An Issue of Organ Trafficking

Categories: Traffic

1. Definition of organ transaction and black market.

Such commercialization of human organs is called organ trafficking. There is clearly a market comprised of people who need money, and people of means who are willing to spend money for organs. It’s a black market, meaning the practice is wholly illegal and secretive.

2. Price of organ

Here is the price of each organ in illegal organ transaction. Pair of eyeballs $1525, scalp $607, skull with teeth $1200, shoulder $500, coronary artery $1525, heart $119000, liver $157000, hand and forearm $385, pint of blood $337, spleen $508, stomach $508, small intestine $ 2519, kidney $15000-40000, gallbladder $1219, skin $10 per square inch.

Those prices are the average price at organ black market in America. Sum of all organs price is $301833. However, there are differences to price of illegal organ transaction.

3. Differences and illegal organ transaction

3-1. Increase in broker and black market

There is difference between buyer and seller. For example, average price which paid by kidney buyer is $150,000 but average price which paid to seller of kidney is ,000.

This difference increases a number of brokers for illegal organ transaction. As the Medical Department of China, number of kidney transplantation in 2004 at china was 6000 and from last 10 years, number of operation is increased three times. There is no reason to increase three times in an organ donor in china. Thus, it means there was illegal organ transaction and there was broker in the process of organ serve. As we can inferred, there was also increasing in number of broker and black market. Besides, experts from the World Health Organization estimate 11,000 illegal organ transactions took place in 2010

3-2. Illegal organ transplant tourism

There is another difference to price of organs between countries. For example, price for kidney buyer in Saudi Arabia is $160,000 and price for kidney buyer in Singapore is $300,000. Lastly there is difference to price of transplant operation between nations. For example, kidney transplant operation in China is $15,200 and kidney transplant operation in Europe is $32,000. In addition, according to the Second Global Consultation on Human Transplantation at the WHO headquarters in Geneva in 2007, Shimazono estimated that 5-10% of kidney transplants performed annually around globe are currently via organ trade and the credibility of this estimate is given by the following data: at least 100 nationals from countries such as Saudi Arabia (700 in 2005), Taiwan (450 in 2005), Malaysia (131 in 2004) and South Korea (124 in the first 8 month of 2004).

4. Conclusion

These differences and expensive price of organs are triggering the illegal organ transaction and it grows the black market for illegal organ transaction.

Effect of organ transaction– crime

1. Introduction

As we can see at the top of the page, the overall price for sum of whole organ in one person is $ 300833. Because of this expense, brokers are started to kill a people to get organs and money.

2. Quantity of illegal organ trafficking

The kidney is the most commonly transplanted organ and global estimate of 68,500 transplants performed per year. This is followed by the heart (5,200), liver (20,100), pancreas (2,800) and lung (3,250). Experts have estimated that globally, 5-10 percentage of kidney transplants are a result of trafficking. It means that illegal trafficking accounts for some 3,400 – 6,800 kidney transplants per year. The partial liver transplant which is 20100 is the second most common procedure. According to a 2009 Reuters report, the World Health Organization estimates about 10 percentages of all organ transplants worldwide involve unacceptable or illegal transplants. By using conservative range of 5 to 10, we can estimate that a year range of 1000 to 2000 partial river transplants contain illegally acquired livers. According to Pittsburgh Tribune-Review the 2007 article, a liver transplants can be purchased within 90 days at a South American hospital for about $100,000. It shows that how many illegal organ transactions are in the world and how easily it is happen.

2-1 illegal organ transaction in the developing world

Illegal organ transaction is mostly happening in between the wealthy countries and poor countries. In developing countries, the lack of economic opportunity forces people to do dangerous thing especially illegal organ transaction. Also, not enough law is cannot control the transaction effectively. Therefore, people can attracted to illegal organ transaction more easily to earn money. Besides, because of globalization, blockers can buy cheaply at the poor countries, and sell at the rich countries. As a result it increases a number of blocker and widely it increases a number of illegal organ transaction.

2-1-1 illegal organ transaction – case1

Two Jerusalem residents, one a former Hadassah hospital employee, were arrested for allegedly facilitating organ donation deals. Sammy Shem-Tov, 67, a former employee of Hadassah-Ein Kerem, and Dmitry Orenstein were arrested Sunday at the hospital, according to reports. A gag order on the case was lifted Thursday. The men allegedly mediated between buyers and sellers of kidneys, according to reports. At least 10 Israelis, most in financial difficulty, agreed to donate a kidney, Ynet reported. Donors were found through magazine advertisements. Shem-Tov and Orenstein made tens of thousand dollars on each transaction, according to reports.

2-1-2 illegal organ transaction – case2

At least two illegal human organs transplantation surgeries performed in the capital of the Republic of Kosovo trace back to Germany. In 2008, according to the newspaper Spiegel, in the clinic of Pristina 74-year-old German businessman named Walter (last name is not mentioned for obvious reasons) of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia has been illegally transplanted an organ from a 50-year-old Russian woman Vera Schewdko, an immigrant to Israel, who sold her left kidney for 8,100 euros

3. Crime in organ transaction

Crime in illegal organ transaction is involves the harvesting and sale of organs from unwilling donors and donors who sell their organs in ethically questionable circumstances. It is happening in many places throughout the world. By the expensive price of human organs, there is crime which is kill people to get organ to sell. This is frequently happening and being a big issue to our society by world widely.

3-1 Crime in organ transaction cases

3-1-1 Honduras

In 1992, in capital city of Honduras Tegucigalpa, eight hundreds of children are disappeared by an brokers with purpose of illegal organ transaction.

3-1-2 Russia

According to documentary which was broadcasted on television in 1993.11.21, in one hospital in Russia was been owned stolen kidney from dead body and cornea from Argentinian mental patient. Furthermore, staffs found the report which has organ sales record. By this record, they sell around 700 hundreds unit of kidneys, heart and lungs. In addition, there was 1400 liver, 18000 thymus, 2000 eyes and 3000 couple of testis (for anti-aging medicine).

4. Contempt of life

Because of rapid changes in the world with technology, in these days there is odd trend which called “contempt of life trend”. From this trend, people are selling their own organ easily to get money and also it triggers crimes and makes brokers.

Method to solve

1. Law and observe

People say to solve this problem we the government should make strong and exact law. Though, this is not enough method to solve. Some country like China, it is illegal to buy or sell organs. However, China is country which has one of the mostly do an organ trade in the world and has a lot of crime in organ trafficking. Korea also organ transaction is illegal but they have organ trade. On the other hand, Iran is country which kidney sales are legal and regulated. However Iran has a plenty of trade for other organs not just kidney. Thus, what do we need is not just law. Whatever we have strong law, if there is no one who observe, the law is nothing. What we need is continuous observation. We have to make continuous observation as a law not just increase a fine or number of law clause.

2. Mind changing

We have to respect our organs as a most important thing not just use as a way to earn money. As I mention, “Contempt of life trend” makes us to sales our organs with law respect. Throw this mind changing we can cut illegal organ transaction basically without law or policy.

3. Unselfishness

Crime which comes from organ transaction is fundamentally because of selfishness that spread in the world. Killer who kills to get organ is consider human as just money. Broker is also same. Basically buyer is the problem. Actually organ transaction is because of demand which comes from rich’s selfishness to live longer and longer without innate patient.

4. Lack of knowledge about organ

Black market selling organ not only related to crime problem, most of the people were willing to sell their organ to black market in low price. In China, a 17years old boy found a transaction kidney website, the buyer offer 20k for a kidney, the boy was accepted the offer and sell his kidney to the person. The boy will accept the offer not because of his poor, but is for his desire. At the time, I-Pad 2 was just launched, so the boy wishes to get one after one month, the health of the boy become worse and him regret of the thing he did. He tries to contact the person who helps him to do operation but fail to contact him.

How does this happen? Why the boy will accept the offer of the person? This kind of question keeps asking by the society. It is because of the desire or because of the education? In a research , the reason of desire cannot be acceptable, because same in the China, a 17years old boy would want to get a I-Pad 2, but he try to earn money from himself in a legal way, in the result, the boy get the I-pad2 in short moment. The law is the main problem in this case.

Nowadays, most of the school just care about the result of the student. People which are in high education will also fall into the trap. This is because they rarely see newspaper. Newspaper is used to remind people and alert people about the crime style in the world. Most of the school didn’t care about the social life of the student and just want the student study every day. They don’t know how to protect themself in that time.

In Malaysia, it was has a case that related to organ trafficking. Bill is a Bangladeshi, and he owns many debts to a people that in Malaysia. One day, the people in Malaysia offer a chance to him to ease his debts. He offers a ticket to Bill and want him come to Malaysia to ease his debts. Bill own him RM2500, the people in Malaysia offer him to sell his kidney that price RM9000 each. Bill accepts this offer because he still can earn some money from this transaction. After he come in and do operate, he has been drop by in a 7-11 but the people in Malaysia was missing but Bill just received RM500. He can’t back his country, so he needs to work in Malaysia to buy a fly ticket.

In Bangladesh, the average quoted price is $1,500. The market, it started more than 10 years before, and the kidneys’ price was higher and it has gradually dropped. After donation, post transplantation, the poor Bangladeshis receive different amounts. In one case, a poor Bangladeshi, a 23-, 24-year-old boy, received only $600, and he was promised $1,600 to $1,700. In the research, 81 percent of the sellers didn’t receive money that they are promised.

The organ trafficking has started more than 10 years before, it was has many case happened, but still got people get lie from this case. The government has responsibility to protect the people in the country but the government didn’t. In Malaysia, the law has protect the people but not strong. People who are doing organ trafficking in an illegal way will be judgment to jail 3-7 year or fine RM11200 or two of this.

According to the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA), any individual convicted of buying or selling human organs faces a five-year prison sentence and/or a hefty fine. Since the language of the law explicitly states that it is a crime for an individual to “knowingly acquire, receive, or otherwise transfer” a human organ, it allows safe harbor for those who unknowingly receive an illegally procured organ.

However, living donors (those donating a single kidney or a portion of an organ) may not be reimbursed for some of the associated post-operative costs. Also, living donors may experience difficulty maintaining affordable health insurance coverage after such a procedure. Most transplant centers offer the assistance of financial coordinators to help with insurance and related issues.

The growth of illegal trade has stemmed from the increasing scarcity of transplant material available for waiting patients. For example, in 2004, there were approximately 80 000 patients wait listed for organ transplants in the United States. Concurrently in Europe, there were approximately 40 000 patients on kidney transplant waiting lists and another 120 000 on dialysis treatment. At the same time, the European Parliamentary Assembly estimated that by 2010, the waiting time for a transplant would increase from 3 to 10 years. The increase in waiting time is an incentive for acquiring an organ from any source.

In England, Wales and Northern Ireland the Human Tissue Act 2004, and in Scotland the Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006, provide the legal framework for organ and tissue donation in the UK. The Human Tissue Authority is the regulatory body that is established under the Acts to ensure that there is no coercion, pressure or payment involved in the donation of organs, which is illegal in the UK. The Authority must approve all donations from living donors and all donors will be assessed by an Independent Assessor as a routine part of the evaluation process to ensure that all the legal requirements are met.

4.1Effect: health problem

Many people are born with a single kidney. This occurs in about one out of 750 people. Being born with a single kidney is more common in males, and the left kidney is the one more often absent. The ureter (the tube that takes urine from the kidney to the bladder) on the affected side is usually abnormal or absent. An abnormality of the reproductive tract may also be seen on the same side. This occurs more often in females than in males. In other cases, one kidney may need to be surgically removed, leaving a single remaining kidney. A kidney may need to be removed because of an anatomic abnormality such as obstruction, or because of a tumor, or from a severe traumatic injury after an accident. One kidney may be donated to a loved one with kidney failure.

The single normal kidney will grow faster and get larger than a normally paired kidney. For this reason, the single kidney is larger and heavier than normal, and it is, therefore, more vulnerable to injury. It is important to be aware of the increased risk for injury with certain heavy contact sports, so that careful decisions may be made regarding participation in various physical activities. The American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Family Physicians and the Medical Society of Sports Medicine have suggested that people with one kidney avoid sports that involve higher risks of heavy contact or collision. This includes boxing, field hockey, football, ice hockey, Lacrosse, martial arts, rodeo, soccer and wrestling. Anyone with a single kidney who decides to participate in these sports should be extra careful and wear protective padding. He or she should understand that the consequences of losing a single kidney are very serious.

In general, most people with a single normal kidney have few or no problems, particularly in the first few years. However, some longer-term problems have been recognized. Most doctors believe that people with a single kidney, particularly from birth or during early childhood, should be followed more closely than people with two normal kidneys. Children who have had a kidney surgically removed may have a slightly increased chance of developing abnormal amounts of protein in the urine and some abnormality in kidney function by 25 years later. Similar abnormalities have been found in individuals born with a single kidney. In addition, there is greater chance of developing high blood pressure. The decrease in kidney function is usually mild, and life span is normal.

If we lost one of the kidneys, the nutrition that develops by the kidney will be half because our kidneys are small biological marvels with a fascinating design. Healthy kidneys act like a filter to make sure the right amount of wastes and fluids are removed. Every hour your blood supply circulates through the kidneys about 12 times. Each day your kidneys process around 200 liters of blood, with around 1 to 2 liters of waste leaving the body as urine. Our kidneys make three important hormones, erythropoietin, renin and active vitamin D. Erythropoietin stimulates the production of red blood cells, renin is involved in the control of blood pressure and active vitamin D controls calcium uptake and helps make strong bones.

According to a doctor, kidneys are master chemists of the body, intervene in many processes and balances in the body and control many vital body functions. The major role of the kidneys is to remove waste from the blood and eliminate it in the urine. To remove this waste and extra water, blood enters the kidney through the renal artery; blood is then cleaned in the kidney as it passes through tiny filters called nephrons. The nephrons are the basic working units of the kidneys, controlling the formation of urine. One kidney contains about one million nephrons, and each nephron contains a filtering apparatus called a glomerulus.

Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. Sometimes kidney failure can happen quickly, cause for example by a sudden loss of large amounts of blood or an accident. A sudden drop in kidney function is called Acute Kidney Failure and is often short lived, but can occasionally lead to lasting kidney damage. More often kidney function worsens over a number of years.

This is actually good news, because if kidney disease is found early, medication, dietary and lifestyle changes can increase the life of your kidneys and keep you feeling your best for as long as possible.

If we do organ trafficking in an illegal way, out health will be affected because the organ has develop a lot or nutrition to our body.

Causes of organ trafficking – Poverty Country

1. Situation in poverty country.

Nowadays, organ donation become a common charity work in social, but if the organ doesn’t match to the patient, it will cause organ shortage that will lead patient to more worse situation even die in a short time. So that, black market that lead to illegal selling organ become a common merchandise in the poor country, many ungrateful people seek for organ in poor country so that they can resell it at a high price. Because of the shortage of organ, many patient can’t easily transplant their organ to survive and eventhough people try to kidnap teenagers to get their organ in the black market, this is a harmful situation for the social, increase the crime rate rapidly and cause social panic about the safety of their family members.

2. The demand of the organ transplantation.

As a result there has been a major increase in the number of patients on transplant waiting lists as well as in the number of patients dying while on the waiting list. In the United States, for example, the number of patients on the waiting list in the year 2006 had risen to over 95,000, while the number of patient deaths was over 6,300. Another article reports that in 2008 the median waiting time for the U.S. transplant list was greater than 3 years (with projections to increase in the next few years), while the United Kingdom reported a lack of organs for 8000 patients, with the rate increasing at 8%. In response to the high demands and long waiting times, the illegal organ trade has been expanding.

3. The effect after selling organ to the others.

For some reason, poverty country appeared to increase of demand in black market of organ trafficking, although it is illegal for the country but it is not easy for the government to stop this unnatural phenomenon, the cause of this situation is because the poor people need money to survive or for ‘better life’ after they sell their organ. While they get their money after organ trafficking, their health condition will become worse in a few years, some of the news report that a organ selling patient have fading problem in 10 years time because of the insufficient organ support and finally result in deadly disease.

4. Conclusion

People need money to survive under the stress of poverty and starving, they had no way to escape poverty but to sell their organ in the market to survive for in the future, this including the people who sacrifice their-self for their family when they lost their job or facing medical problem when their family have to do expensive surgery to survive.

The success of organ transplant in medical treatment.

1. Successful of organ transplant

Another causes is transplanting human organs has become a successful medical procedure during the past fifteen years. Thousands of seriously ill patients are given new life via the transplantation of healthy hearts,

kidneys, livers, and lungs. Because of the successful of medical procedure, illegal organ selling become often

in a few years time.

2. Organ transplant lead to criminal.

People in poverty country find out that this ‘deal’ will give them a lot of profit. This cause the effect of the donation of organ decrease when people thinking why don’t we sell it better than we donate it to charity for self-fulfillment. Beside that, evil people also aim for the illegal organ selling by searching customers and become intermediate in the deal, this give them a lot of commission that with high risk, in commerce high risk will come with high profit, so they will doing other things to gain more profit.

3. Conclusion.

After the successful of organ transplantation, people become aggresive in poverty country, and many patient who need for organ transplanation will paid high price for the organ that attract the poverty and deal with them in short time, in my point of view, this situation will become worse if the government do not stop it and will become great problem in the future.

Cite this page

An Issue of Organ Trafficking. (2016, Dec 14). Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/an-issue-of-organ-trafficking-essay

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