said water treatments on the growth and survival of the subjects. The study was conducted at the ESEP Bldg., Tarlac National High School (Main). The researchers applied the Completely Randomized Design (CRD) for the experiment. The length and mass of Anabas testudineus were recorded before and after the experimentation. The researchers prepared 3 containers for each replicate. Artificial environments were prepared in each container wherein 1000 grams of sand and pebbles and 400 grams of lilies were put in each container.

The required amount of marine salt and water were also added and the pH of each water treatment were also obtained three randomly selected Anabas testudineus were subjected to each water treatment in each replicate. Everyday the stability of the fishes were observed. After 31 days, the final length and mass of the fishes were obtained and the results were compared. 5. • The average difference in mass of the fishes subjected to brackish water is 2.945 grams higher than freshwater and the average difference in length is also higher than fresh water by 1.265 cm. • Brackish water is the best water treatment for the growth of Anabas testudineus. • Due to environmental changes evolution occurred as years passed by. The salinity of water and its pH are examples of these environmental changes.

6. The Efficacy of Moringa oleifera (Malunggay) Leaf extracts in Lowering Blood Glucose in Swiss Mice 7. • Abstract: • Malunggay (Moringa oleifera) plant is abundant through the Philippines. This plant is growing anywhere in the country. It has become the buzz due to the discovery of its many nutrients. The researcher tends to study on medical value of Moringa oleifera in lowering blood glucose. • This study was performed to determine the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts in lowering blood glucose. The experimental mice where weighed and their blood glucose were tested using a glucometer before the experiment. • The mice were fed with condensed milk using the gavage method for five (5) consecutive days.

All the mice gained high blood glucose after the procedure. 8. • Different concentrations of malunggay leaf extracts: 25%, 50%, 75% and 0% were prepared. These extracts were treated to three (3) mice each as treated to the four groups of mice. • Data analysis revealed that there was a significant difference in the mean blood glucose level of white mice when subjected to various levels of malunggay leaves extract, the lower the blood glucose, • The findings confirmed that the malunggay leaf extract has a hypoglycemic property that can be used as hypoglycemic drugs. Thus, it can be used in treating diabetes. 9. An extracorporeal Study on Nasturtium officinalle for Mus musculus Alleviating Thromboccytopenia 10. • Abstract:

• The study was conducted at room 2, ESEP building, Tarlac National High School (Main). It started by sending every subjects blood sample to the laboratory to determine the initial platelet count of the subjects. Watercress undergoes centrifugation to attain its liquid content and was fed to a group of subjects. Observation lasted for three days then new blood sample was sent to the laboratory to determine the final platelet count of the subjects. Results were compared to prove that the researcher hypothesis is true.] • The researcher used completely randomized design to compare the platelet count of the subject’s blood before and after was fed with the liquid content from watercress. The researcher used T-test because they are only two variables to compare. After series of test, the results were gathered. The data revealed that the mean platelet count from the finished product of the study is higher than the platelet count from the commercial anti- Thromboccytopenia.

11. • This study is mainly focus on the possibility of watercress in alleviating Thromboccytopenia, a disease characterized by low platelet count. To test this possibility, the researcher compared it to a commercial anti- Thromboccytopenia. The researcher determined the significant difference between the plasma produced from watercress and the plasma produced from a commercial anti- Thromboccytopenia(aspirin) in terms of platelet count. That is why the researcher must know if the platelet count can be produced faster by watercress.

This study will contribute greatly to the world f medicine as an evidence to remedy diseases through natural, safer and cheaper means. It will be significant for the treatment of Thromboccytopenia without the used of chemicals and surgeries. 12. The Efficacy of Anacardic acid from Anacarduim occidentale as a Lipid Source of Oreochromis nil. 13. • Abstract: • Lipids are one of the molecules used by fishes for their physiological functions and cellular processes. These lipids have many uses in the lives of fishes, not only in fishes but also in other activities of other organisms.

• Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia) is one of the most common fish that contains lipids in their muscle or tissues. • Anacadium ocindentale (cashew) is a nut crop with fruits that contain a liquid known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). This three liquid has three phenol constituents, one of this is anacardic acid. 14. • In this study, the cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was extracted from Anacardium occidentale and anacardic acid and then separated from the CNSL by the process of centrifugation and then mixed with the food of the fish and then fed to the fishes. The purpose of this study is to make a useful lipid source from anacardium occidentale. This study will test the efficacy of anacardic acid as a lipid source of Oreochromis niloticus, and observed if the growth development and weight increased.

• After observing the fishes for 1 month to 2 weeks, results and data were analyzed. The researcher used T-test as their statistical tool, and concluded that the growth and weight of the Oreochromis niloqticus increased by 50.36% in weight gain and 50.98% in the increase in size when given anacardic acid. 15. Residual Fatty Acids from Persia Americana for the Extension of Life Expectancy of Tirumala tumanana 16. • Abstract: • The study had been centered on the efficacy of amalgamated fatty acid residues from Persia Americana, the fatty acids were extracted at the Philippine Institute of Pure and Applied Chemistry (PIPAC) using the gc mini2 machine for the procedure of gas chromatography. • This study further branched out into the possible effects of the fatty acid residues in extending the life expectancy of Tirumala tumanana, specie of butterfly originated at Mt. Busa and is rated as vulnerable in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 17.

• Three treatments were designated to 24 butterflies: Treatment A (with flowering plants, sugar solution, and fatty acids), treatment B (with flowering plants and sugar solution), and Treatment C (with flowering plants only). • ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) was utilized to compare the three treatments in observing the life expectancy of Tirumala tumanana. • After the series of test and experimentation, the results showed that the average life span of the subjects was prolonged by 129.03%, enough to say that there is a significant effect produced by Persea
Americana. 18. Behavioral and Social Science

19. A Study on the Effect of Food Outsourcing to the Behavioral Direction of Trichogaster Pectoralis and Tricogaster Tricopterus 20. • Abstract: • Trichogaster Pectoralis and Tricogaster Tricopterus- these two species have the same denominator; they belong in one genus- trichogaster. Since they came from one genus, they have mostly the same characteristics like what kind of environment they adapt, what food they eat, and their behavior. • This study aims to establish the effect of food outsourcing on the direction decision of Trichogaster Pectoralis and Tricogaster Tricopterus subjects based on attraction and non-attraction. It also aims to give additional knowledge to fish cultivators, and other persons involved in aquaculture.

21. • The set-up where will the experimentation be concluded is composed on an aquarium, aquarium air pump, 15L of fresh water and 8 subjects which were drawn out randomly but on accordance with the ratio stated on each of the two treatments. The animal subjects underwent the process of food outsourcing where 20g of fish food is used, observation and data gathering for 10 days. The data gathered were then compared, and unbiased and reliable results were obtained. Results showed that food outsourcing affected the behavioral direction of the subjects based on attraction.

Thus, the null hypothesis was rejected, accepting the alternative hypothesis which states that the effect of food outsourcing on the Behavioral Direction of Trichogaster Pectoralis and Tricogaster Tricopterus based on attraction is greater than non- attraction. • In line with the results and the accepted hypothesis, the researchers concluded that the effect of food outsourcing on the behavioral direction of the Trichogaster Pectoralis and Tricogaster Tricopterus subjects is to be attracted from one another. • 22. Plant Science

23. Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) as a soil nutrient Enhanser
24. • Abstract: • This research study entitled “Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) as a soil Nutrient Enhancer” was conducted at Abing’s Residence located at Mabini Homesite Cabanatuan City. It was conducted from the month of June to October 2008 by the following researcher; Jessamer D. Abing. • Because of the economic crisis that our country is facing today, most of the less fortunate people and farmers in our country cannot afford such expensive fertilizer used in growing plants. The goal of this study is to find an alternative soil nutrient enhancer out of the abundance of Zeolite mineral that can be used in growing plants in easier and mire practical way. 25. • To test the effectiveness of Zeolite in growing plants, 3 treatments were utilized: Each treatment is composed of three plants. Each specimen has its own treatment, treatment 1 is a mixture of oil and powdered Zeolite (75g), treatment 2 is a mixture of soil and commercial fertilizer (75g) and treatment 3 is the plane soil.

• The results was analyzed and found out that in terms of mineral content in Phosphorus and Nitrogen there is a significant difference between soil with Zeolite, soil with commercial fertilizer and plain soil and in terms of Potassium Contents there a significant difference among 3 samples because Zeolite yields the greatest amount of Potassium. In terms in the growth of the plants, Zeolite was the most effective soil nutrient enhancer because the plants with Zeolite yield the tallest and healthiest appearance among the 3 specimens. • This proves that Zeolite is very effective and efficient soil nutrient enhancer which can be use by the farmers in growing plants. 26. Gralex (Ready-Made Bait for Mice)

27. • Abstract: • The utilization of “Gralex” as ready made bait for mice, aimed to test its toxicity on mice samples. • Systematic methods in the preparation of Gralex were observed. Three (3) treatments which varies on the soaking time of rice grains and adelfa leaves extracts such as forty- eight (48) hours, twenty-four (24) hours, fifteen hours (15) respectively. • Prior to experimentation, Adelfa leaves underwent phytochemical testing. Result revealed the presence of condensed tannin, alkaloids and glycosides compound. • Toxicity level of Gralex is higher as compared to commercial rat killer (Racumin) as observed on the mortality rate of mice. • Statistical test result showed significant difference on the effectiveness on the rat killers.

Gralex was found to be more effective. It was concluded that the presence of Tannins and Glycosides contributed a lot in mortality rate on the mice samples. • The production and commercialization of the product is strongly encourage. 28. Tolerance Level of Meristematic Root Cells of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza to High and Low Hypertonic Saline Solutions and Hypotonis Solutions 29. • Abstract: • Plants extinction is already a global major problem but ordinary people are not aware of this. The worst part is that is very important and gives us the most benefits are the one that are disappearing. One good example of this plant is mangrove tree. • These mangroves give us a lot of benefits. For fishes, these provide breeding, nursery, and feeding areas. These can tolerate more salt in their tissues than any plant. Their survivability is high compared to other plants but they also need regular flushing of freshwater.

30. • The problem of this study is to determine the tolerance level of the Bruguiera gymnorrhiza meristematic root cells to high and low saline hypertonic solution and hypertonic solution. The proponents conducted the study at ESEP, DOST building, TNHS, San Roque Tarlac City. The experimentation started at Feb. 27, 2010 and ended last Aug.22, 2010. The proponents prepared 4 containers containing water with different salinities (0ppm, 30ppm-35ppm, 36ppm-45ppm, 46ppm- 50ppm). Three roots of the mangrove per solution were soaked and we let it that way for few hours. After soaking, a part of the mangrove roots were cut and observed under a compound microscope. Cells that shrink and burst were counted and the tolerable salinity of the Bruguiera gymnorrhiza root cells was known.

31. Natural Extracts as Vase Solution for Roses (Rosa damascena) 32. • Abstract: • This study was conducted to determine the effects of plant extracts from garlic allium sativum, Oregano Origanum vulgare, and guava Psidium guajave) as vase solution. Extract used for the preparation of vase solutions were taken from fresh garlic cloves, oregano and guava leaves. Water extracts were subjected to water bath at 50’C-60’C for 5 minutes for pasteurization. Flower buds were placed in plastic cups containing vase solutions with varying concentrations of extracts. Observation was done for 7 days at three replications.

Set-ups were evaluated in terms of pH. Early opening of flowers and length of Vaseline days. • Analysis on pH differences was not significant among treatments. Oregano and guava leaves may have favorable pH levels for flowers used. In terms of opening of flowers, it was noted that oregano extract promoted early opening of flower buds even at the early days of observation. Highest vase life days were also observed in flowers placed in guava leaves extract and the lowest vase life days were observed in flowers placed garlic extract. 33.

• Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 0.5 level of significance did not reveal differences in the vase life days of flowers after treatment with natural extracts from Garlic, Oregano and Guava. A modification of procedures for extracting natural compounds from guava is recommended. The researchers also recommended the combinations of extract for more favorable results. This research has varied application in the field of Horticulture and food production. 34. Larvicidal Properties of Various Plant Species in the Control of Mosquito Larvae 35. • This study was conducted to identify several plant species that contain • Larvicidal properties in the control of mosquito larvae and to determine the time needed to kill the mosquito larvae. A total of 240 larvae were used to test the larvicidal properties of the treatment.

The test plants were subjected to certain procedures like through washing, chopping, and pounding to extract the plant juice concentrates. A cheesecloth was also used in extracting the juice after pounding through the used of mortar and pestle. The mosquito larvae were then placed in their respective treatments. They were observed based on the time interval of two, four, and six hours.

The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used to analyze the data collected. 36. • The treatments used were as follows: • T0- Water (control) • T1- Neem tree • T2- Kakawate • T3- Makabuhay • T4- Karot • T5- Guava • T6- Patani • T7- Chili Pepper • Results of the study showed that among the eight treatments, T2-(Kakawate) had the best result in controlling mosquito larvae. Based on the results of the study, water has no component that could kill mosquito larvae. • This study was a big help to control mosquito population that can be diluted to potable water to kill the mosquito larvae. 37. Zoology

38. Ar-aru: A small fish and its Backward Evolution 39. • Abstract: • More than 3.5 billions years ago, the first organisms is believed to have live in water namely as the organisms cyanobacteria, oxygen was not present which then gives the parameter that these organisms are anaerobic and as years passed by, changes occur. These changes are called evolution. Salinity is one of these changes, Sodium Chloride came fro rocks in freshwater bodies are washed out and the water changing this NaCl will be deposited in saltwater bodies. • Because of this, the average salinity of salt water is 17ppt. Freshwater having the salinity between 0.5 ppt. to 17ppt. is called brackish water and can be found in the boundary of saltwater and freshwater.

More than half of the fauna in the Philippines face the treat of extinction. A fish called Ar-aru is now facing this treat. • This project mainly studies the effects of water salinities on the growth of Ar-aru fishes in terms of mass, length, mortality and reproductive mechanism. 40. • To make the study possible, the researcher had undergone series of experimentation and observation of their adaptability on treatment F (Freshwater), treatment B (Brackish) and treatment S (Saltwater) with 2 replicates each. The data gathered showed that Ar-aru fishes subjected to brackish water showed positive result on their adaptive mechanism in terms of its survivability. Thus, the salinity of water is a factor that affects the survivability of this specie. • Results showed that raising ar-aru fishes in brackish water is better than in freshwater and saltwater. This implies that the ar-aru fishes had an adaptive mechanism to cope in the environment of brackish.

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