An Educational Counseling Research Proposal Essay
An Educational Counseling Research Proposal
Educational counseling and guidance on the basis of the effects brought about by the media on the learner is essential in the proper development of personality and behavior. Due to the fact that learning process can be measured by the behavior exhibited by an individual, it can be considered as the main indication in the research conducted.
The aim of the research is to determine the possible effects of the entertainment media such as television and computers on the development of aggressive behavior of the learner. Upon the determination of such data seek possible methods of guidance. Effect can be studied based on the results of a quantitative educational research that covers 100 students, 6 to 16 years old both male and female, undertaken through survey research.
There are different ways of learning which can be used and applied in educational process. The knowledge on the effective learning techniques can be considered as an essential factor to be able to attain the goals of education. The different types of learning process guide the educators on the most effective ways of attaining the goals which is learning. Included in the types of learning techniques are the behavioral influences brought about by the different factors in the society.
One of the most influential factors in the development of the learner is the media. In the behaviorist point of view in lined with the scientific study of Pavlov and Skinner that behavior is a measurable concept in learning process (Griffin, Holford, and Jarvis, 2003). Thus, on the perception of the effects of media on the learner, one of the ways in the determination of the influencing effects of the mass media is through the behavior being shown by the learner. This is similar to the target learning process. Anderson and Collins (1988) have pointed out that television has an impact not only in children’s pre-pubescent behavior but can also affect adolescent behavior.
The main goal of the study is to determine the effects of the media on the behavior of the learner and ultimately present educational counseling methods suitable to manage behavioral problems that are developed, particularly aggressive behavior. There is growing concern regarding increasing aggression and violent behavior among children and adolescents this past decade and media is has been one of the factors being Juvenile delinquency has been increasing progressively not only in number but also in gravity (Snieckute, 2004)
The shall be undertaken through the synergy of the library-based and the observation and experimental research that will focus on the effects of the media such as television and related information tools on the development of the different aspects of the personality of the individual. The research is in-lined with the possible behavioral problems that can be expressed by the individuals under study.
The study of the development of aggressiveness and violent actions as an effect of media in the development of the personality and behavior of the learner is important due to the fact that majority of he study surmised that the media is one of the major causes of the problems in behavior of the learner as a whole. More children are gaining access and are being exposed to media without or with deficient parental supervision and depend on television as their primary form of entertainment and information (Walma van der Molen & van der Voort, 1999)
This is due to the fact that observation and imitation of the situations in the surroundings is also an effective informal teacher not only cognitively but most especially on the behavioral aspect (Sylwester, 2005). Thus, the behavior of an individual can be both an influential factor that teaches other people and at the same time an indication of the person’s learning.
To establish the effects of the media to the learner, researches conducted prior to this study will be surveyed and assessed. The background study will enable the establishment of concepts, prevailing theories and other current research investigations on the influence of media as part of the experimental study, an in-depth analysis of the results of the research survey will be one of the primary objectives
The purpose of the study is to be able to determine the validity of television exposure as a major cause of the development of aggressive behavior among children. The objective will be achieved through the research both library-based and qualitative data gathering on the behavior influences of the group. The results of previous studies will be assessed and incorporated into the current research to establish the degree of influence of television to aggression in children.
The proposed paper aims to answer the following key questions:
• Why is there concern regarding the development of aggressive behavior among juveniles or minors specifically ages 6 to 16 years old in relation to the exposure to media?
• What television practices or programming are critical in influencing behavior among juveniles or minors specifically ages 6 to 16 years old?
• What are the long term implications to the individuals and society of the development of early aggressive behavior among the test group?
In line with the aim to test the hypothesis that the violence presented by the media specifically the television has significant effects on the development of the behavior of the children that can cause concern to educational guidance as well as regarding the detrimental effects of the media such as television to the behavior of the learner, theories on the psychological and behavioral norms serves as the bases for the divergence of attitudes and for the identification of deviant behavior that can cause alarm and leads to actions related to educational counseling.
Review of Related Literature
The proposed study is on the basis of the behaviorist approach to education. In this principle, learning can be measured by the observable traits and behaviors of the individual. The behaviorist point of view depicts the importance of expression of a person in the determination of a successful learning process. One of the most important is the process of conditioning that can be applied through the process (Griffin, Holford, and Jarvis, 2003).
Another key concept that is related to the course of this study is the theories on conditioning.
Conditioning that can be explained as the exposure to different affective factors in the environment that can affect both the cognitive and behavioral aspects of development. In the study of Sylwester (2005), it was discussed that learning is greatly affected by the emotions and attention capacity of an individual. In this case it can be identified that young children become more attracted to the television and the computer rather than any forms and tools of learning.
According to Walma van der Molen and van der Voort (1999), children today retain more information form television viewing compared to reading. A critical concept presented in the study is the theory that television is catering more to the fact that children tend to be attracted to “changing environments” and more suited to the learning styles (visual and aural), a competency that Media has as strength (American Association of School Administrators, 1991; “Learning Styles”, 2006).
The main concern that arises in relation to the behavioral influences brought about by these types of influences is the fact that television and computer games can present violence that can be imitated by the children and are subject to very little control within most homes.
Based on the same study, it was presented that due to the fact that the development is composed of both the physiological and behavioral, education can also cause development of the brain (Sylwester, 2005). The study presented a scientific and physiological approach on the changes associated with the influences of the media to the children. The television and other forms of media were presented with fair treatment, presenting both the perceived advantages and disadvantages were presented.
Based on the study conducted by Barker and Petley (2001), concern regarding media content is in relation to the behavior of the children is based on the effects of the programs shown in the television especially those that show violence. Although many studies have expressed such notion, based on the study, there is no convincing evidence that points and measures the interrelationship between the two. The researches argue that violence in the televisions has no direct relationship to the changes in behavior of an individual.
The access to computer and the internet was surmised to have a very influential role in the development of the children. Like television, the internet and computers have provided new opportunities and realities for learning and education. Also included in the benefits that can be incurred is the development of children are cognitive improvement and communication skills. On the other hand, such freedom to be able to access the computer can greatly effect the possible behavior of the learners when exposed to violence, pornographic materials and other factors that has negative effects (Cleon and Cho, 2005).
One of the conventional studies on the effects of media was presented by Johnson (2005). Based on this study, the computer games can bring about the development of analytical skills of children. The skills that can be developed are the problem-solving and logical skills.
Various methodologies that can be applied in the course of the study as well flexibility of reference can be utilized. However, a systematic research should be employed to assess and analyze in the involvement and the effects of the media on the knowledge acquisition and cognitive skills of the children (Livingstone, 2004)
To be able to achieve the projected results of the study, different procedure are needed to be employed. The target of the research to be conducted is to determine the effects that can be attributed to the forms of media such as the television and computers. This can be achieved through the employment of the synergy of the different methods of research.
Included in the attainment of the educational research there are essential steps that are taken into consideration. The limitations of the study, the planning phase of the research process, and the decision on the most effective research technique to be undertaken are the primary considerations (Cohen, Manion, and Morrison, 2000).
• Document/ Study Research
The library-cased research focuses on the studies conducted by contemporary researchers on the basis of concepts presented. This can be considered as the qualitative part of the research process that will be the basis of the analysis on the experimental study that will be undertaken (Cohen, Manion, and Morrison, 2000).
An online research or related document will serve as another reference assessment method but also as a benchmark of the research to be conducted. Comparison and Contrast of existing and recently conducted researches will be assessed for their implications.
• The Experimental Research
The experimental part of the research have two main objective: to assess the degree of aggressive behavior that can be attributed to exposure to television and computer games and to determine the specific content, elements or features that can be directly related to aggressive behavior.
The inclusion criteria in the study are the minor students and learners that are between 6 to 16 years old. These are individuals that are exposed to the television and computer technology.
• Equal distribution of male and females
• Age range is between 6-16 years of age
• Currently enrolled in public schools that incorporate television and computers into their curricula
• Participants must have access both to computer gaming or entertainment and television
• Have significant exposure to television and computer entertainment, minimum of 1 hour daily exposure or total of 7 hours exposure in a week.
• Must not be pre-diagnosed with any atypical behavioral conditions
• View television and computers as primary sources of information, entertainment or distraction
• Has no strong opinion regarding the influence of television and computers to his behavior
The ideal number of subjects that will be used in the study is 100 randomly selected from the individuals that are chosen on the basis of the inclusion criteria such as age and the exposure to the television or computer.
The study will make use of the survey process specifically questionnaires for the determination of the opinions of the parents on the exposure of the children to the specified forms of media. The objective is to quantify the responses given by the sample population. The method targets the characteristic or issue of interest by soliciting answers through directed questions. Responses are recorded, measured, organized and analysed to be able to come up with the output.
o Sampling Process
The primary step required is the preparation of the questionnaires that is needed to elicit from the subjects information necessary to accomplish the objectives of the study. Questionnaire will be made to meet closely readability levels as needed by respondents.
Randomization will be employed to be able to acquire the quality of the research results. Data gathering will follow validation of responses until number or samples needed are reached.
o Validation and valuation
The validity can be achieved though the validation techniques employed in the statistical sampling of random samples. Respondent’s validation will be done using demographic and psychographic criteria. Response validation will be indicated through successful accomplishment of survey forms.
Valuation of sampling will be conducted through statistical analysis. Correlation analysis and significance testing will be conducted to establish the actual influence levels of television and computer to aggressive behavior and their impact to aggressiveness as a behavior respectively.
• Ethical Considerations
The aims and the objective of the survey research are not to implicate any form of media to crimes or delinquencies but to be able to assess the viability of the theories on their influence to aggressive behavior developed by children. To be able to undertake such projects permission is sought from the sample population as well as their understanding of the objectives and procedure of the study. Consent from the parents or guardians and all other pertinent authorities must be acquired to facilitate the validity of the study as well as protect the interest of the participants.
Results of the preliminary investigation showed the possible ways to determine the reasons for the concern of the public regarding the behavioral problems that is encountered. The preliminary research presents the overview of the possible justification of concern on the development of aggressive behavior of the children. The integration of contextual library-based and survey research will be presented to determine the validity of hypotheses and its pursuit as a further study.
Based on the gathered data from initial research that was undertaken, a larger part of the population perceive the media as having as a negative influence only on behavior instead of it being a direct cause of behavioral problems in children and adolescents.
Literature that showed the television, computer and other electronic visual media can contribute to learning, social orientation and perceptions but are not reflective or indicative of behavior for individuals The concern on the level of exposure to violence and pornography without the guidance of responsible educators, parents and guardians of young children Is considered as the most critical and urgent. Although there is cause for public concern regarding its content and control, the lobby is for responsible programming and reviews rather that greater restriction of limitation of access.
American Association of School Administrators (1991). Learning Styles: Putting Research and Common Sense into Practice. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators
Anderson, D., & Collins, P. (1988). The impact on children’s education: Television’s influence on cognitive development. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
Barker, M. and Petley, J (2001). Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate. New York: Routledge.
Cleon, HJ and Cho, CH. (2005) Children’s Exposure to Negative Internet Content: Effects of Family Context. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49 (4), p. 488.
Cohen, L. Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2000). Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge.
Davis, J. (2002) Types of research methods. Psychological Research Methods 2. Retrieved on October 1, 2006 from http://www.naropa.edu/faculty/johndavis/prm2/types1.html.
Griffin, C., Holford, J. & Jarvis, P. (2003). The Theory & Practice of Learning. London: Kogan Page.
Johnson, S. (2005). Everything bad is good for you: How today’s popular culture is actually making us smarter. New York: Riverhead Books.
Livingstone, S. (2004) A commentary on the research evidence regarding the effects of food promotion on children. Prepared for the Research Department of the Office of Communication, Department of Media and Communication. London: London School of Economics and Political Science.
Snieckute, Marija (2004). Juvenile delinquency and the Family. Retrieved on October 1, 2006 from http://www.sociumas.lt/Eng/Nr16/nepilnameciai.asp
Sylwester, R. (2005). How to explain a brain: An educator’s handbook of brain terms and cognitive process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Walma van der Molen, Juliette H. and van der Voort Tom H.A (1999). Children Remember More from Television Than Reading. Retrieved on October 1, 2006 from http://www.selfhelpmagazine.com/articles/child_behavior/kidsntv.htm
1. Age _________
2. Sex _________
3. Are you married? _________
4. Do you have children? _________
5. Do you have school children? _________
(Refers to school children age 6 – 16 years old only)
6. Are they watching TV almost everyday? _________
7. How many hours spent in watching TV everyday? _________
8. Having hard time in stopping them to watch TV? _________
9. Do they sleep late at night because of TV? _________
10. Are they committing invalid absences frequently? _________
12. Do you think too much time in watching TV is the cause of this? _________
13. Do you think their grades are good, maintained and not going down? ________
14. Did they normally pass all the subjects? _________
15. Do you get feedback that they are sleepy in the class session? _________
16. Do they prefer TV than basketball or other sports? _________