An International Study Essay
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The third method of research this essay is going to look at is journals. Again these are similar to websites. Journals are generally up to date on the subject that is being researched, and will cover recent topics that are being discussed in the news and that people are researching. The problem with journals is that they are one person’s point of view on a certain subject, and could be very bias to one point of view. This means that their may be inaccuracies in the information, or some of it could be made up.
The correct way to reference from a journal is the surname of the author or authors, the year of publication, the title of the article, the title of the journal, the volume number, the issue number and the first and last pages of the article. For example Alemayehu E, Mooloy D, Guyatt G, Singer J et al. Variability in Physicians’ Decisions on Caring for Chronically Ill Elderly Patients: An International Study. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1991, 144(9):1133-1138. The final method of research is newspapers. The positives and negatives of newspapers are similar to that of websites and journals.
Newspapers are updated everyday and cover recent topics. Many newspapers tend to be either left wing or right wing, therefore making them bias on certain issues which do not allow fair opinion. These means that there will be inaccuracies in information gathered. Another negative of using newspapers is that some stories may be made up just to make headlines and to sell the newspaper. The way to reference from a newspaper is similar to that of a book and journal, except that as with the journal the volume and issue numbers are not needed.
An example of a newspaper reference is, Warnock M. (2008) Legalize assisted suicide, for pity’s sake. The Observer. 19th October 2008:p22. The two conventional systems of referencing this essay will look at are the Harvard System and Footnotes. The Harvard System is one of the most commonly used forms of referencing, and different institutions have different variations. The most common way to present it in the U. K is to put the author-date references with the year shown last and titles should now be underlined or in italics (Neville C, 2007).
There are both pros and cons of using this system. One pro is that it is both easy to teach and therefore easy to teach (Neville C 2007). Another pro is that it is easy to carry out and there are no distractions such as adding footnotes or endnotes (Neville C 2007). The cons are that the citations can become ‘long winded’ and it is also ‘difficult to reference television, radio and other audio sources’ (Neville C, (2007) The complete guide to Referencing and Plagiarism, Open University, Maidenhead)
Footnotes or ‘running notes’ (British Standards) are another conventional method of referencing. This section of the essay will use footnotes to references to give a clear understanding of the way it works. This style of referencing uses bracketed numbers or superscript in the text, for example, Euthanasia can be carried out by giving a lethal injection or by not giving treatment to keep the person alive (1). The number is then referred to at the bottom of the page to inform the reader of the source of information.
As with the Harvard Referencing system there are both pros and cons of this system. As there is a history behind footnotes, it arguably gives it a dignified presence(2). Another pro is that it allows the reader to immediately refer to the source, rather than having to turn to the reference or bibliography page(3). The most obvious disadvantage of this style of referencing is that the author is not able to go back and make any additions(4). Some people find that footnotes can distract them from what they are reading(5). 1. BBC News (2006) Ethics of Euthanasia.
Accessed 20th October 2008 from the World wide web:http://www. bbc. co. uk 2. Neville C(2007) The complete guide to Referencing and Plagiarism, Open University, Maidenhead 3. Neville C (2007) 4. Neville C (2007) 5. Neville C (2007) In any institution, be that educational or research, there are certain rules that govern the use of information. These are called copyright or intellectual property law. Everyone should know these rules to avoid plagiarism. The rules do not allow anyone to use images, sounds, written words unless permission is given by the creator.
The 1988 Copyright, Designs and Patents Act states the duration as; i. For literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works 70 years from the end of the calendar year in which the last remaining author of the work dies. If the author is unknown, copyright will last for 70 years from end of the calendar year in which the work was created, although if it is made available to the public during that time, (by publication, authorised performance, broadcast, exhibition, etc.), then the duration will be 70 years from the end of the year that the work was first made available.