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Badella (2) examines the decades’ old push by successive U.S governments to promote democracy in Cuba. The author examines the various factors that contribute to the icy relationship between the U.S and the island nation. According to the author, the frosty relationships between Cuba and her superpower neighbor have a political and economic dimension. The Cuban trade embargo that was implemented by the U.S in a bid to force a regime change in the country. However, the US has perennially failed to instill its democratic governance ideals in Cuba, primarily due to the patriotism of Cubans to the Castro administration.
The author further examines the objectives behind US’push for democracy in Cuba and concludes that it is meant to increase American political influence in global politics. Cuban leadership since the revolution has maintained amiable relationship with communist powerhouses Russia and China.
The U.S would aspire to have pro-Western politicians leading Cuba to undermine the geo-political influence of the communist nations.
Essentially, the article introduces a political perspective for the research paper. The article is also published in a peer reviewed journal making it a reliable source of information about political interactions between the U.S and Cuba.
In the journal article, Andrew O’Reilly Herrera observes that the maternal relationships and conflict in the Del Pino family is a metaphor depicting the relationship between Cuba and her citizens.
Herrera further posits that “…the theme of maternal loss is metaphorically linked to the larger losses that Cuba, as mother country, sustained both prior to, and in the wake of, the Revolution” (73).
Conversely, the relationship between citizens and their country should be similar to the maternal relationships between a mother and her offspring. Herrera concludes that women have very significant influence on the individual choice of nationality and perception of home. Herrera, Andrea O’Reilly is a professor of Women’s & Ethnic Studies in University of Colorado, Colorado Springs. She holds a PhD in English from University of Delaware and has published numerous books, edited collections, and refereed journal articles indicating that she is an academic authority in literature and ethnic studies. The journal article will be a useful source of information on the use of maternal relationships as a metaphor in Cristina Garcia’s “Dreaming in Cuban.”
The journal article by Ramond (91) describes the nostalgia that results from exile as illustrated in Cristina Garcia’s “Dreaming in Cuban.” The author observes that people who have experienced exile yearn to return home and to reclaim the culture and boundaries lost in time and space. People go into exile due to political or economic reasons. In Cristina Garcia’s “Dreaming in Cuban”, Del Pino’s family is separated as a result of both political and economic factors. Interestingly, the author draws a parallel discourse of exile by observing that the Cubans had earlier been displaced by slave trade from their indigenous lands in Africa.
The desire to relocate to their cultural land prevents exiled communities from integrating with the culture in the host population. The immigrants thus live in a metaphorical island where they can live in deplorable conditions for a long time waiting to relocate back home. The journal article introduces the aspect of identity crisis and resistance to cultural integration in the novel. The author is a renowned English scholar who has published several other literary works. As a literature source, the article will provide useful information about the factors that prevent integration of immigrants with the host population as seen from the Cubans’ perspective.
In the journal article, Ludlam (222-224) reviews the book One Day in December: Celia Sánchez and the Cuban Revolution by Nancy Stout. According to Ludlum the biography sensitively and insightfully raises awareness about the important role that Cuban women played during the revolution. Celia Sanchez was one of three revolutionary women leaders of the July 26 movement headed by Che Guevara, Raul Castro, and Fidel Castro. Celia worked directly with commandante Fidel Castro and was responsible for organizing for the arrival of the revolutionaries in Granma.
Ludlam observes that Celia’s organizational and leadership skills contributed significantly to the recovery of the revolutionary army after initial losses to Batista’s army. Ludlam further posits that women like Celia, who played an important role in the recruitment of new fighters top replenish Castro’s forces are unfairly ignored in success story of the Cuban revolution. The review article’s is published in a peer-reviewed journal and, therefore is considered a reliable source of information on Cuban revolution. Further, the author, Steve Ludlam, is a renowned scholar of Cuban studies. The review article provides information about different people who played significant roles during the Cuban revolution.
Samantha L. McAuliffe’s “Autoethnography and Garcia’s Dreaming in Cuban” depicts Cristina Garcia’s book as a narrative examining two themes; identity crisis, and cultural conflict. In the article, McAuliffe posits that migration across nations causes people from different cultural backgrounds to interact and causes conflict or integration. Further, McAuliffe opines that Garcia’s novel positions the reader at the meeting point of different cultures, persuading the audience to formulate independent opinions about culture and identity from a migrant’s perspective. By positioning the reader at the center of a migrant’s cultural conflict and the identity crisis caused by migration, Garcia, according to McAuliffe, effectively unites culture and identity in the novel. McAuliffe is a distinguished scholar in multicultural literature and the article is double-blind peer reviewed thus a reliable source for the research paper. The literature analysis will be a useful source because it highlights cultural conflict and reconciliation in Cristina Garcia’s “Dreaming in Cuban.”
Saez (129-147) writes a critical essay that examines the central theme of migration in Cristina Garcia’s “Dreaming in Cuban” and posits that the text has been interpreted with ambiguous nostalgia by numerous literary critics. According to the author, Garcia’s novel directly challenges the relevance of nation, history and leadership. Further, the author posits that migration is poised as important factor in cultural reconnection. Saez also disagrees with Garcia’s portrayal of migration from Cuba to the U.S as an empowering experience that results in cultural unification after Pilar finally accepts to relocate to the U.S. Essentially, the essay advances a contrary discourse to the celebratory perception of migration in the book.
Finally, Saez observes that globalization has been ignored as a prevailing threat to culture as more cultures integrate resulting in dilution and loss of indigenous lifestyles. The article is a useful tool for stimulating a contrary discourse to the positioning of migration as a significant factor in cultural integration. Elena Machado Saez, the author is an associate Professor in Florida Atlantic University’s English Department. She teaches US Latino/a Literature and Colloquium English at graduate level, and has published several books, essays, and articles in peer-reviewed journals. The author’s credentials, the high quality literary discourse, publication in a peer reviewed journal make the source appropriate for use in the research paper.
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