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Introduction “Bright minds make bright future! ” Preparatory children nowadays are far better than before they are more advanced in teaching and more capable of absorbing the methods of learning that used with them. Modern teaching accompanied with modules and analytical measures develop the preschooler’s memory retention that serves as the foundation of their education. Kids today are more willing and not afraid to try to discover new ways and methods of learning. The value of preschool is a hot topic these days.
A small but growing number of studies link enrolment in preschool or child care centers (which typically include a preschool curriculum) to higher cognitive and language scores on kindergarten-entry tests The early childhood stage is a permanent learning stage. Whatever they learn now, they will take home. This preschool education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory education, usually between the ages of three and five, dependent on the jurisdiction. The institutional arrangements for preschool education vary widely around the world, as do the names applied to the institutions.
Effective preschool education can help make all children ready to learn the day they start school and, more importantly, help close the enormous gap facing children in poverty. Preschool gives our kids the strong foundation they need to be successful in school and in life. Children who attend pre-kindergarten programs have bigger vocabularies and increased math skills, know more letters and more letter-sound associations, and are more familiar with words and book concepts, according to a number of studies (Patson P. Opido 2010). The child is the ultimate concern in all educational processes.
He is the beginning at the end of all educational efforts. The goal of education is to help every child grow up well-rounded; physically well-developed, mentally healthy, intelligently alert, emotionally secure and socially well adjusted. These can be truly achieved by giving attention to the child’s foundation. The first day of the children in school is a unique experience. It may be their first contact with big group of children. The difference among first grade pupils in their level of preparedness to grade one work may vary.
The grade I teacher should be aware of the differences in the children’s readiness; some readiness is the springboard to do actions. Knowing pupil’s differences will guide the teacher on what to do to develop them to the fullest ( Lindberg and Swedo, 1995). A child born of a healthy, responsible and emotionally mature parents has a good foundation. His parents, especially the mother, guide him through the proper habits of eating, sleeping and cleanliness. An individual’s attitude toward himself and others, his behaviour either at work or at play, and his emotional roots in his early childhood experiences.
What he learns at home constitutes the basis for future learning and adjustment. As the child develops social awareness, he needs to experience association with a larger group outside his home. Parents send their children to school simply because they want them to develop basic health habits and self sufficiency. Furthermore, this also includes the ability to use language patterns for simple and correct social attitudes in relation to the company of people around him, whether adults or other children and the appreciation of the aesthetic attributes of his immediate surroundings.
Modern teaching accompanied with modules and analytical measures develop the preschooler’s memory retention serving as the foundation of their education. Kids today are more willing and not afraid to try to discover new ways and methods of learning. The value of preschool is a hot topic these days. A small but growing number of studies link enrolment in preschool or child care centers (which typically include a preschool curriculum) to higher cognitive and language scores on kindergarten-entry tests. The early childhood stage is a permanent learning stage.
Whatever they learn now, they will take home. This preschool education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory education, usually between the ages of three and five, dependent on the jurisdiction. Parents on the other hand, play a vital role in educating their children because they are their first teachers, which is the greatest contribution before a child ever begins his formal education in school. When a child enters the formal school, he carries out with him the acquired values from his parents.
Just like the teacher’s task, if parents fail to perform their responsibilities, it may bring misbehaviour on their children which may directly or indirectly affect the child’s academic performance. In the Philippine public elementary schools today, inner tensions have been continuously affecting the learners going to grade one level, especially those who had never gone to any kind of schooling before. These learners entering grade one have many apprehensions. Most of them have no experiences in going to school.
Parents are not capable of sending them to school especially those in remote and slum areas. Instead of giving their children a chance to study in Day Care Centers and Kindergarten in some public elementary schools, they ended up waiting for their to be accepted in Grade One. With these scenarios the pupils encounter difficulties in catching up with different skills like numeracy and literacy which are now the basic skills necessary in the first grade level of formal schooling. These children also suffer in relating themselves to their new environment, the school.
In order to have a smooth transition from home to school and to prepare them socially and psychologically, the curriculum on the Early Childhood Experiences was recommended for adoption in all public elementary schools as included in Every Child A Reader Program ( ECARP). It aims to developing the reading readiness and developmental reading in Grade one as launched by the Department of Education. One of the major goals of the 2015 Education for All (EFA) is the expansion of the coverage and improvement of the quality of the Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs in the country.
The present government administration in its Ten-Point Agenda has declared a policy calling for the standardization of preschool and day care centers. The Department of Education (DepEd) in support of this thrust will administer School Readiness Assessment Test to All Grade One Entrants, effective SY 2005-2006. The School Readiness Assessment (SRA) is a tool to determine the readiness of Grade One entrants in tackling formal Grade One work. The School Readiness Assessment Tool will be administered by Grade One teachers assisted by the Grade Two and Three teachers one week before opening of classes.
The assessment shall not be treated as an entrance test or examination. No child shall be refused entry to Grade 1 based on the results neither of this assessment nor without preschool experience. To continuously determine the school readiness of all Grade One Entrants, the School Readiness Assessment (SReA) was administered. One of the objectives of SReA is to assess pupils’ readiness across the different developmental domains – gross and fine motor, receptive/ expressive language, cognitive domain and socio- economic domain. The result obtained was the basis for grouping the Grade One entrants.
It was also used to guide Grade One teachers in providing appropriate instruction and assistance to address specific needs of the pupils. The result of the School Readiness Test in May 2011 identified that there were at least forty two point ninety eight percent of the school population of Grade One entrants were not ready. Children with No Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) has low average in pupils’ readiness across the different developmental domains – gross and fine motor, receptive/ expressive language, cognitive domain and socio- economic domain. Background of the Study
The researcher is motivated by the above mentioned situation and this led to the conceptualization of this study. As an educator, the researcher is faced with the fact that there is an imperative need to strengthen and streamline the internal management of educational arrangements in order to achieve efficiency and responsiveness to trends and challenges of the next millennium. It is therefore the aim of this study to empower parents and positively influence them on affirmative effects of pre-school education in the holistic development of their children particularly on the advancement of their academic performance.
The value of preschool is a hot topic these days. A small but growing number of studies link enrolment in preschool or child care centers (which typically include a preschool curriculum) to higher cognitive and language scores on kindergarten-entry tests. The early childhood stage is a permanent learning stage. Whatever they learn now, they will take home. This preschool education is the provision of education for children before the commencement of statutory education, usually between the ages of three and five, dependent on the jurisdiction.
The institutional arrangements for preschool education vary widely around the world, as do the names applied to the institutions ( Bustos Alicia and Espiritu 1985). The Early Childhood Experiences Curriculum, hence all Grade One teachers are expected to implement it. Teachers are also encouraged to make use of local songs, games, dances and indigenous materials to enrich the curriculum. It is hoped that the Early Childhood Experience for Grade One will greatly benefit the children and strengthen efforts to make the schools child-friendly.
Theoretical Framework This study is anchored on Edward Thorndike’s, Jerome Bruner’s, and B. F. Skinner’s Theories of Learning. These theories enabled the researcher in the conceptualization of this work. The Law of Readiness as advocated by Thorndike is associated with mind set. It states that when an organism is prepared to respond to a stimulus, allowing doing so would be satisfying while preventing him would be annoying. This law works well in this study because the children is mentally ready to learn.
The Law of Exercise states that the constant repetition of response strengthens its connection with the stimulus, while disuse of response weakens it. The exercises given to the children using a modifiable connection like instructional materials enables them to acquire the learning easier and faster because the responses will be utilized, the stronger the connection to be developed. Thus, when a modifiable between a stimulus and a response has been made, it is strengthened if its results in satisfaction as the Law of effect proves.
Jerome Bruner’s (1915) theory of Instrumental conceptualization is also applied as it involves (3) three simultaneous processes as: Acquisition, Transformation and Evaluation. This theory of learning believes that the acquisition of whatever form of knowledge acquisition, who selects structures, retains and transforms information. Teaching without the use of proper strategic plans will result to failure. Through School Readiness Assessment Test (SReA), pupils will acquire knowledge through different techniques used by the researchers.
Hence, learning to read is facilitated by Skinner’s Theory. Conceptual Framework This study focused on the evaluation of academic performance of Grade One pupils with and without Early Childhood Experience of Sto. Nino Elementary School. The independent variable consist of School Readiness Assessment Test (SReA) for children with and without Early Childhood Experience while the dependent variable is the academic performance of the respondents in terms of the following: Sensory Discrimination, Concept Formation, Numeracy, Reading Readiness and Construction and Visual Motor Integration.
Research Paradigm Independent Variable Dependent Variable Figure 1 The above figure shows the relationship of independent variables to dependent variables of the study. Statement of the Problem This study intended to evaluate the academic performance of Grade One pupils with and without Early Childhood Experience (ECE) at Sto. Nino Elementary School, Division of San Pablo City. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the mean pre-test scores of the two groups of pupils in terms of the following: a) Sensory,
b) Concept Formation, c) Numeracy, d) Reading Readiness and e) Construction and Visual- Motor Integration? 2. What are the mean post-test scores of the two groups of pupils in terms of the following: a) Sensory Discrimination, b) Concept Formation, c) Numeracy, d) Reading Readiness and e) Construction and Visual Motor- Integration? 3. Is there a significant difference in the mean scores between the pupils with and without Early Childhood Experience (ECE) and their performance? Hypothesis The hypothesis stated below was tested in this study.
There is no significant difference in the mean scores between the pupils with Early Childhood Experience (ECE) and those without Early Childhood Experience (ECE) and their performance in terms of the following: i. Sensory Discrimination, ii. Concept Formation, iii. Numeracy, iv. Reading Readiness and a. Construction and Visual- Motor Integration? Significance of the Study This study is of importance to the pupils, teachers, principals, parents and other researcher for the following reasons: Pupils are primary group which the study would benefit.
They are the central point to be given much consideration because they are the recipients of this study. They will be assessed and it would be a big help for them to improve their academic performance. Teachers are the facilitators of learning. They may be able to undertake possible teaching alternatives that may be facilitate, enhance and improve their teaching skills to cater the needs of the pupils with and without Early Childhood Experience in order to improve their academic performance. They will specifically take cognizance of their status at present in terms of the problem arising in their own classroom.
Likewise, they could assess definitely where the problem lie and thus, make remediation to solve them. Therefore the learners’ needs would be taken into considerations. The results of this investigation will also help other teacher in the field since the problems raised here may have also help them to improve the academic performance of their pupils. Principals are the ones who initiate support for every change that happens in the school. Good management and supervision of the school and the teachers, respectively, are the responsibility of the principals.
Results which this study reveal may enable the school heads to plan out better and more effective ways to evaluate the academic performance of Grade One pupils with and without Early Childhood Experience. It is very important to take in consideration the needs of Grade One pupils because it is the foundation year for them. In that case the principal ought to have a plan to cater the individual needs of the learner to improve their academic performance to elevate the quality of education in the country.
Parents are stakeholders of the school. The findings of this study are important to parents because they need to be informed about the performance of their school children in school. Through this, they will know the importance of Early Childhood Experience (ECE) for their children. For this reason, they will send them in preschool. So that their children will not be shocked with their new environment. The parents will work hand and hand with the teacher in facilitating strategies to evaluate the academic performance of the learners.
They may also help influencing their children to have a good study habits. Their support to their children and school is important so that the goals will be attained. Other researchers who would be interested with this problem may gain further insights in developing their own research work. The data that will be revealed by this study may be used by other researcher to enhance their own studies. They may also use it as related study or augment data that they have to come up with a more comprehensive knowledge about the problem presented here into.
Scope and Limitation of the Study The focus of the study to be conducted is An Evaluation of Academic Performance of Sto. Nino Elementary School, Dapdapan, District, Division of San Pablo City. It limits its coverage on the result of School Readiness Assessment (SReA) which includes the following areas – Sensory Discrimination, Concept Formation, Numeracy, Reading Readiness, and Construction and Visual Integration; the Pre test and Post test of School Readiness Assessment (SReA) and the instructional module being devised to answer the needs of Grade One pupils.
The respondents of the study will be eighty (80) pupils of Sto. Nino Elementary School, forty (40) pupils with Early Childhood Experience (ECE) and forty (40) pupils without Early Childhood Experience (ECE). Definition of Terms For the interpretation of the study, the terms used are defined in order to avoid vagueness or ambiguousness meaning. Therefore, provide the reader a common point of reference. Public Elementary SchoolsThese are school managed, operated and maintained by the national government. It offers curricular programs for Grade One to Six children.
Sensory Discrimination These refer to exercises in discriminating simplest form of mental operation that was clearly intellective. It includes exercises on identifying same and different shapes. Concept FormationThese refer to exercises that requires the learner to construct the properties of the object from the definition. It includes exercises on completing statements showing simple analogy. Numeracy The term refers the ability to learn the specific tasks in Mathematics like counting, arranging, sequencing sets of objects.
The numeracy skills are designed to help with the more advanced levels of mathematics that pupils will encounter during the school lives and also into their adulthood. It includes exercises pointing out which has more or less sets. In this study, it pertains to the level of achievement of the Grade One pupils in different learning skills in Mathematics as perceived by their Grade One teachers. Construction and Visual-Motor Integration These skills refer to the smooth coordination of the eyes and hands working together. Sto. Nino Elementary School Public Elementary school situated in Brgy. Sto.
Nino, San Pablo City where the present study is being conducted. Grade One Pupils. Refer to children entering the formal school in the primary grades as prescribed by the Department of Education, whose ages ranges from six (6) years old and above. Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents literature and studies which are related to the problem. The materials found in local and foreign books, educational journals and magazines, documents, guidelines and reports by Department of Education provided references. Related Literature Philosophy and Goals of Elementary Education.
Philosophy of pre-school education as stated in DECS Memo no. 107 s. 1989 considers the child, the school and the teacher with the support of the family in the maximizing the child’s potential. Pre-school education is based on the knowledge that each child is unique individual with his own biological make up, interest, capacities, and ways of viewing the world. He has a tremendous capacity for learning. He is active and understands the world differently from adult. His language has developed with acquisition of wide vocabulary making him capable of communicating his ideas and feelings.
A pre-school child is always on the process of becoming, and therefore if properly developed can become a critical thinker and a socially sensitive, directed, creative, responsible and caring individual. Pre-school education must aim to develop children in all aspects physical, social, emotional and cognitive so that they will be better prepared to adjust and cope with life situations and the demands of formal schooling. By doing so, learning gaps and dropouts may be reduced or avoided to the maximum. Objectives of Pre-School education is founded on the following objectives; (Inc.DECS Memo No. 45 1995).
They are as follows: To develop the child in all aspects ( physical, social, emotional and cognitive) so that they may be better prepared to adjust and cope with the life situations within the context of his experience. To maximize the child’s potential through a variety of carefully selected and meaningful experiences considering his interests and capabilities, and; To develop the child in all aspects so that he becomes a self- propelling, thinking and contributing individual able to make decisions which all prepare him more complex demands for future life.
DepEd Order No. 10, s. 2004 is the legal basis in the implementation of the Enhanced Eight-Week Early Experiences for Grade One. Its main thrust is development of academic skills among learners. It is because most Grade One entrants have not gone through pre-school experiences. Hence, the Early Childhood Experience has been enriched and aligned with the BEC making it’s integral part of the Grade 1 Curriculum. In 1995, Early Childhood Experiences for Grade One was institutionalized at the same time as the official age for entry into the primary school was dropped to six years of age.
All Grade One teachers were requested to implement the Eight-Week Curriculum and gradually move to the regular Grade One curriculum. Pursuant to DepEd Order No. 15, s. 2005, which calls for the administration of School Readiness Assessment for All Grade One Entrants, all incoming Grade 1 shall undergo a school readiness assessment using the revised tool. The School Readiness Assessment (SRA) will be administered by Grade 1 teachers to be assisted by Grade II, III and master teachers of their respective schools. This assessment shall be administered twice. The first assessment given on May.
The second shall be administered after the children have undergone 8-week curriculum, focusing on the competencies not manifested by the child during the first assessment. The SRA will determine the level of progress of Grade 1 entrants across different developmental domains that are critical in tracking Grade 1 learning competencies. The result shall be the basis for grouping the Grade 1 entrants. It will be also used to guide Grade 1 teachers in providing appropriate instruction and assistance to address specific needs of the pupils through the utilization of the 8-week curriculum.
The assessment shall not be treated as an entrance test or examination as children may be anxious about passing or failing. No child shall be refused entry to Grade 1 based on the results of this assessment. “ Educating our children at an early stage will give more chance for young Filipinos in the future to compete for jobs and opportunities in the new world order in which better educated and highly skilled persons have become the most valued resources. ”
Giving access to free quality early childhood education will bridge the gap between the rich and the poor that will give our less privileged countrymen a strong foundation for the challenges in the next millennium. (Eduardo J. Angara, 1997) The Early Childhood Care and Development ( ECCD ) Law, enacted in 2000, recognizes the importance of early childhood and its special needs, affirms parents as primary caregivers and the child’s first teachers, and establishes parent effectiveness, seminars and nutrition counselling for pregnant and lactating mothers.
The law requires the establishment of a National Coordinating Council for the Welfare of Children which: (a) establishes guidelines, standards, and culturally relevant practices for ECCD programs; (b) develops a national system for the recruitment, training, and accrediting of caregivers; (c) monitors the delivery of ECCD services and the impact of beneficiaries; (d) provides additional resources to poor and disadvantaged communities in order to increase the supply of ECCD programs; (e) encourages the development of private sector initiatives the Republic Act 6972 known as “ Barangay (village)
Level Total Protection of Childen Act” has a provision that requires all local government units to establish a day-care centre in every village ; the law institutionalized the features of day-care programme that provide for young children’s learning needs aside from their health and psychosocial needs.
The universalization of early childhood education and standardization of preschool and day care centers was established though the Executive Order No. 658 of 2008 (Expanding the Pre-School Coverage to Include Children Enrolled in Day Care Centers). (PTFE 2008). According to Clark (2002), in her article First Grade Readiness, there are signs one can look for, to know if a child is a ready for first grade. In the physical realm, the first grade child’s limbs are now proportion with the body and head .
There is a loss of baby far and greater definition in the face. In the emotional realm, the young child who once expressed strong emotions through sudden outburst now has a feelings that begin to deepen.
A child will talk of “hurt feelings” and being sad. Socially, the first grade ready child begins to form friendships which go deeper than before. The child feels loyalty for friends and often expresses the desire to be with them. In the mental realm, there is the birth of free memory. This is different than the memory of a four year old. The younger child’s memory must be triggered by a sight, smell, or rhythmic verse when the memory and recall it will. Kagan (2000) stated that the concept of school readiness has been defined and redefined over the years resulting in differing viewpoints. Several theories of child development and learning have been used to explain the term.
In fact, there appears to be two types of readiness: readiness to learn, which involves a level of development at which the child has the capacity to learn specific materials, and readiness for school and readiness for school which involve specific set of cognitive, linguistic, social and motor skills that enable a child to assimilate the school’s curriculum.
According to Quinto (2001) the lowering of entrance to six years old for grade one pupils in the Philippines public elementary schools have created inner tensions, especially to those who had never gone to any kind of school before. So, in order to have a smooth transition from home to school and to prepare them socially, psychologically, the curriculum on the Early Childhood Experiences was recommended for adoption in all public elementary schools. Studies show that child’s mind is almost full developed before he reaches the age of five. This presents a need for an organized early childhood education.
Pre-elementary or preschool education is one of the latest trends in childhood education which gives equal opportunities to all children at the lowest step of educational ladder. Preschool education holds a prominent place, being that level in the school system wherein children are trained to be better prepared for grade one. For the development of the child, the curriculum focuses on these areas of development: physical ( gross and fine motor coordination through play and manipulated activities like games, simple work); cognitive ( communication skills, sensory-perceptual concepts, numeracy skills); personal social (health habits and independence in dressing, eating, sleeping, toileting; relating with teachers, peers and other people through group play and interaction; follow rules and routine.
Groark (2006) stresses that the school and district administrators, as well as policymakers are increasingly recognizing that early education and intervention services for young children have a direct and positive impact on later school performance and quality. Soliven (1999) stated that an authority on child development, underscores the significance of pre-primary education to the mental development of children citing the results of research which showed that pre-primary education is important to the child, she pointed out the intellectual capacity of the child is most susceptible to reaches a substantially higher rate of intellectual development of Early Childhood especially in a favourable environment. It is apparent that intelligence is best developed in the first six years of life, if the child is exposed to a favourable environment for development during this formative period.
Vittetow (1994) former Education Expert of International Cooperation Administration (ICA) in his Educational Series Bulletin for the Bureau of Public Schools gave growth characteristics of Pre-school Filipino children, which are true to all children at this level of growth and development. Said development and growth includes: 1) Physical Characteristics, 2) Mental Characteristics, 3) Social Characteristics, 4) Emotional Characteristics, 5) Spiritual and Moral Characteristics and 6) Aesthetic Characteristics.
According to Kats (2001) what the children learn, how they learn, and how much they learn depend on many factors. Among the most important factor’s are the child’s physical well-being, and his emotional and cognitive relationships with those who care for him. The school readiness goal reflects two concerns about the education of young children.
The first is that the increasing numbers of young children in poverty, in single-parent households have limited proficiency in English are affected by the drug abuse of their parents have poor nutrition, and receive inadequate health care. The second area of concern involves such matters as the high rates of retention in kindergarten and primary grades, delayed school entry in some districts, segregated transition in classes in others and the increasing use of standardized tests to determine children’s readiness to enter school. Standardized tests used to deny children entrance to school or place them in special classes are inappropriate for children younger than six.
These trends are due largely to the fact that an academic curriculum and direct instruction teaching practices that are appropriate for the upper grades have gradually been moved down to the kindergarten and first grade.
These two areas of concern suggest that reaching the school readiness goal will require a twofold strategy: one part focused on supporting families in their efforts to help their children get ready for school, and the second on helping the schools to be responsive to the wide range of development levels, backgrounds, experiences, and needs of children to bring them in school. Watson (1985) pointed out that groups of children of higher economic status have higher level of intelligence than those favored economic status, the higher their average IQ’s on Standford – Binet or similar verbal test.
The mismatch between the schools and children from low income working class families had led to concerted attempts to involve parents from these families in the schools. When the school can involve low-income parents, their children’s school attendance increases, the children are less disruptive in class and less aggressive on the playground, their classwork improves, and they are more likely to complete their homework.
If they are raised in emotionally secured homes they tend to be emotionally secured children. If they are raised in homes which lack happiness and have little emotionally security they may in time tend to be unhappy and insecure. However, these differences between higher and lower socio-economic groups may be due to non-intellectual factors.
Some of these factors serving to depress intelligence test scores among the lower socio-economic groups could be greater resistance to taking test, the effect of nutritional deficiencies, different attitudes towards education, suspicion, lack of support and the like. Although any or all of these factors seem reasonable, there are no definite research to establish the answer conclusively. It has been observed that most elementary teachers do not have the necessary educational background to teach visual arts. University of Hawaii’s Professor, Dr. Stephanie Feeny (1986); stresses the importance of the arts in the development of the thinking process in children.